Introduction to the Global Crop Diversity Trust

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Presentation to Tunisian national genebank

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  • The Global Crop Diversity Trust to ensure that crop diversity is properly conserved and easily available.  It is working worldwide, on a wide range of crops and activities .
  • The Trust is also working on a. rescuing threatened collectionsb. researching how to conserve some crops better (particularly difficult-to-conserve crops like cassava, yams and taro)c. evaluating accessions held by genebanks, so that they are better understood and therefore more useful to breedersd. working on information systems to ensure that genebanks are better run, and also that plant breeders can access both information and accessions from genebanks around the worlde. to avoid disasters such as the slide shown earlier from the Philippines, ensuring that collections are duplicated for safety,f. and ensuring that a safety back-up is stored in the safest seed storage on the planet - the Svalbard Global Seed Vault.
  • This includes over 10,000 wheat accessions which were threatened with extinction.
  • The Vault now contains a large percentage of the world's diversity – as safe as it can possibly be!
  • Or very vulnerable
  • An information management system for genebanksThe new incarnation of USDA’s Genetic Resources Information System (GRIN)Support to adoption has been provided by Bioversity International“Open source” software for continued development and maintenance by the user communityXx genebanks now trained
  • GeneSys is a global platform for the the sharing of data provided by international and national genebanks. This platform is envisioned to meet the needs of data providers to publish their individual genebank data globally. It will meet the needs of a diversity of users to search through this diversity to identify key accessions needed for access. It will also enhance global understanding of the utilization potential and the unique nature of the world’s germplasm. It is one of a number of platforms available but has the potential to link many together
  • GeneSys is a global platform for the the sharing of data provided by international and national genebanks. This platform is envisioned to meet the needs of data providers to publish their individual genebank data globally. It will meet the needs of a diversity of users to search through this diversity to identify key accessions needed for access. It will also enhance global understanding of the utilization potential and the unique nature of the world’s germplasm. It is one of a number of platforms available but has the potential to link many together
  • Current 10 year initiative is CWR
  • Introduction to the Global Crop Diversity Trust

    1. 1. The Global Crop Diversity Trust: a Foundation for Food Security
    2. 2. What is the Trust ?  Independent international organization established by FAO and CGIAR Centres • Established in October 2004 • Secretariat in Bonn from January 2013  Endowment to secure long-term funding for global system • Complementary short-term project funding to overcome key constraints  Policy framework of International Treaty on PGRFA • Element of the funding strategy of the Treaty • Priority for crops under Annex 1, collections in Article 15  Governed by Executive Board • Treaty GB, Donors Council, FAO, CGIAR
    3. 3. International collections
    4. 4. Goal “to advance an efficient and sustainable global system of ex situ conservation by promoting the rescue, understanding, use and long-term conservation of valuable plant genetic resources”
    5. 5. Building and sustaining the Global System Image by:Neil Palmer/CIAT
    6. 6. Ex situ conservation  Over 1,700 facilities  Holding 7.4m accessions  Vital resource for breeding
    7. 7. Safety duplication Long-term collection On-farm management Breeding/ Working collection The “Global System” we have now Conservation Use Distribution
    8. 8. Global back-up Safety duplicate collection Long-term international collection National collection Breeding/Working collection On-farm management The “Global System” we need Conservation Use
    9. 9.  National genebanks have intimate knowledge of indigenous experience and wisdom, local conditions and needs • search out, acquire, screen, develop, store and distribute diversity of particular and current relevance to country  International genebanks conserve and make available diversity over the long-term  Global back-up – Svalbard Global Seed Vault  Enabling environment – the Treaty Towards a truly global system
    10. 10. www.croptrust.org
    11. 11. Trust activities Regeneration Conservation research Evaluation Permanent backupDuplicationInformation systems
    12. 12. Wheat  78,375 regenerated  3,675 put in vitro  12,255 not viable Regeneration
    13. 13. Safety duplication  32,917 accessions  43 countries 117 wheat, 615 barley Mongolia, Nepal, Belarus & Armenia 365 Chickpea Georgia & Pakistan 215 faba bean Georgia & Ecuador 157 grasspea Nepal & Pakistan 620 lentil Nepal, Georgia & Pakistan
    14. 14. Shipping samples  7 shipments in 1,340 accessions destroyed or returned  many still in quarantine
    15. 15. 774,601 accessions stored in Svalbard
    16. 16. Phillippine National Genebank Typhoon Xangsane, 2006
    17. 17. Inside the vault
    18. 18. Photos International Rice Research Institute (IRRI); Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). 2009.  43 projects  59 collections  20 crops  143 traits  58 NARS  8 CGIAR  43 countries Evaluation
    19. 19. Promoting use: Information systems Image by:Neil Palmer/CIAT
    20. 20. Information systems
    21. 21. • Online portal to accession-level information on the world’s genebank holdings • Initially developed as investment from GCDT, Bioversity, and ITPGRFA-Secretariat • Initially encompasses CGIAR/held International Collections, Eurisco and USDA • Searchable on passport, characterization, evaluation and ecogeographic descriptors • Plans for further development and improvement • Expandable to include all genebanks!
    22. 22. http://www.genesys-pgr.org Global information portal
    23. 23. • An information management system for genebanks • The new incarnation of USDA’s Genetic Resources Information System (GRIN) • “Open source” software for continued development and maintenance by the user community
    24. 24. In Trust for the International Community Plan and Partnership for Managing and Sustaining CGIAR – held collections of Plant Genetic Resources Image by:Neil Palmer/CIAT
    25. 25. Objective To conserve the diversity of PGR in CGIAR-held collections, to make it available to breeders and researchers in a manner that meets high international scientific standards, is cost efficient, is secure, reliable and sustainable over the long-term and is supportive of and consistent with ITPGRFA
    26. 26. International collections
    27. 27. Accessions AfricaRice Rice 20,000 Bioversity Banana 1,298 CIAT Beans, Cassava, Tropical forages 65,635 CIMMYT Maize, Wheat 155,129 CIP Potato, Sweet potato, Andean Roots & Tubers 16,495 ICARDA Grain legumes, Wheat, Barley, Forage & range crops 134,160 ICRAF Trees 5,144 ICRISAT Dryland cereals, Grain legumes 156,313 IITA Cowpea, Cassava, Yam, Banana, Misc legumes 28,286 ILRI Tropical forages 18,291 IRRI Rice 110,817 Total 711,568 International collections
    28. 28. CGIAR Research Program for Managing and Sustaining Crop Collections  11 Centres  5 year funding plan  $20 million/year  Routine operations  Trust management and oversight  Commitment by donors to transition to funding through Trust endowment
    29. 29. Transition to sustainable funding
    30. 30. Online reporting tool
    31. 31. Safe-guarding threatened diversity and promoting use: Collecting, protecting and preparing crop wild relatives Image by:Neil Palmer/CIAT
    32. 32. But why CWR? Hoisington et al 1998 Folke 2001
    33. 33. The Trust’s CWR initiative • Identify, collect, conserve, document and use key crop wild relative diversity for climate change adaptation (in developing countries) • $50 million over 10 years pledged by Norwegian government, starting 2011 • 26 target crops
    34. 34. Species Common name Avena sativa Oat Cajanus cajan Pigeonpea lCicer arietinum Chickpea Daucus carota Carrot Eleusine coracana Finger millet Helianthus annuus Sunflower Hordeum vulgare Barley Ipomoea batatas Sweet potato Lathyrus sativus Grass pea/Common chickling Lens culinaris Lentil Malus domestica Apple Medicago sativa Alfalfa/Lucerne Musa acuminata Cavendish banana Musa balbisiana Guangdong plantain Species Common name Oryza glaberrima African rice Oryza sativa Rice Pennisetum glaucum Pearl millet Phaseolus lunatus Butter bean/Lima bean Phaseolus vulgaris Garden bean Pisum sativum Garden pea Secale cereale Rye Solanum melongena Eggplant/Aubergine Solanum tuberosum Potato Sorghum bicolor Sorghum Triticum aestivum Bread wheat Vicia faba Faba bean Vicia sativa Common vetch Vigna subterranea Bambara groundnut Vigna unguiculata Cowpea Crop wild relatives initiative
    35. 35. Gap analysis: carrot
    36. 36. Gap analysis: carrot
    37. 37. www.croptrust.org

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