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Group decision making

Group decision making

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Group decision making

  1. 1. Objectives: 1. Differentiate between group and individual. 2. Explain process of group decision making. 3. discuss the characteristics of effective group facilitator or leader. 4. List the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making. 5. Indicate appropriate situations or conditions for group decision making.
  2. 2. 6. Explain the approaches used for decision approval (consensus, negotiation, voting). 7. Give the advantage and disadvantage of each approaches. 8. Guidelines for leading group meeting. 9. Indicate conditions that foster group think. 10. Explain how group think be avoided.
  3. 3. Out line: 1- Introduction. 2- Definition of decision making. 3- What is the group? 4- Differences between group and individual decision making . 5- The process of group decision making. 6- Characteristics of effective group facilitator or leader.
  4. 4. 7- The advantages and disadvantages of group decision making. 8- Appropriate situations or conditions for group decision making. 9- The approaches used for decision approval (consensus, negotiation, voting). 10- The advantages and disadvantages of each approaches. 11- conditions that foster group think. 12- how to avoid group think?
  5. 5. introduction  A group comprises two or more people who perceive themselves as sharing common interests and who come together to accomplish an activity through face to face interaction.  People join groups to satisfy security, fulfill social and esteem needs, enhance their personal status and careers, sustain friendships, and accomplish goals.  In organizations , formal groups are deliberately created to perform specific tasks.
  6. 6. What is the group Two or more individuals interacting who have come together to achieve a particular goal. Two or more interacting individuals with a stable pattern of relationship between them who perceive themselves as a group.
  7. 7. Definition of group decision making: Group decision making is a type of participatory process in which multiple individuals acting collectively, analyze problems or situations, consider and evaluate alternative courses of action, and select from among the alternatives a solution
  8. 8. The difference between group and individual decision making individual decision making  If the task requires high-quality technical expertise, the available individual who is most expert in that technical specialty should perform the task. group decision making  If the task requires group commitment by consensus ‫التزام‬ ‫المجموعة‬‫بتوافق‬‫االراء‬ , a group should be expected to perform the task.
  9. 9. individual decision making  You are solely responsible for the kind of decision achieved, whether it is good or bad. group decision making  More effective because it is an outcome of collective or cohesive minds. But on the other hand there is greater opportunity for conflict.
  10. 10.  individual decision making  You can take immediate action and fast solution to a problem or a situation. group decision making  Groups are slow, but the quality of the decision is more important than the time expended to take it. And at the same time there are more viewpoints from which to evaluate those ideas critically.
  11. 11.  individual decision making  You take full accountability for the outcome of the decision and its consequences.  You are free from too much diversity in a group which affect the decision making. group decision making  A group is able to divide labor among its members so that, for example, members can work on their own specialties.  In group discussions, there is an attraction toward the majority and there are pressures to conform to the majority.
  12. 12. Stages of group formation 1. Forming: CONFUSION- not certain about purpose, task and leadership. The members often depend on a leader to define purpose, tasks, and roles.
  13. 13. 2. Storming Conflict and confrontation (disagreements). Members develop roles and relationships. Conflict, dissatisfaction, and competition arise on important issues related to procedures and behavior . The leader helps the group to acknowledge the conflict and to resolve it in a win-win manner.
  14. 14. 3. Norming: The group members define its goals and rules of behavior. The group determines what are or are not acceptable behaviors and attitudes. The group structure, roles, and relationships become clearer. The leader explains standers of performance and behavior, defines the group structure, and facilitates relationship building.
  15. 15. 4. Performing: Group fully functional, devoted to task at hand. The group members agree on basic purposes and activities and carry out the work. Cooperation and communication improves, and emotional issues subside. The leader provides feedback on the quality and quantity of work, praises achievement, critiques poor work and takes steps to improve it .
  16. 16. 5. Adjourning: That occurs when a group dissolves after achieving its objectives.. 6. Reforming: When some major changes takes place in the environment or goals of the group that requires the group to refocus its activities and recycle through the four stages.
  17. 17. Characteristics of effective group  Goals are clear, shared, and important.  Diagnosis of group problems is careful and systematic.  Decisions are made through consensus ‫.توافق‬  Participation is broad.
  18. 18.  Listening is active and attentive. Feelings are expressed and are considered important ‘data’ for group effectiveness.
  19. 19.  Conflict is openly expressed and acknowledged.  Trust is high among members who are willing to take risks and reveal sensitive information.  Creativity and growth occur innovation and experimentation are encouraged.
  20. 20. Advantages of group participation in decision making 1. More information than individual. 2. Groups have a wider range of knowledge to draw on than does the individual. 3. Generate a great number of alternative.
  21. 21. 4- Increase acceptance. 5. It may be less time consuming for a group to gather information and analyze it. 6. This may be no more expensive than having a higher-paid manager make the decision. 7- Understand the decision better. 8- Greater creativity.
  22. 22. Disadvantages of group participation in decision making 1. Group decisions may result from social pressures. 2. Great pressure towards conformity ‫القبول‬ 3. Hierarchical pressures can reduce the staff associate’s participation to acceptance to the manager’s desires.
  23. 23. 4. Formal status is likely to inhibit interaction when the manager has less expertise than the staff. 5. People easily avoid responsibility. 6. Dis-agreement may lead to conflict. 7. Domination by few members in a group.
  24. 24. 8. Members may become more interested in winning an argument than determining the best alternative. 9. Choosing the most acceptable solution may produce consensus, which is not necessarily the optimal alternative and may simply foster the status quo.
  25. 25. The approaches used for decision approval Consensus voting Negotiation
  26. 26. Consensus decision-making  is a group decision making process that seeks not only the agreement of most participants but also the resolution or mitigation of minority objections ‫تقليل‬‫عدد‬ ‫.المعارضين‬  It is when a group of people share information, ideas and opinions, and discuss and deliberate openly to formulate a plan that the entire group can accept.
  27. 27. consensus decision-making aims to be:  Agreement Seeking: it help participants reach as much agreement as possible.  Collaborative: Participants contribute to a shared proposal and shape it into a decision that meets the concerns of all group members as much as possible.
  28. 28.  Cooperative: Participants in an effective consensus process should strive to reach the best possible decision for the group and all of its members, rather than competing for personal preferences.  Egalitarian:‫متساوى‬All members should be afforded, as much as possible, equal input into the process. All members have the opportunity to present, and amend ‫تحسين‬proposals.
  29. 29. Inclusive: As many stakeholders as possible should be involved in the consensus decision-making process. Participatory: The consensus process should actively ask the input and participation of all decision-makers.
  30. 30. NEGOTIATION Definition: Negotiation is a problem- solving process in which two or more people voluntarily discuss their differences and attempt to reach a joint decision on their common concerns. Negotiation requires participants to identify issues about which they differ, educate each other about their needs and interests.
  31. 31. Most common reasons for choosing to negotiate  • Gain recognition of either issues or parties; • Test the strength of other parties; • Obtain information about issues, interests and positions of other parties; • Educate all sides about a particular view of an issue or concern; • Ventilate emotions about issues or people;
  32. 32. • Change perceptions; • Mobilize public support; • Buy time; • Bring about a desired change in a relationship; • Develop new procedures for handling problems; • Make substantive gains; • Solve a problem.
  33. 33. voting Definition:  Voting is a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion—often following discussions, debates, or election campaigns. It is often found in democracies and republics ‫جمهوريات‬
  34. 34. Reasons for voting  In a representative government, voting commonly implies election: a way for an electorate to select among candidates for office.  In politics voting is the method by which the electorate of a democracy appoints representatives in its government.
  35. 35. Guide lines for leading group meetings  Begin and end on time.  Create a warm, accepting, and non threatening climate.  Arrange seating to minimize differences in power, maximize involvement, and allow visualization of all meeting activities( e.g. U-shaped)  Use interesting and varied visuals and other aids.
  36. 36.  Clarify all terms and concepts.  Foster cooperation in the group.  Establish goals and key objectives.  Keep the group focused.  Focus the discussion on one topic at time.  Facilitate thoughtful problem solving.  Allocate time for all problem solving steps.  Promote involvement.
  37. 37.  Facilitate integration of material and ideas.  Facilitate evaluation of the quality of the discussion.  Elicit the expression of uncooperative opinions.  Summarize discussion.  Finalize the plan of action for implementing decisions.  Arrange for follow-up.
  38. 38. Conditions that foster group think: 1- High group cohesiveness. Usually cohesiveness leads to the free expression of ideas; however, in groupthink circumstances, the opposite occurs. 2-The members have an authoritarian- style leader who tends to argue for "pet" proposals. Thus, we would not expect
  39. 39. groupthink to occur in groups that have a tradition of democratic leadership. 3- The group is often isolated from the "real world"; that is, the group is not forced to deal with what is happening "out there" beyond the group.
  40. 40. Cont……., 4-the group does not have a definite procedure, or method, for decision making. 5-The members of the group come from similar backgrounds and have similar viewpoints. 6-The group is in a complex decision- making situation that causes a significant amount of arousal in each member, and the members feel that finding an alternative better than the leader's pet
  41. 41. How group think be avoided: Group members can take several steps to lower the possibility for groupthink. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, President Kennedy apparently took the following measures that undoubtedly worked to his advantage: 1. The president assigned the role of "critical evaluator" to each member of his group. The norm of the "critical evaluator" was to be responsible for questioning all facts and assumptions that group members voiced. They were also to question the leader's opinions. Kennedy also assigned to his brother Robert the special role of "devil's advocate." In this role, Robert Kennedy took the lead in questioning other group member's claims.
  42. 42. Cont…….., 2. The president refused to state which course of action he preferred until late in the decision-making process. 3- He consulted with informed people outside the group. He also invited them to meetings. The outside people added information and challenged the group's ideas.
  43. 43. Cont……, 4. He divided the group into subgroups. Each subgroup made preliminary decisions concerning the same issue. The larger group would then reconvene to compare these preliminary decisions and hammer out the differences among the various options. 5- Kennedy set aside time to rehash earlier decisions. He wanted a chance to consider any new objections to the decisions that the group members might have.
  44. 44. Cont……, 6. He had the group search for signs warning the members of problems that the chosen course of action might be having, after the administration had begun to implement the plan. Thus, he could reconsider the course of action even after the group had made the decision to implement
  45. 45. ‫طلق‬ ‫بوجه‬ ‫اخاك‬ ‫تلقى‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ولو‬ ‫شيئا‬ ‫المعروف‬ ‫من‬ ‫تحقرن‬ ‫ال‬

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