© Neil Palmer (CIAT)<br />The critical role of crop wild relatives in ensuring long-term food security and their need for ...
The foundation of agriculture<br />
Wild relatives of crops<br />Includeboth progenitor species and closelyrelatedspecies of cultivatedcrops<br />Faba beans –...
Photos from Jose Valls, CENARGEN<br />
Conserved ex situ in genebanks<br />Credit: Caperton27/FLICKR<br />Credit: IRRI<br />Credit: CIAT<br />Credit: Global Crop...
The Svalbard Global Seed Vault<br />Credit: Kitsune Noir/FLICKR<br />
Why conserve CWR diversity?<br />Use!!<br />234 papers cited<br />Maxted and Kell, 2009<br />Use: 39% pest resistance; 17%...
Wild relative species<br />A. batizocoi - 12 germplasm accessions<br />A. cardenasii - 17 germplasm accessions <br />A. di...
Uses in cropbreeding<br />Credit: .Bambo./FLICKR<br />X<br />Solanum bulbocastanum<br />Papa<br />Solanum tuberosum<br />R...
Grassy stunt virus in rice<br />Resistance from Oryzanivaragenes<br />(Barclay 2004)<br />Potato late blight<br />Resistan...
Nevo and Chen 2010<br />Adaptation to abiotic stress<br />
Quality traits<br />
Post harvest deterioration - Cassava<br />Courtesy of  Emmanuel Okogbenin<br />
Why conserve CWR Diversity?<br />Value as wild plant species in natural ecosystems<br />Value of CWR as actual or potentia...
Lycopersicon chmielewskii sweetening tomato US $ 5-8million per year (Iltis, 1988)
Various CWR of wheat provide disease resistance to wheat and US benefits by US $ 50m per year (Witt, 1985)</li></ul>Courte...
Threats<br />
Impact of climate change on CWR<br />Assessment of shifts in distribution range under climate change<br />Wild potatoes<br...
Latitudinal and Elevational Shifts<br />Peanuts<br />Shift south and upwards<br />
Latitudinal and Elevational Shifts<br />Potatoes<br />Shift upwards<br />
Summary Impacts<br />16-22% (depending on migration scenario) of these species predicted to go extinct <br />Most species ...
Wild relative species<br />A. batizocoi - 12 germplasm accessions<br />A. cardenasii - 17 germplasm accessions <br />A. di...
Impact of Climate Change – Wild Peanuts<br />
More immediate threats….<br />
Concentration of the natural distributiononthearea of mostintensivecattle-raising and cropproductionactivity in Brazil has...
Slide provided by Jose Valls, CENARGEN<br />
© Neil Palmer (CIAT)<br />Howwellconserved are crop wild relatives?Gap Analysis<br />
Why Gap Analysis?<br />Tool to assess crop and crop wild relative genetic and geographical diversity<br />Allows detecting...
To know what you don’t have, you first need to know what you do have<br />
The visible global system<br />
The Gap Analysis process<br /><ul><li>Identifyinggaps</li></ul>Proxy for:<br /><ul><li> Diversity
 Possibly biotic traits</li></ul>Proxy for:<br /><ul><li> Range of traits</li></ul>Proxy for:<br /><ul><li> Abiotic traits...
An example in Phaseolus <br />
Herbarium versus germplasm: Geographic<br />
Herbarium versus germplasm: Taxon<br />
Conserved ex situ richness versus potential<br />
Priorities: Geographic and taxonomic<br />
“Validation”: The man versus the machine<br />
Model priorities versus expert priorities<br />
Gap Analysis<br /><ul><li>http://gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org/GapAnalysis/</li></li></ul><li>Taxon-level and genepool level prior...
Wild Vigna collecting priorities<br />Spatial analysis on current conserved materials<br />*Gaps* in current collections<b...
Exploration and ex-situ conservation of Capsicum flexuosum<br /><ul><li>Uncommon species of wild chilli, found in Paraguay...
18 known registers of the plant
2 germplasm accessions conserved in the USDA
Genetically unknown
Found in an area undergoing high levels of habitat loss</li></li></ul><li>Capsicum flexuosum - FloraMap<br />
Habitat: Forest Margins<br />
Road Access<br />
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Crop Wild Relatives On the Rise

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Presentation made by Andy Jarvis in the Latin American Congress of Chemistry on 30th September 2010, in the symposium on Biodiversity and Ecosystems: the role of the chemical sciences.

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Crop Wild Relatives On the Rise

  1. 1. © Neil Palmer (CIAT)<br />The critical role of crop wild relatives in ensuring long-term food security and their need for conservation<br />Andy Jarvis, Julián Ramírez, Nora Castañeda, Nigel Maxted, Robert Hijmans and Jacob Van Etten <br />
  2. 2. The foundation of agriculture<br />
  3. 3. Wild relatives of crops<br />Includeboth progenitor species and closelyrelatedspecies of cultivatedcrops<br />Faba beans – 0 wild relatives<br />Potato – 172 wild relativespecies<br />Increasinglyuseful in breeding, especiallyforbioticresistance<br />
  4. 4. Photos from Jose Valls, CENARGEN<br />
  5. 5. Conserved ex situ in genebanks<br />Credit: Caperton27/FLICKR<br />Credit: IRRI<br />Credit: CIAT<br />Credit: Global Crop Diversity Trust<br />
  6. 6. The Svalbard Global Seed Vault<br />Credit: Kitsune Noir/FLICKR<br />
  7. 7. Why conserve CWR diversity?<br />Use!!<br />234 papers cited<br />Maxted and Kell, 2009<br />Use: 39% pest resistance; 17% abiotic stress; 13% yield increase <br />Citations: 2% <1970; 13% 1970s; 15% 1980s; 32% 1990s; 38% >1999<br />
  8. 8. Wild relative species<br />A. batizocoi - 12 germplasm accessions<br />A. cardenasii - 17 germplasm accessions <br />A. diogoi - 5 germplasm accessions<br />Florunner, with no root-knot nematode resistance<br />COAN, with population density of root-knot nematodes >90% less than in Florunner<br />
  9. 9. Uses in cropbreeding<br />Credit: .Bambo./FLICKR<br />X<br />Solanum bulbocastanum<br />Papa<br />Solanum tuberosum<br />Resistencia a Gota (Phythophtora infestans)<br />
  10. 10. Grassy stunt virus in rice<br />Resistance from Oryzanivaragenes<br />(Barclay 2004)<br />Potato late blight<br />Resistance from Solanumdemissun<br />and S. stoloniferum<br />National potato council (2003)<br />
  11. 11. Nevo and Chen 2010<br />Adaptation to abiotic stress<br />
  12. 12. Quality traits<br />
  13. 13. Post harvest deterioration - Cassava<br />Courtesy of Emmanuel Okogbenin<br />
  14. 14. Why conserve CWR Diversity?<br />Value as wild plant species in natural ecosystems<br />Value of CWR as actual or potential gene donors:<br />US$340 million a year in US (Prescott-Allen and Prescott Allen, 1986)<br />$20 billion toward increased crop yields per year in the United States and $115 billion worldwide (Pimentel et al., 1997)<br />US$10 billion annually in global wholesale farm values (Phillips and Meilleur, 1998)<br /><ul><li>Individual examples of use:
  15. 15. Lycopersicon chmielewskii sweetening tomato US $ 5-8million per year (Iltis, 1988)
  16. 16. Various CWR of wheat provide disease resistance to wheat and US benefits by US $ 50m per year (Witt, 1985)</li></ul>Courtesy of Nigel Maxted<br />
  17. 17. Threats<br />
  18. 18. Impact of climate change on CWR<br />Assessment of shifts in distribution range under climate change<br />Wild potatoes<br />Wild African Vigna<br />Wild peanuts<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Latitudinal and Elevational Shifts<br />Peanuts<br />Shift south and upwards<br />
  21. 21. Latitudinal and Elevational Shifts<br />Potatoes<br />Shift upwards<br />
  22. 22. Summary Impacts<br />16-22% (depending on migration scenario) of these species predicted to go extinct <br />Most species losing over 50% of their range size<br />Wild peanuts were the most affected group, with 24 to 31 of 51 species projected to go extinct <br />For wild potato, 7 to 13 of 108 species were predicted to go extinct<br />Vignawas the least affected of the three groups, losing 0 to 2 of the 48 species in the genus<br />
  23. 23. Wild relative species<br />A. batizocoi - 12 germplasm accessions<br />A. cardenasii - 17 germplasm accessions <br />A. diogoi - 5 germplasm accessions<br />Florunner, with no root-knot nematode resistance<br />COAN, with population density of root-knot nematodes >90% less than in Florunner<br />
  24. 24. Impact of Climate Change – Wild Peanuts<br />
  25. 25. More immediate threats….<br />
  26. 26. Concentration of the natural distributiononthearea of mostintensivecattle-raising and cropproductionactivity in Brazil has notbeen a seriousproblem, in thepast, forpreservation of local wild species of Arachis, buttheadvance of themodern, mechanizedagriculture, in thelastfewdecades, and speciallythe use of herbicideshaveimposedseverepressureon wild populations. Thisisalso true for Eastern Bolivia, wheremanyspecies of sectionArachisoccur. <br />Adapted from Nature, v.466, p.554-556, 2010<br />Slide provided by Jose Valls, CENARGEN<br />
  27. 27. Slide provided by Jose Valls, CENARGEN<br />
  28. 28. © Neil Palmer (CIAT)<br />Howwellconserved are crop wild relatives?Gap Analysis<br />
  29. 29. Why Gap Analysis?<br />Tool to assess crop and crop wild relative genetic and geographical diversity<br />Allows detecting incomplete species collections as well as defining which species should be collected and where these collections should be focused<br />Assesses the current extent at which the ex situ conservation system is correctly holding the genetic diversity of a particular genepool<br />
  30. 30. To know what you don’t have, you first need to know what you do have<br />
  31. 31. The visible global system<br />
  32. 32. The Gap Analysis process<br /><ul><li>Identifyinggaps</li></ul>Proxy for:<br /><ul><li> Diversity
  33. 33. Possibly biotic traits</li></ul>Proxy for:<br /><ul><li> Range of traits</li></ul>Proxy for:<br /><ul><li> Abiotic traits</li></li></ul><li>The Gap Analysis pathway<br />Taxonomy review<br />Data gathering<br />Georeferentiaton<br />Environmental<br />data gathering<br />Gap Analysis<br />process<br />Final<br />recommendations<br />
  34. 34. An example in Phaseolus <br />
  35. 35. Herbarium versus germplasm: Geographic<br />
  36. 36. Herbarium versus germplasm: Taxon<br />
  37. 37. Conserved ex situ richness versus potential<br />
  38. 38. Priorities: Geographic and taxonomic<br />
  39. 39. “Validation”: The man versus the machine<br />
  40. 40. Model priorities versus expert priorities<br />
  41. 41. Gap Analysis<br /><ul><li>http://gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org/GapAnalysis/</li></li></ul><li>Taxon-level and genepool level priorities<br />
  42. 42. Wild Vigna collecting priorities<br />Spatial analysis on current conserved materials<br />*Gaps* in current collections<br />Definition and prioritisation of collecting areas<br />8 100x100km cells to complete collections of 23 wild Vigna priority species<br />
  43. 43. Exploration and ex-situ conservation of Capsicum flexuosum<br /><ul><li>Uncommon species of wild chilli, found in Paraguay and Argentina
  44. 44. 18 known registers of the plant
  45. 45. 2 germplasm accessions conserved in the USDA
  46. 46. Genetically unknown
  47. 47. Found in an area undergoing high levels of habitat loss</li></li></ul><li>Capsicum flexuosum - FloraMap<br />
  48. 48. Habitat: Forest Margins<br />
  49. 49. Road Access<br />
  50. 50. Priority Areas for Collection<br />
  51. 51. Results<br /><ul><li> One plant found with few seeds, where previous herbarium record
  52. 52. First accession conserved ex situ </li></ul>1998<br /><ul><li> 1 plant found, with few seeds</li></ul>2001<br />Using GIS model<br /><ul><li> 6 new collections of C. flexuosum
  53. 53. 160 seeds conserved ex situ</li></ul>2002<br />
  54. 54. Conclusions<br />Massive importance of CWR<br />Use of these genetic resources on the increase<br />But not conserved ex situ and under threat in situ<br />Need for a major collecting effort to fill gaps, and explore novel genetic approaches to further stimulate their use<br />
  55. 55. a.jarvis@cgiar.org<br />

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