Whats In Our Back Yard? Developing An Inventory of U.S. Native and Naturalized Crop Germplasm (F. Cox, 2007) Stephanie L. Greene, Colin KhouryUSDA, ARS NPGS-Plant Germplasm Introduction and Testing, Prosser, WA Decision and Policy Analysis Program, CIAT, Cali, Colombia
Outline1. Why focus on crop wild relatives (CWR) and economically important wild crops in the U.S.? 2. Developing a CWR inventory 3. Prioritizing the inventory 4. Next steps
Maxted and Kell (2009) indentified 291 papers reporting the use of 189 CWR taxa to improve 29 crops # CWR taxa used # of References• 39% Disease • 17% Quality/Husbandry • 10% Yield• 17% Pest • 13% Abiotic Stress • 4% Fertility/Restorers
CWR viewed as a key strategy for developing crops adapted to climate changeNorway pledged $50 million over a decade to systematically find,gather, catalogue, use, and save the wild relatives of wheat, rice, beans,potato, barley, lentils, chickpea, and other essential food crops. Thework will be led by the Trust, working in partnership with nationalagricultural research institutes, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K.and the CGIAR“one of the most concrete steps taken to date toensure that agriculture, and humanity, adapts toclimate change.”---Erik Solheim, Norwegian Minister for Environment andDevelopment, Global Crop Diversity Trust 2010 Annual Report
“Loss of PGR has reduced options for the agricultural sector. Themajor causes of genetic erosion are land clearing, populationpressures, overgrazing, environmental degradation and changingagricultural practices.” The FAO State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (2010)
Vulnerable to Climate ChangeModel-based predictions:Ø Liva et al (2009). By 2060, 40 of 69 protected areaswould no longer have the right climate to supportcurrently existing populations of all 8 Mexican cucurbitCWRØ Jarvis et al. (2008) By 2055, 16-22% of Arachis,Solanum and Vigna CWR will be extinctØ Thuiller (2005)- By 2080, 50% of 1350 studied plantspecies would be vulnerable or threatened by climatechange
Conservation StatusOf accessions conserved in global ex situ collections, only 18% are CWR
USA ConservationThe NPGS currently houses over 540,000 accessions representing over 13,500 species (GRIN 2011), but only 2.6 % ofour collection is wild germplasm collected in the United States.
Model for thedevelopment ofnational CWRstrategies (Maxtedet al. 2007)
Developing the U.S. InventoryØ Inventory includes CWR and taxa directly used for food, fiber,forage, medicine, ornamental, and restoration purposesØ Includes both native and naturalized taxaØ CWR definition wild plant taxon that has an indirect use derived from its close genetic relationship to a crop; this relationship is defined in terms of Gene Pools (GP) (Harlan, and de Wet 1971), 1,2 and 3 or taxon groups 1 to 4 (Maxted et al. 2006)Ø Sources: GRIN World Economic Plants Database (Wiersema andLeón (1999); Flora of North America; Herbs of Commerce, McGuffinet al. (2000), Native Seed Network database(www.nativeseednetwork.org).Ø Fall 2010- Draft inventory sent to 50 specialists for peer review
U.S. Inventory contains 3000+ taxaØ Most taxa are for wild orpartially domesticated cropsused for timber, revegetation,forage, medicinal orornamental purposesØ 364 CWR taxa are usefulfor breeding 65 crops • Sixty of these taxa are naturalized speciesInventory can be found at http://tinyurl.com/3hu6gq9
Inventory ResultsØ Species in the genus Helianthus are the most abundantwild taxa. In addition to wild forms of Helianthus annuus,there are 23 taxa in GP 2, and 28 taxa in GP 3, with a totalof 2121 accessions in ex situ collectionsØ Other genera that are CWR to domesticated crops, withover 10 or more native taxa, include Frageria, Lupinus,Prunus, Ribes, Rubus, Vaccinium and Vitis.Ø CWR genera of domesticates that have limitedrepresentation in ex situ collections include Gossypium,Lactuca, Prunus, Ribes (gooseberry), Saccharum,Vaccinium (cranberry), Tripsacum and Zizania
Inventory ResultsConservation status (native taxa) Ø 2039 taxa are globally secure Ø 384 are apparently secure (G4) Ø 88 are globally vulnerable (G3) Ø 22 are globally imperiled (G2), including Tripsicum floridanum, an endemic CWR in GP 3 for maize and Rubus macraei, an endemic CWR in GP 2 for red raspberry Ø ~ 8 taxa that are critically imperiled (G1), including 2 species of Helianthus and Juglans hindsii, an endemic in GP 2 of walnut
Prioritizing the InventoryApproach- Identify true “CWR” taxa Potential value to breeding and crop production (Potential Use Value)Primary focus on food crops, but also forage, medicinal,ornamental, etc.First step- define a list of major world crops Ø Data gathered using FAOSTAT, published literature, Annex 1. ITPGRFA Ø World Crop List was prioritized based on number of sources that cited crop (Priority 1, Priority 2) Ø Genera identified in gene pools of major world crops
Major World Crop List242 World’s Top Crops (268 genera) § 101 crops (9 genera) in Priority 1 § 141 crops (149 genera) in Priority 2 http://tinyurl.com/3udvulbThis list included all the most important agricultural cropsaround the world by a number of measures, and covers allcrops listed in FAOSTAT for US production and food supply,with virtually all major US crops on Priority 1.
Priorities assigned to U.S. InventoryØ Applied World Crops list to the US National InventoryØ Reviewed US Inventory and added additional taxa: brome (Bromus), Cuphea, groundcherry (Physalis), St. John’s Wort (Hypericum), liquorice (Glycyrrhiza), pitanga (Eugenia), and EchinaceaØ Added species that are iconic wild crops in the US sugar maple (Acer saccharum), wild rice (Zizania spp.), Echinacea, pine nut species of Pinus, pecan (Carya illinoinensis, jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and the alcohol/sugar taxa of AgaveØ 2,014 taxa of 159 priority genera occur in the US • 905 taxa of 74 Priority 1 genera • 1,108 taxa of 85 Priority 2 genera.
Important crops with rich native genepools in USAllium (onion), Cucurbita (squash), Fragaria(strawberry), Helianthus (sunflower), Ipomoea(sweet potato), Lactuca (lettuce), Phaseolus(bean), Prunus (cherry, almond, peach), Ribes(currant), Rubus (raspberry), Saccharum (sugarcane), Vaccinium (blueberry, cranberry), and Vitis(grape), among others.
Next StepsØ Focus : 250-300 priority 1 taxa (most closely related to crops) • Includes richest genepools of native CWR • Also major wild species utilized for food or medicine. • Mainly taxa in GP 1, 2 some GP 3 if utilizedØ Priority 1 taxa will be subjected to a full gap analysisto identify collecting priorities and in situ conservationopportunitiesØ Distantly related taxa will receive a superficial gapanalysis to identify ex situ gaps and prioritized foradditional collecting
Next Steps, ContinuedØ Non-native populations will not be considered unlessidentified as important by the breeding communityØ Any taxa identified as rare or threatened will be givenparticular attention in conservation recommendations
We Want Your Input!Ø Peer review our priority genepools http://cwroftheus.wordpress.com/ (deadline end November)Ø Contribute species occurrence dataØ Validate the results of the gap analysesØ Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Community input will improve the process
AcknowledgementsJohn Wiersema, USDA, ARSNigel Maxted, Univ. of Birmingham, UKMembers of the PGOC CWR SubcommitteeNPGS CuratorsCGC Chairs and MembersLady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Image Gallery