Map reading

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Map reading

  1. 1. MAP READING CXC GEOGRAPHY WORKSHOP 2009 MS. K. BROWN
  2. 2. IMPORTANCE OF MAP READING IN THE EXAM <ul><li>MAP READING IS COMPULSORY IN THE EXAM </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS THE ONLY COMPULSORY QUESTION. </li></ul><ul><li>IT CAN MAKE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EXAM GRADES 1 OR 2. </li></ul><ul><li>IT CAN MAKE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PASS AND FAIL </li></ul><ul><li>28% OF THE MARKS IN THE EXAM IS OBTAINED FROM MAP READING </li></ul>
  3. 3. TOPICS <ul><li>LOCATING PLACES USING GRID REFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>FINDING THE BEARING OF PLACES </li></ul><ul><li>CALCULATING GRADIENT OF SLOPES </li></ul><ul><li>MEASURING DISTANCES WITH SCALES </li></ul><ul><li>DRAWING AND INTERPRETING CROSS SECTIONS </li></ul>
  4. 4. TOPICS CONT’D <ul><li>DRAWING OF SKETCH MAPS </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBING LANDFORMS FROM MAPS </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBING DRAINAGE NETWORKS </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBING LANDUSE </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBING THE INFLUENCE OF LANDFORM ON MAN’S ACTIVITIES (SETTLEMENT, </li></ul><ul><li>AGRICULTURE, TRANSPORT NETWORK </li></ul>
  5. 5. GRID REFERENCE <ul><li>TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS ARE DIVIDED INTO GRIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>THESE GRIDS HELP US TO LOCATE PLACES EASIER </li></ul><ul><li>GRID LINES ARE NUMBERED LINES ON A MAP </li></ul><ul><li>THE VERTICAL GRID LINES ARE CALLED EASTINGS </li></ul><ul><li>HORIZONTAL GRID LINES ARE CALLED NORTHINGS </li></ul>
  6. 6. 22 23 24 25 11 12 13 EASTING N O R T H I N G 2211 2212 READ THE GRID REFERENCE IN THE FORM OF LETTER ‘L’
  7. 7. GRID REFERENCE <ul><li>THERE IS THE FOUR FIGURE GRID REFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>EG. 2211, 2212 </li></ul><ul><li>EASTINGS ARE ALWAYS WRITTEN BEFORE NORTHINGS </li></ul><ul><li>THE FIRST TWO NUMBERS ARE THE EASTING AND THE LAST TWO NORTHING </li></ul>
  8. 8. GRID REFERENCE <ul><li>THERE IS ALSO SIX FIGURE GRID REFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>THE SIX FIGURE GRID REFERENCE IS USED TO GIVE MORE PRECISE LOCATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>TO GIVE THE SIX FIGURE GRID REFERNCE DIVIDE EACH GRID BOX INTO TEN EQUAL PARTS ON EACH SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>NUMBER EACH LINE 1-9 </li></ul>
  9. 9. 22 23 24 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 987654321 22 1 11 6 22 4 11 3 25 5 5 241119 247111
  10. 10. GRID REFERENCE <ul><li>WHAT IS THE FOUR FIGURE GRID REFERENCE OF: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPRING VILLAGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUSHY PARK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MC COOKS PEN </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. GRID REFERENCE <ul><li>FOUR FIGURE GRID REFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>5237 </li></ul><ul><li>5238 </li></ul><ul><li>5338 </li></ul>
  12. 13. GRID REFERENCE <ul><li>WHAT IS THE SIX FIGURE GRID REFERENCE OF: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) THE TRIGONOMETRY STATION AT BUSHY PARK </li></ul><ul><li>(b) SCHOOL IN SPRING VILLAGE </li></ul><ul><li>(C) POSTAL AGENCY NEAR CHURCH PEN </li></ul><ul><li>(d) THE BRIDGE THAT CROSSES THE SPRING GARDEN RIVER </li></ul>
  13. 14. GRID REFERENCE <ul><li>SIX FIGURE GRID REFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>527371 </li></ul><ul><li>519378 </li></ul><ul><li>524385 </li></ul><ul><li>535384 </li></ul>
  14. 15. SCALES <ul><li>THREE TYPES OF SCALES ARE REPRESENTED ON TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS </li></ul><ul><li>LINEAR SCALE </li></ul><ul><li>REPRESENTATIVE FRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT STATEMENTS </li></ul>
  15. 16. SCALES <ul><li>LINEAR SCALE-A BAR DIVIDED INTO SECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>THIS SCALE CAN BE REPRESENTED IN ANY UNIT (MILES, KILOMETRES, METRES,YARDS, FEET </li></ul>
  16. 17. SCALES <ul><li>REPRESENTATIVE FRACTION-WRITTEN AS A RATIO. FOR EG. </li></ul><ul><li>1:50,000 </li></ul><ul><li>THIS MEAN 1UNIT ON THE MAP REPRESENTS 50,000 UNITS ON THE GROUND </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>1:25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>THIS MEANS 1 UNIT ON THE MAP REPRESENTS 25,000 UNITS ON THE GROUND </li></ul>
  17. 18. SCALES <ul><li>DIRECT STATEMENTS - WRITTEN IN WORDS. FOR EG. </li></ul><ul><li>1CM REPRESENT 50,000CM </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>1CM REPRESENT 1KM </li></ul>
  18. 19. SCALES <ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>USED TO MEASURE DISTANCES OF </li></ul><ul><li>ROADS, RIVERS, RAILWAYS, LANDFORMS. </li></ul><ul><li>THESE FEATURES CAN BE MEASURED AS </li></ul><ul><li>STRIGHT LINE DISTANCES (LINE DRAWN BETWEEN THE TWO POINTS AND THEN MEASURED. </li></ul><ul><li>ACTUAL DISTANCES (THE ENTIRE DISTANCE ALONG THE FEATURE IS MEASURED USING A STRING OR PAPER. </li></ul>
  19. 20. SCALES <ul><li>USING THE LINEAR SCALE: </li></ul><ul><li>PLACE A STRIP OF PAPER ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE FEATURE (ROAD, RIVER) </li></ul><ul><li>USE A PENCIL TO MARK OFF EACH STRAIGHT PORTION OF THE FEATURE </li></ul><ul><li>PIVOT THE PAPER USING THE PENCIL UNTIL YOU ARE AT THE END OF THE FEATURE </li></ul>
  20. 22. SCALES <ul><li>WHEN FINISHED PLACE THE STRIP OF PAPER ALONG THE LINEAR SCALE. </li></ul><ul><li>YOUR STARTING POINT MUST BE AT 0 </li></ul><ul><li>RECORD THE VALUE OF THE DISTANCE OF THE FEATURE </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT FORGET TO WRITE DOWN THE UNIT OF THE DISTANCE THAT YOU MEASURED IN. FOR EG. KM, MILES, METRES. </li></ul>
  21. 23. 1000 750 500 250 0 Metre 1 2 3 X start here Kilometre <ul><li>PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO THE UNIT OF THE SCALE </li></ul>
  22. 24. SCALES <ul><li>USING THE REPRESENTATIVE FRACTION 1:50,000 </li></ul><ul><li>USE A RULER TO MEASURE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TWO POINTS </li></ul><ul><li>THE VALUE OBTAINED (EG.5CM) MUST BE MULTIPLED BY THE NUMBER TO THE RIGHT OF THE COLON. (5X50,000) </li></ul>
  23. 25. SCALES <ul><li>5X50,000=250,000CM </li></ul><ul><li>IF THE ANSWER IS TO BE IN KM DIVIDE YOUR ANSWER BY 100,000 (100,000CM=1KM) </li></ul><ul><li>250,000 DIVIDED BY 100,000= </li></ul><ul><li>2.5KM </li></ul>
  24. 26. SCALES <ul><li>HOW TO SPEED IT UP? </li></ul><ul><li>USE A THUMB TACK (THE COLOURED ONE) AND STICK IT IN THE STRIP OF PAPER THAT IS USED TO MEASURE THE DISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>TURN THE PAPER AS YOU MEASURE AND MOVE THE THUMB TACK ALONG THE PAPER </li></ul>
  25. 27. SCALES <ul><li>CONVERSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>IMPERIAL UNITS </li></ul><ul><li>3 FEET = 1YARD </li></ul><ul><li>5,280 FEET = 1 MILE </li></ul><ul><li>1760 YARDS= 1 MILE </li></ul>
  26. 28. BEARINGS <ul><li>THIS IS THE ANGULAR DISTANCE OF ONE PLACE X FROM ANOTHER Y </li></ul><ul><li>BEARINGS ARE CALCULATED BY THE USE OF A PROTRACTOR. </li></ul>
  27. 29. BEARINGS <ul><li>HOW TO CALCULATE BEARINGS </li></ul><ul><li>DRAW A LINE BETWEEN THE TWO POINTS </li></ul><ul><li> X </li></ul>Y
  28. 30. BEARINGS <ul><li>2 . DRAW A VERTICAL LINE THROUGH THE POINT FROM WHICH YOU ARE TAKING THE BEARING. </li></ul><ul><li>FOR EG. WHAT IS THE BEARING OF X FROM Y </li></ul><ul><li>DRAW THE VERTICAL LINE THROUGH POINT Y </li></ul>
  29. 31. BEARINGS <ul><li>3. PLACE THE PROTRACTOR ON THE VERTICAL LINE </li></ul><ul><li>4. STARTING FROM 0º IN A CLOCKWISE DIRECTION, MEASURE THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE VERTICAL LINE AND THE LINE DRAWN BETWEEN THE TWO POINTS </li></ul>
  30. 32. X Y AS EASY AS 1,2,3
  31. 33. BEARINGS <ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS THE BEARING OF THE NEGRIL LIGHTHOUSE FROM THE YATCH CLUB </li></ul><ul><li>GIVE THE BEARING OF THE YOUTH CENTRE FROM THE CHURCH NEAR SILVER SPRING </li></ul>
  32. 35. BEARINGS <ul><li>HOW TO SPEED IT UP? </li></ul><ul><li>USE THE PROTRACTOR THAT IS COMPLETE AS A CIRCLE </li></ul><ul><li>DRAW LONG VERTICAL AND CONNECTING LINES. </li></ul><ul><li>USE SHARP PENCILS!!! DULL PENCILS CAN GIVE ERROR UP TO 3º </li></ul>
  33. 36. GRADIENT <ul><li>THE RATE OF CHANGE OF A SLOPE </li></ul><ul><li>THE DEGREE OF SLOPE </li></ul>DEGREE OF SLOPE
  34. 37. GRADIENT <ul><li>THE MATHEMATICIAN VS GEOGRAPHER </li></ul><ul><li>GRADIENT AS FRACTION AS RATIO </li></ul><ul><li>1/20 1:20 </li></ul><ul><li>RISE/RUN RISE:RUN </li></ul><ul><li>THESE ARE INTERPRETED THE SAME WAY </li></ul><ul><li>THE GEOGRAPHER IS SAYING RUN IS 20 TIMES LONGER THAN RISE. </li></ul>
  35. 38. GRADIENT 1CM 20CM RUN SLOPE RISE
  36. 42. GRADIENT <ul><li>GRADIENT IN THE FIRST PHOTO IS VERY HIGH ALMOST VERTICAL. </li></ul><ul><li>1:0 </li></ul><ul><li>GRADIENT IN THE SECOND PHOTO IS MODERATE 1:75 </li></ul><ul><li>GRADIENT IN THE THIRD PHOTO IS VERY LOW, GENTLE, ALMOST FLAT </li></ul><ul><li>1:270 </li></ul>
  37. 43. 270m 1m
  38. 44. GRADIENT <ul><li>THE NUMBER TO THE LEFT OF THE COLON INDICATE THE VALUE OF THE VERTICAL HEIGHT (THAT IS THE RUN) </li></ul><ul><li>THE NUMBER TO THE RIGHT OF THE COLON INDICATE THE VALUE OF THE HORIZONTAL DISTANCE ON THE GROUND </li></ul><ul><li>(THAT IS THE RISE) </li></ul><ul><li>THE SMALLER THE NUMBER TO THE RIGHT OF THE COLON, THE STEEPER THE GRADIENT </li></ul>
  39. 45. GRADIENT <ul><li>FOR EG. </li></ul><ul><li>1:75 IS STEEPER THAN 1:270 </li></ul><ul><li>LOOK BACK AT THE GRADIENTS IN THE PHOTOS </li></ul>
  40. 46. GRADIENT <ul><li>HOW TO CALCULATE GRADIENT? </li></ul><ul><li>PRE-REQUISITE: </li></ul><ul><li>YOU MUST BE ABLE TO CALCULATE DISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>YOU MUST UNDERSTAND CONTOUR INTERVALS </li></ul>
  41. 47. GRADIENT <ul><li>TO CALCULATE GRADIENT: </li></ul><ul><li>YOU NEED THE DIFFERENCE IN HEIGHT BETWEEN THE TWO POINTS (A-B) </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>THE HORIZONTAL DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TWO POINTS </li></ul>
  42. 48. GRADIENT <ul><li>THE SCHOOL AT MAIDEN STONE IS 320METRES , THE HEIGHT OF THE COAST NEAR RIO GRANDE IS SEA LEVEL, THE STRAIGHT LINE DISTANCE IS 5KM CALCULATE THE AVERAGE GRADIENT </li></ul>
  43. 49. A B HORIZONTAL DISTANCE
  44. 50. GRADIENT <ul><li>DIFFERENCE IN VERTICAL HEIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>HORIZONTAL DISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>THE VERTICAL DISTANCE IS OBTAINED BY SUBTRACTING THE SMALLER CONTOUR OR SPOT HEIGHT VALUE FROM THE HIGHER </li></ul><ul><li>HORIZONTAL DISTANCE IS MEASURED AGAINST THE SCALE </li></ul>
  45. 51. GRADIENT <ul><li>AFTER OBTAINING THE TWO VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>CONVERT BOTH TO THE SAME UNITS </li></ul><ul><li>THAT IS THE VERTICAL DIFFERENCE MUST BE IN THE SAME UNIT AS THE HORIZONTAL DISTANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>FOR EG. 400M-200M=200M (VERTICAL DIFFERENCE) </li></ul><ul><li>HORIZONTAL DISTANCE =600M </li></ul>
  46. 52. GRADIENT <ul><li>200:600 </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS SAYING THAT THE LAND RISE BY 200M OVER A DISTANCE OF 600M </li></ul><ul><li>THE NEXT STEP IS TO DIVIDE THE NUMBER TO THE LEFT OF THE COLON INTO ITSELF </li></ul><ul><li>THEN INTO THE NUMBER TO THE RIGHT OF THE COLON </li></ul>
  47. 53. GRADIENT <ul><li>200/200 : 600/200 </li></ul><ul><li>1 : 3 ANSWER !!! </li></ul>INTERPRETATION FOR EVERY 3M HORIZONTALLY ALONG THE GROUND THE LAND RISES BY 1 M THIS IS A GENTLE SLOPE
  48. 54. GRADIENT THE HEIGHT OF THE SCHOOL AT MAIDEN STONE (0167)IS 320METRES THE HEIGHTOF THE COAST NEAR THE RIO GRANDE BRIDGE IS APPROX. 0 METRES THE DISTANCE IN A STRAIGHT LINE BETWEEN THE TWO POINTS IS 5KM CALCULATE THE AVERAGE GRADIENT
  49. 55. CROSS SECTION <ul><li>THIS IS A VERTICAL CUT THROUGH A LANDFORM TO SHOW A PROFILE </li></ul><ul><li>THE CROSS SECTION IS DRAWN BY A LINE GRAPH SHOWING HEIGHT AGAINST HORIZONTAL DISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>THE HEIGHT IS OBTAINED FROM THE CONTOUR LINES </li></ul>
  50. 56. CROSS SECTION <ul><li>HOW TO DRAW A CROSS SECTION </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY YOUR STARTING AND ENDING POINTS </li></ul><ul><li>DRAW A STRAIGHT LINE TO CONNECT THESE TWO POINTS </li></ul><ul><li>USING A STRIP OF BLANK PAPER MARK OFF WHERE ALL THE CONTOURS CROSS THE LINE OF SECTION </li></ul>
  51. 57. CROSS SECTION <ul><li>4. NUMBER THE CONTOURS ON YOUR STRIP OF PAPER </li></ul><ul><li>5. IN YOUR BOOK, DRAW A LINE THE SAME LENGTH AS THE SECTION </li></ul><ul><li>6. PLACE YOUR STRIP OF PAPER ALONG THIS LINE AND MARK OFF THE CONTOURS AND RECORD THE VALUE </li></ul>
  52. 58. CROSS SECTION <ul><li>7. DEVELOP A VERTICAL SCALE TO RECORD THE HEIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>8. USING SMALL X’S MARK THE POINT ON THE VERTICAL THAT CORRESPOND TO THE HORIZONTAL </li></ul><ul><li>9. DRAW A LINE CONNECTING THE X’S TO COMPLETE THE CROSS SECTION </li></ul>
  53. 59. x y
  54. 60. 200 250 300 345000 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 X X X X X X X X X X X X CROSS SECTION X Y
  55. 61. CROSS SECTION <ul><li>HOW TO SPEED IT UP? </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY YOUR LINE OF SECTION </li></ul><ul><li>DRAW A LINE EQUAL TO ITS LENGTH ON YOUR PAPER </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOP A VERTICAL SCALE </li></ul><ul><li>FOLD THE MAP ALONG THE LINE OF SECTION </li></ul>
  56. 62. CROSS SECTION <ul><li>PUT THE FOLDED SECTION ALONG THE LINE YOU DREW </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE THE VALUE OF EACH CONTOUR </li></ul><ul><li>AND PUT IN THE POINTS (THAT IS THE X’S) </li></ul><ul><li>CONNECT THEM TO COMPLETE THE SECTION </li></ul>
  57. 63. CROSS SECTION <ul><li>YOU MAY ALSO GET A DRAWN CROSS SECTION IN THE EXAM </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS WHERE YOU HAVE TO LABEL THE CROSS SECTION WITH THE CORRESPONDING FEATURES ON THE MAP </li></ul>
  58. 64. DESCRIBING THE DRINAGE <ul><li>WE ARE DESCRIBING THE GEOMETRY FORMED BY THE DRAINAGE LINES </li></ul><ul><li>THE GEOMETRY OF THE DRAINAGE CAN TAKE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PATTERN </li></ul><ul><li>DENDRITIC </li></ul><ul><li>RADIAL </li></ul><ul><li>TRELLIS </li></ul>
  59. 65. DRAINAGE <ul><li>WHEN THE DRINAGE IS DENDRITIC, THE TRIBUTARIES JOIN THE MAIN STRAM AT ACUTE ANGLES </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOP IN REGIONS WITH A UNIFORM ROCK STRUCTURE (ROCKS ARE OF THE SAME TYPE) </li></ul>
  60. 66. DRAINAGE
  61. 67. DRAINAGE <ul><li>THE TRELLIS DRAINAGE PATTERN HAS TRIBUTARIES JOINING THE MAIN STREAM AT RIGHT ANGLES </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOP IN REGIONS THAT HAVE ALTERNATING BANDS OF HARD AND SOFT ROCKS </li></ul>
  62. 68. DRAINAGE
  63. 69. DRAINAGE <ul><li>THE RADIAL DRAINAGE PATTERN HAS TRIBUTARIES FLOWING IN AN OUTWARD DIRECTION FROM A CENTRAL AREA. (LIKE THE SPOKES OF A WHEEL) </li></ul><ul><li>STREAMS RADIATE FROM A HILL OR VOLCANIC DOME </li></ul>
  64. 70. DRAINAGE
  65. 71. DRAINAGE <ul><li>HOW TO DESCRIBE THE DRAINAGE OF AN AREA? </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST IDENTIFY THE DOMINANT DRAINAGE PATTERN ON THE AREA. FOR EG. RADIAL </li></ul><ul><li>NEXT LOOK FOR ANY SMALLER DRAINAGE PATTERN OF INDIVIDUAL STREAM. </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE SURE TO GIVE THE GRID REFERENCE FOR THEIR LOCATION </li></ul>
  66. 73. DRAINAGE <ul><li>4 . DESCRIBE THE DIRECTION OF FLOW OF THE MAIN STREAM. </li></ul><ul><li>THE FLOW IS FROM HIGH CONTOUR VALUES TO LOW VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>5. DESCRIBE THE NATURE OF THE STREAM </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS WHETHER THE RIVERS ARE SEASONAL OR PERMANENT </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS SHOWN IN THE KEY </li></ul>
  67. 74. DRAINAGE <ul><li>6. DESCRIBE THE NATURE OF THE VALLEY-THIS MEANS SAYING WHETHER THE VALLEY IS NARROW OR WIDE, GENTLE OR STEEP SIDED </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS OBTAINED FROM THE SHAPE OF THE CONTOUR LINES </li></ul>
  68. 76. DRAINAGE <ul><li>7 . DESCRIBE WHETHER THE MAIN RIVER COURSE IS STRAIGHT OR MEANDERING </li></ul><ul><li>8. DESCRIBE CHANNEL FEATURES SUCH AS WATERFALLS, RAPIDS (SHOWN IN THE KEY) OR RAPIDS </li></ul>
  69. 78. DRAINAGE <ul><li>9 . DESCRIBE THE DRAINAGE DENSITY </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS THE NUMBER OF STREAMS WITHIN THE AREA. </li></ul><ul><li>IF THERE ARE MANY STREAMS THE DRAINAGE DENSITY IS HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>IF THERE ARE FEW STREAMS THE DRAINAGE DENSITY IS LOW </li></ul>
  70. 79. DESCRIBING LANDFORMS <ul><li>THIS IS DESCRIBING FEATURES SUCH AS MOUNTAINS, HILLS, VALLEYS AND PLAINS ON THE MAP </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT INFORMATION DO YOU USE? </li></ul><ul><li>CONTOUR VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>CONTOUR SHAPES </li></ul><ul><li>CONTOUR SPACING </li></ul><ul><li>CONTOUR ORIENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>SCALE ON THE MAP </li></ul>
  71. 80. LANDFORMS <ul><li>WHAT ARE YOU DESCRIBING ABOUT THE LANDFORM? </li></ul><ul><li>HEIGHT OR DIFFERENCES IN HEIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS BASED ON THE CONTOUR VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>SHAPE OF THE LANDFORM </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS BASED ON THE SHAPE OF THE CONTOURS </li></ul><ul><li>SIZE OF THE LANDFORM </li></ul><ul><li>BASED ON THE SCALE </li></ul>
  72. 81. LANDFORMS <ul><li>LIST OF LANDFORMS </li></ul><ul><li>MOUNTAIN </li></ul><ul><li>VALLEY </li></ul><ul><li>HILL </li></ul><ul><li>PLAIN </li></ul><ul><li>PLATEAU </li></ul><ul><li>ESCARPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>GAP/PASS </li></ul>
  73. 86. LANDFORMS <ul><li>COASTAL LANDFORM </li></ul><ul><li>STEEP CLIFFED AREA TO THE EAST </li></ul><ul><li>GENTLE SLOPING COASTAL AREA IN THE WEST </li></ul>
  74. 87. LANDFORM AND SETTLEMENT <ul><li>FLAT AREAS HAVE HIGH POPULATION DENSITY </li></ul><ul><li>STEEP SLOPES AND THE HILLY REGIONS ARE SPARSELY POPULATED </li></ul><ul><li>FLAT AREAS USUALLY HAVE A NUCLEAR AND LINEAR SETTLEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>HILLY AREAS HAVE A DISPERSED OR ISOLATED SETTLEMENT </li></ul>
  75. 88. LANDFORM AND AGRICULTURE <ul><li>AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES ARE CONCENTRATED ON AREAS OF LOW RELIEF. (SUGAR CANE FOR EXAMPLE ARE PLANTED ON FLAT AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>COCONUTS ARE GROWN IN AREAS WITH HIGHER RELIEFS </li></ul>
  76. 89. RELIEF AND TRANSPORT NETWORK <ul><li>MAIN ROADS (‘A’ CLASS ROADS) ARE LOCATED IN FLAT AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>THESE ROADS ARE STRAIGHTER IN APPEARANCE </li></ul><ul><li>TRACKS FOOTPATHS AND MINOR ROADS ARE LOCATED IN HILLY AREAS </li></ul><ul><li>THESE ROADS ARE MORE WINDING </li></ul>
  77. 90. <ul><li>YOU MAY ALSO BE ASKED TO DESCRIBE THE SETTLEMENT OF AN AREA </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE THE TRANSPORT NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE THE VEGETATION </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE THE CULTIVATION </li></ul>
  78. 91. <ul><li>YOU MUST REMEMBER TO GIVE THE GRID REFERENCE OF THE AREA THAT YOU ARE DESCRIBING. </li></ul><ul><li>FOR EXAMPLE, LINEAR SETTLEMENT IS LOCATED IN GRID BOX 3325 </li></ul><ul><li>YOU MUST ALSO STATE THE NAME OF THE PLACE </li></ul><ul><li>FOR EXAMPLE, SAVANNA-LA MAR IS DENSELY POPULATED </li></ul>
  79. 92. SKETCH MAPS <ul><li>A GRID IS USUALLY GIVEN TO DRAW THE SKETCH MAP OF A GIVEN AREA </li></ul><ul><li>YOU MAY BE REQUIRED TO DRAW THE MAP ON A LARGER OR SMALLER SCALE. </li></ul>
  80. 94. SKETCH MAPS <ul><li>YOU MUST LABEL THE GRID LINES </li></ul><ul><li>DRAW THE FEATURES THAT ARE ASKED TO BE DRAWN </li></ul><ul><li>HAVE A KEY </li></ul><ul><li>TITLE </li></ul><ul><li>NORTH ARROW </li></ul>
  81. 95. SKETCH MAPS <ul><li>YOU SHOULD FIRST LABEL THE GRID LINES PROVIDED. </li></ul><ul><li>CAREFULLY LOCATE THE FEATURES THAT YOU ARE REQUIRED TO INSERT. </li></ul><ul><li>DRAW EACH FEATURE ACCURATELY. </li></ul><ul><li>INSERT A KEY TO REPRESENT THE FEATURES. </li></ul>
  82. 96. DESCRIBING VEGETATION <ul><li>DESCRIBE THE TYPE OF VEGETATION </li></ul><ul><li>USE GRID REFERENCE, COMPASS DIRECTIONS AND NAMES OF TOWNS TO GIVE THE LOCATION OF EACH TYPE OF VEGETATION YOU DESCRIBE. </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE THE EXTENT OF THE VEGETATION (LARGE AREA,PATCH, POCKET ETC.) </li></ul>
  83. 97. DESCRIBING VEGETATION CONTD <ul><li>DESCRIBE THE ELEVATION FOR EACH VEGETATION TYPE </li></ul><ul><li>REMEMBER THAT THE VEGETATION IS NATURAL DO NOT CONFUSE IT WITH CULTIVATION. </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES INCLUDE FOREST, TREES AND SCRUBS. MANGROVES, WOODLAND. </li></ul>

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