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Conventional and non-conventional methods for improvement of cucurbits.pptx

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Breeding in vegetable crops

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Submitted By :-
Vishal Thakur
Ph.D. (Vegetable Science)
Conventional and Non-Conventional breeding
methods for improvement of cucurbits
Topic:-
Introduction
Conventional methods
Non-Conventional methods
Case studies
Conclusion
References
Content
Introduction
• Cucurbits belong to family Cucurbitaceae, includes about 118 genera and 1000 species.
• Cucurbits term given by Liberty Hyde Bailey.
• In India, a numbers of major and minor cucurbits are cultivated, which shares about 5.6 % of the
total vegetable production.
• consumed in various forms i.e., salad (cucumber, gherkins, long melon), sweet (ash gourd, pointed
gourd), cooked as vegetable (bottle gourd, bitter gourd, ridge gourd, sponge gourd) and deserts
(melons).
• All cucurbits are botanically ‘pepo’.
• The bitter principle in cucurbits is cucurbitacin.
• Chemically cucurbitacins are tetracyclic triterpenes.
• Highest concentrations of cucurbitacins are found in the fruits and roots.
• Bitter gourd is rich in vitamin C, pumpkin contains high carotenoids pigments, kakrol is rich in
protein and chow-chow is high in calcium.
NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME ORIGIN 2n
Cucumber Cucumis sativus India 14
Bitter gourd Momordica charantia Indo-Burma 22
Bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria Ethiopia 22
Watermelon Citrullus lanatus Tropical Africa 22
Melon Cucumis melo Tropical Africa 24
Long/serpent
melon
Cucumis melo var. flexuosus
India
24
Snapmelon Cucumis melo var. momordica India 24
Ridge gourd Luffa acutangula India 26
Sponge gourd Luffa cylindrica India 26
Commonly grown major cucurbits in India
Continued….
Pumpkin Cucurbita moschata Peru and Mexico 40
Summer Squash Cucurbita pepo Peru and Mexico 40
Winter Squash Cucurbita maxima Peru and Mexico 40
Ash gourd Benincasa hispida South East Asia 24
Pointed gourd Trichosanthes dioica India 22
Ivy or scarlet gourd Coccinia indica India 24
Round melon Praecitrullus fistulosuos Indo-Burma 24
Sweet gourd Momordica cochinchinensis South East Asia 28
Breeding Objectives of cucurbits:
• Early maturity
• Higher yield
• To improve stability of the crops against disease, heat,
drought, etc.
• To enrich health-promoting properties in cucurbits.
• To develop virus resistance in cucurbits, using a
combination of molecular genetics and conventional
breeding approaches.

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Conventional and non-conventional methods for improvement of cucurbits.pptx

  • 1. Submitted By :- Vishal Thakur Ph.D. (Vegetable Science) Conventional and Non-Conventional breeding methods for improvement of cucurbits Topic:-
  • 3. Introduction • Cucurbits belong to family Cucurbitaceae, includes about 118 genera and 1000 species. • Cucurbits term given by Liberty Hyde Bailey. • In India, a numbers of major and minor cucurbits are cultivated, which shares about 5.6 % of the total vegetable production. • consumed in various forms i.e., salad (cucumber, gherkins, long melon), sweet (ash gourd, pointed gourd), cooked as vegetable (bottle gourd, bitter gourd, ridge gourd, sponge gourd) and deserts (melons). • All cucurbits are botanically ‘pepo’. • The bitter principle in cucurbits is cucurbitacin. • Chemically cucurbitacins are tetracyclic triterpenes. • Highest concentrations of cucurbitacins are found in the fruits and roots. • Bitter gourd is rich in vitamin C, pumpkin contains high carotenoids pigments, kakrol is rich in protein and chow-chow is high in calcium.
  • 4. NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME ORIGIN 2n Cucumber Cucumis sativus India 14 Bitter gourd Momordica charantia Indo-Burma 22 Bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria Ethiopia 22 Watermelon Citrullus lanatus Tropical Africa 22 Melon Cucumis melo Tropical Africa 24 Long/serpent melon Cucumis melo var. flexuosus India 24 Snapmelon Cucumis melo var. momordica India 24 Ridge gourd Luffa acutangula India 26 Sponge gourd Luffa cylindrica India 26 Commonly grown major cucurbits in India
  • 5. Continued…. Pumpkin Cucurbita moschata Peru and Mexico 40 Summer Squash Cucurbita pepo Peru and Mexico 40 Winter Squash Cucurbita maxima Peru and Mexico 40 Ash gourd Benincasa hispida South East Asia 24 Pointed gourd Trichosanthes dioica India 22 Ivy or scarlet gourd Coccinia indica India 24 Round melon Praecitrullus fistulosuos Indo-Burma 24 Sweet gourd Momordica cochinchinensis South East Asia 28
  • 6. Breeding Objectives of cucurbits: • Early maturity • Higher yield • To improve stability of the crops against disease, heat, drought, etc. • To enrich health-promoting properties in cucurbits. • To develop virus resistance in cucurbits, using a combination of molecular genetics and conventional breeding approaches.
  • 7. Conventional and Non-Conventional Breeding Conventional Non-conventional Time-consuming comparatively less time consuming High cost less costly Selection on the basis of phenotypes Selection on the basis of genotypes Chances of introduction of contamination is high Less chances or no chance of contamination Genus or species barriers No genus or species barriers
  • 8. Conventional methods in Cucurbits •Plant introduction •Mass selection •Back cross method •Heterosis breeding
  • 9. Non-conventional methods •Mutation breeding •Polyploidy breeding •Molecular markers •QTLs mapping •Genetic transformation •Tissue culture techniques
  • 10. Breeding methods in cucurbits Crops Breeding Methods Muskmelon Selection, Heterosis breeding, Hybridization, polyploidy breeding Cucumber Introduction, Selection, Hybridization, Heterosis breeding Watermelon Introduction, Selection, Hybridization, Heterosis breeding, Polyploidy breeding Bitter gourd Heterosis breeding, Synthetic breeding Summer squash Introduction, Selection, Heterosis breeding, Pumpkin Mass selection, interspecific hybridization Ridge gourd Mass selection, hybridization, back-cross breeding
  • 11. Plant Introduction Taking a genotype or a group of genotypes in to a new place or environment where they were not grown previously. Thus introduction may involve new varieties of a crop already grown in that area, a wild relative of the crop species or totally a new crop species for that area. Merits of plant introduction 1. It provides new crop varieties, which are high yielding and can be used directly. 2. It provides new plant species. 3. Provides parent materials for genetic improvement of economic crops. 4. Enriching the existing germplasm and increasing the variability. 5. Introduction may protect certain plant species in to newer area will save them from diseases. Demerits of plant introduction 1. Introduction of weeds, diseases and insects.
  • 12. Introduction varieties in cucurbits Crops Varieties Cucumber Japanese Long Green, Straight Eight, Poinsette, Chinese long Watermelon Sugar Baby, Improved Shipper, Asahi Yamato and New Hampshire Midget Summer squash Patty Pan, Early Yellow Prolific, Australian Green
  • 13. Mass selection • In mass selection, a large number of plants are selected on the basis of their phenotype and the open pollinated seeds from them are bulked together to constitute a new variety. • In cucurbits, effective in improving qualitative characters such as sugar content in melons and water melon. • Musk-Melon varieties: Hara Madhu, Arka Jeet, Arka Rajhans
  • 14. Other cucurbits varieties Crops Varieties Cucumber Sheetal, Khira 90, khira 75 Bitter gourd Pusa do Mausami, Pusa Vishesh, Konkan Tara, Coimbatore Long, Priyanka, Harikini Summer squash Early Yellow Prolific Watermelon Durgapur Meetha, Durgapur Kesar, Special no. 1, Durgapur Kesar, Pusa Rasal Muskmelon Durgapur Madhu, Hara Madhu, Pusa Madhuras, Arka Rajhans, Arka Jeet Bottlegourd Pusa Summer Prolific Long, Punjab Long, Punjab Round, Arka Bahar Pumpkin Arka Suryamukhi, Arka Chandan, Pusa Vikas
  • 15. Back cross method • A system of breeding whereby recurrent backcrosses are made to one of the parents of a hybrid accompanied by selection for a specific characters is known backcross breeding. • Objective is to improve one or two specific defects of a high yielding variety. • A cross between a hybrid (F1 or a segregating generation) and one of its parents is known as backcross. TT X tt (Tall) (Dwarf) F1 Tt X TT OR Tt X tt • In BACKCROSS METHOD, the hybrid and the progenies in the subsequent generation are repeatedly backcrossed to one of the parents of the F1.
  • 16. Backcross method in cucurbits Crop Varieties Watermelon Arka Manik Muskmelon Cantaloupe 45 (PMR-45) Cucumber Chinese long, Tokyo long green
  • 17. Heterosis breeding • It has been exploited for earliness, high yield and quality fruits. • It refers to superiority of F1 hybrid in one or more characters over its parents. • The word hybrid vigour is a synonym for heterosis. George Harrison Shull coined the term heterosis in 1914.
  • 18. Heterosis breeding in cucurbits Crops Varieties Muskmelon Pusa Rasraj, Punjab Hybrid Cucumber DCH-1,DCH -2 (Tropical gynoecious hybrids), Pusa Sanyog Summer Squash Pusa Pasand Pumpkin Arka Suryamukhi, Pusa Biswas Bitter gourd Pusa Hybrid -1, Pusa Hybrid-2 Watermelon Arka Jyoti
  • 19. Mutation breeding Mutation is a sudden heritable change in an organism and is generally due to a structural change in a gene. Mutagens A. Physical Mutagens 1. Ionising radiations: α-rays, β-rays, thermal neutrons, X- rays, gamma rays 2. Non-Ionising radiations: ultraviolet radiations B. Chemical Mutagens 1. Alkylating agents: Ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), Ethylene imine, Methylmethane sulphonate (MMS), etc. 2. Acridine dyes: Ethidium bromide, Acridine orange. 3. Base analogues: 5-bromouracil, 5-chlorouracil. 4. Others: Nitrous acid, Hydroxyl amine, Sodium azide.
  • 20. Crop Variety Bitter gourd MDU1 (Gamma ray mutant of MC-103) Cucumber Swarna Ageti Ridge gourd PKM1 Mutation breeding Varieties
  • 21. Polyploidy breeding • An organism or individual having more than two basic sets or monoploid sets of chromosomes is called polyploid and such condition is known as polyploidy. Types of Polyploidy Types Description 1. Autopolyploidy (a) Autotriploidy (b) Autotetraploidy (c) Autopentaploidy (d) Autohexaploidy Multiplication of the same genome Three copies of the same genome (3x) Four copies of the same genome (4x) Five copies of the same genome (5x) Six copies of the same genome (6x) 2. Allopolyploidy (a) Allotetraploidy (b) Allohexaploidy (c) allooctaploidy A condition in which complete genomes of two or more species combine together. Two copies each of two distinct genomes (2x1 + 2x2) Two copies each of three distinct genomes (2x1+2x2+2x3) Two copies each of four distinct species (2x1+2x2+2x3+2x4)
  • 22. Crop Variety Muskmelon Delta Gold Watermelon Pusa Bedana, Seedless Sugar Baby, Crimson Sweet ( triploid variety) Polyploidy breeding cucurbits
  • 23. Tissue culture techniques Tissue culture emerged as a significant advancement in breeding practices since traditional breeding methods were unable to meet the demand for crops. It utilises a plant's component elements to quickly produce several duplicates of the plant. The method takes advantage of the plant cell's totipotency, which allows any cell from any region of the plant to be used to create an entirely-new plant.
  • 24. Achievements of Tissue culture techniques Sr. No. Crop Explant Best treatments (mgl-1) Result Author 1 Cucumis sativus L. Node MS + BAP (1.5) Full plantlet in soil Firoz Alam, et al., (2015) 2 Cucumis melo L. Shoot tip MS + BAP (2.0) Full plantlet in soil Faria, et al., (2013) 3 Citrallus lanatus L. Cotyledon MS + BAP (20.0 µM) Full plantlet in soil Suratman, et al., (2009) 4 Luffa acutangular L. Cotyledon MS + BAP(1.5) Full plantlet in soil Karim (2013) 5 Momordica charantia L. Node ½ MS + BAP (0.5) Full plantlet in soil Verma, et al., (2014)
  • 25. Molecular markers • Molecular marker is identified as genetic marker. • Molecular marker is a DNA or gene sequence within a recognized location on a chromosome which is used as identification tool. • In the pool of unknown DNA or in a whole chromosome, these molecular markers helps in identification of particular sequence of DNA at particular location • Molecular markers are widely used in the cucurbits family for various applications in plant research, breeding, and crop improvement. These markers are DNA-based tools that allow researchers to analyze genetic diversity, identify traits of interest, and make informed decisions in breeding programs. • Applications - Genetic diversity assessment - Marker-assisted selection (MAS) - Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping - Genetic linkage map construction - Genomic selection - Marker-assisted gene pyramiding
  • 26. Achievements of Molecular Markers in cucurbits Crop Botanical name Molecular markers References Bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria L. ISSR SSR Bhawna et al., 2014 Bhawna et al., 2015 Melon Cucumis melo L. SSR SCAR Bhawna et al., 2015 Watermelon Citrallus lanatus L. SCAR RAPD and SCAR Lin et al., 2009 Oumouloud et al., 2008 Cucumber Cucumis sativus L. AFLP SSR Sigva et al., 2015 Fukino et al., 2008 Pepo Cucubita moschata L. RAPD Gwanama et al., 2000
  • 27. QTLs mapping • A QTL {Quantitative Trait Locus (Loci)} term is coined by Gelderman (1919) and is defined as “a region of the genome or locus of gene that is associated with an effect on a quantitative trait”. • QTL mapping is process of locating genes with effects on quantitative traits using molecular markers. • QTL mapping studies have reported in most of the crop plants for diverse traits like yield, quality disease and insect pest resistance, abiotic stress tolerance and environmental adaptation
  • 28. Achievements of QTL Mapping in Cucurbits QTL type Trait name Abbreviation QTL name Description of QTL name Single QTL Seed length SL Sl 1.1 First sl QTL on Chromosome 1 Seed width SWD Swd 2.2 Second swd QTL on Chromosome 2 Consensus QTL Watermelon Seed size CISS CISS 1.1 First consensus SS QTL on watermelon Chromosome 1 Cucumber Seed size CsSS CsSS 4.2 Second consensus SS QTL on cucumber chromosome 4 Melon Seed size CmSS CmSS 3.1 First consensus SS QTL on melon chromosome 3
  • 29. Genetic Transformation • Genetic engineering, also known as genetic modification or recombinant DNA technology, has been extensively applied in the Cucurbitaceae family to introduce desirable traits, improve crop performance, and enhance resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses • R-DNA technique involves breaking of a DNA molecule at two desired places to isolate a specific DNA segment and then inserting it into another DNA molecule at a desired position. The product thus obtained is called Recombinant DNA and this technology is known as R-DNA technology (Jakhar & Sastry 2002). • Transgenics: A plant in which a foreign has been transferred through genetic engineering is called a transgenic plant and the gene so transferred is called transgene (Singh 2001).. • Applications - Disease resistance - Insect resistance - Herbicide tolerance - Improved nutritional quality - Extended shelf life - Abiotic stress tolerance
  • 30. Transgenic developed in Cucurbits Crop Gene Trait References Watermelon WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) Regeneration Zhang et al., (2015) Cucumber CMV-cp Virus resistance Nishibayashi et al., 1996 Cucumber ZGMMV-cp Virus resistance Lee et al., 2002 Cucumber Thaumatin II Sweetening Szwacka et al., 2002 Cucumber DHN10 Abiotic stresses Yin et al., 2005
  • 31. Case study (Mutation Breeding) AL-Kubati et al., 2022 studied that Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a major threat to cucurbits-producing regions worldwide. Conventional breeding process takes much time to cross plants and to select a good variety. In contrast to conventional breeding, mutation breeding accelerates the process of cultivar development and increases variety within a crop species. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop bottle gourd lines that were resistant to CGMMV using Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis. Total ≈10,000 seeds were treated with two concentrations (v/v) of EMS (Aladdin, Shanghai), viz, 1.2% and 1.5% at 25±2 °C for 8 h. By treating wild-type seeds (M0) with EMS, bottle gourd lines (M1) were produced. "M1" lines were self-pollinated; as a result, 303 "M2" families were obtained. From M2 families, a total of 2444 "M3" lines were obtained to screen resistance to CGMMV. These lines were then transplanted in the field. Four of the 44 "M3" lines were asymptomatic in the field and tested negative for CGMMV. The new findings show that using EMS-induced mutations can create novel CGMMV highly resistant bottle gourd cultivars.
  • 32. Case study (QTL Mapping) Liu et al., 2021 studied QTL Mapping of Heat Tolerance in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) at Adult Stage. In this study, a set of 86 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from “99281” (heat- tolerant) and “931” (heat-sensitive) were used to identify the heat tolerance QTL in summer 2018, 2019, and 2020. Eight-week-old plants were exposed to a natural high temperature environment in the field, and the heat injury index was used to indicate the heat tolerance performance. Genetic analysis showed that the heat tolerance of adult cucumber is quantitatively inherited. One QTL named qHT1.1 on chromosome 1 was identified. The efficiency of marker qHT- 1.1, which is closely linked to the locus, was tested using 62 cucumber germplasm accessions and was found to have an accuracy of 97.8% in heat sensitive plants. The qHT1.1 was delimited to a 694.5-kb region, containing 98 genes, nine of which may be involved in heat tolerance. Further sequence analysis showed that there are three single-base substitutions within the coding sequences of Csa1G004990. Gene expression analyses suggested that the expression of Csa1G004990 was significantly higher in “99281” than “931” at 14d, 35d, 42d, and 49d after transplanting. This study provides practically useful markers for heat tolerance breeding in cucumber and provides a basis for further identifying heat tolerant genes.
  • 33. Conclusion Although main breeding objective will continue to be increasing yield to meet the food requirement of ever increasing population, but in order to ensure health security, it is imperative that nutrition rich varieties are breed. We had attained self sufficiency in food grains through conventional breeding approach but now there is a need for second green revolution where not only production/yield alone but quality food is the major breeding objective, this cannot be realized alone with conventional as well as biotechnological approach alone, so we have to find a mid-way where we will integrate these two novel approaches for vegetable improvement. Conventional breeding in conjunction with molecular biology has bright prospects of developing vegetable varieties with high nutraceuticals and bio active compounds suitable for fresh market.
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