Using crop wild relatives

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Talk at EWAC workshop 2011

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  • Aegilops columnaris
  • Using crop wild relatives

    1. 1. Adapting agriculture to climatechange: collecting, protecting and preparing crop wild relatives Luigi Guarino & Hannes Dempewolf - The Global Crop Diversity Trust -
    2. 2. What is the Global Crop Diversity Trust?• Public-private partnership raising an endowment fund that will provide continuous funding for key crop collections (starting with CG collections)• Goal: “to advance an efficient and sustainable global system of ex situ conservation by promoting the rescue, understanding, use and long-term conservation of valuable plant genetic resources”• Part of the funding strategy of the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA)
    3. 3. GENESYShttp://www.genesys-pgr.org/
    4. 4. Svalbard Global Seed Vault
    5. 5. The Trust’s initiative on crop wild relatives• The 26 focal crops of this project are: alfalfa, apple, bambara groundnut, banana, barley, bean, carrot, chickpea, cowpea , eggplant, faba bean, finger millet, grasspea, lentil, oat, pea, pearl millet, pigeon pea, potato, rice, rye, sorghum, sunflower, sweet potato, vetch and wheat• Focus of gap analysis: • barley: 2 CWR taxa • oat: 12 CWR taxa • rye: 4 CWR taxa • wheat: 55 CWR taxa
    6. 6. The Trust’s initiative on crop wild relatives• The 26 focal crops of this project are: alfalfa, apple, bambara groundnut, banana, barley, bean, carrot, chickpea, cowpea , eggplant, faba bean, finger millet, grasspea, lentil, oat, pea, pearl millet, pigeon pea, potato, rice, rye, sorghum, sunflower, sweet potato, vetch and wheat• Focus of priority setting: • barley: 2 CWR taxa • oat: 12 CWR taxa • rye: 4 CWR taxa • wheat: 55 CWR taxa
    7. 7. Targeting “missing” diversityhttp://gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org/GapAnalysis/
    8. 8. Targeting threatened diversity
    9. 9. Pre-breeding “Its a bit like crossing a house cat with a wildcat. You dontautomatically get a big docile pussycat. What you get is a lot of wildness that you probably dont want Iying on your sofa.”
    10. 10. Other (better?) alternatives• First evaluation, then pre-breeding• QTL (and MAS) approach• Sequence-based transcriptomics• Candidate gene approach…. ?
    11. 11. Survey of pre-breeding experts1. Which wild species or population(s) of crop wild relatives do you think should be targeted first and foremost?2. Which wild species or population(s) do you feel are currently under-represented in ex situ collections and should be targeted during the collecting activities of this project?3. Which traits would you target (especially with reference to traits that are important in a climate change context)? So far a total of 79 expert responses were collected 22 responses for wheat, but only few for barley, oat and rye
    12. 12. Survey results for wheat1. Which wild species or population(s) of crop wild relatives do youthink should be targeted first and foremost?Summary:• Aegilops tauschii and rye (Secale cereale) likely the species that will make the most, immediate impact on wheat improvement over the next 2 decades.• The genus Dasypyrum• The entire genus Secale, because most members of that genus have been domesticated and thus would present significantly less linkage drag when incorporated into wheat…• wheat diploid and tetraploid relatives – T. speltoides, T. uratu, T. dicoccoides• Genus: Thinopyrum• South American Hordeum species
    13. 13. Survey results for wheat2. Which wild species or population(s) do you feel are currentlyunder represented in ex situ collections and should be targetedduring the collecting activities of this project?Summary:• Aegilops tauschii and Aegilops speltoides (from Iran)• Genus Dasypyrum• Triticum speltoides and Triticum tauschii• Low ploidy species in Thinopyrum genus• All wild Triticum/Aegilops spp. and Amblyopyrum muticum• Triticum urartu in Iran• South American Hordeum species• The former Agropyron species (Thinoprum ponticum, Thinopyrum intermedium) and their progenitors (Pseudorogneria species, Th. bessarabicum)• Triticum dicoccoides, Triticum aestivum var spelta, and the monococcums
    14. 14. Survey results for wheat3. Which traits would you target (especially with reference to traitsthat are important in a climate change context)?Summary:• Heat tolerance (particularly to high night temperatures); root architecture; soil borne pathogens; tolerance or efficiency to micronutrient deficiency and toxicity; phosphorus and nitrogen use efficiency; water use efficiency; new sources of dwarfing genes; wheat blast resistance; insect pest resistances.• Various forms of abiotic stress including drought stress, heat stress, winter hardiness, aluminum tolerance, boron deficiency tolerance, and water use efficiency.• Phenology traits (photoperiod, vernalization, earliness per se, flowering)• Earliness in flowering• Perenniallity• Any traits (biochemical, physical) that confer tolerance to extreme temperatures and low soil moisture.• Photosynthesis and dark respiration data in cereal leaves.• Salt stress• Root characters, which have been neglected for 100 years.
    15. 15. Other points to discuss• Wheat re-synthesis approach• Focus on Dasypyrum for wheat pre-breeding• Advice on oat, rye and barley pre-breeding needed!
    16. 16. Please consider completing the survey…… if you haven’t done so already.Survey: http://goo.gl/08MX1Or email: hannes.dempewolf@croptrust.org
    17. 17. Thank you for your attention!

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