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Genebanks and pre-breeding


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Genebanks and pre-breeding

  1. 1. Pre-breeding in a rational globalsystem for ex situ conservation
  2. 2. International imperatives• GPA calls on countries to:  “develop an efficient goal-oriented, economically efficient and sustainable system of ex situ conservation”• ITPGRFA calls on Parties to:  “cooperate to promote the development of an efficient and sustainable system of ex situ conservation”
  3. 3. Birth of the Trust• Established under international law Oct. 2004• Jointly founded by FAO and Bioversity (on behalf of CGIAR)• Endowment fund target currently $260 million  Fund at $80 mill  long-term grants ($1.8 mill/year)  + project funds (e.g. Gates Foundation)• Essential element of funding strategy of ITPGRFA• Technical framework is Global Plan of Action
  4. 4. The vision A rational global systemfor the efficient and effectiveex situ conservation and use of PGRFA
  5. 5. The State of the World - Challenges• A lot of duplication  A lot of un-duplicated accessions• Lack of resources  Inadequate equipment, facilities for storage• Material dying• Little international distribution from many collections
  6. 6. The State of the World - Pressures• Collecting in face of climate change etc.  Especially CWR (only 10% of holdings)• Demand for impact (i.e. use)  Decline of public sector plant breeding• Interest in underutilized crops• More, better access to data and germplasm• More, better data
  7. 7. The State of the World - Opportunities• Regional and crop networks• CGIAR Centres• ITPGRFA• Tools  Biotech  GIS
  8. 8. A possible solutionThe present The future?
  9. 9. Conservation Svalbard Global Seed Vault Safety backup Long term collection: CG Centres etc. Active national collection Breeding/working collection Use Farmers
  10. 10. Towards a rational system• Finished strategies  Banana, barley, breadfruit, cassava, chickpea, coconut, faba beans, grass pea, lentil, maize, oats, pigeon pea, potato, rice, sorghum, strawberry, sweet potato, taro, wheat (+triticale, rye).• Next  Beans, cowpea, finger millet, pearl millet, yam.• All regional strategies done  Via regional PGR networks - AEGIS
  11. 11. Towards a rational system• Regeneration of unique, local, threatened material  21 Annex 1 crops, >200 collections, 80,000 accessions  identified by expert consultations, regional/crop strategies, regional networks  safety duplication• Safety back-up at Svalbard International Seed Vault  from the regenerations of seed crops  in-trust international seed collections
  12. 12. Total no. of Total no. of Crop collections accessions aroids 10 1,509bambara groundnut 3 227 banana 11 1,412 barley 18 6,362 bean 24 7,291 cassava 5 1,180 chickpea 14 4,183 cowpea 24 5,098 faba bean 14 2,400 finger millet 8 9,927 grasspea 10 3,952 lentil 16 3,728 maize 33 12,803 pearl millet 10 2,751 pigeon pea 3 888 potato 6 4,621 rice 14 16,435 sorghum 24 14,266 sweet potato 9 1,731 wheat 23 26,304 yam 14 3,270
  13. 13. Svalbard, Norway78° North, 15°East
  14. 14. Towards a rational system• Information systems  data management system for genebanks - GRIN-Global  global accession-level information system - SINGER, EURISCO, GRIN, ++++
  15. 15. The future of genebanks• Outsource some storage/distribution functions• Collaborate on genotyping• Focus on phenotyping (networks?)• Share data• Become users  Need more than just “better links” to users!• “Crown jewels” are not the accessions but the products
  16. 16. The future of genebanks• Re-tooling• Re-training• Re-thinking
  17. 17. Thank you