(Science) Matter
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(Science) Matter

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(Science) Matter Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Properties of Matter
    • Physical Property
    • properties that can be determined without changing the composition of the material. Ex: Texture, color, odor, length, mass, density, boiling point and freezing point and hardness.
  • 3.
      • 1. Extensive or Extrinsic – physical properties that depend on the amount of the sample being examined. Ex: Volume, mass, length
      • 2. Intensive or Intrinsic – physical properties that do not depend on the quantity of the sample being examined. Ex: Temperature, odor, density and freezing point
  • 4. Chemical Property
    • properties that describe how a substance may change to form another substance. Ex: ability of iron to rust, ability of milk to curdle
  • 5. Changes in Matter
    • Physical Change
    • - change in matter that involves no change in chemical composition
    • - alters a substance without changing its composition.
    • Example: Phase Change
  • 6. SOLID LIQUID GAS Evaporation Condensation Deposition Sublimation Melting Freezing
  • 7. Chemical Change
    • a new substance is formed.
    • Evidences of a Chemical Change
    • Change in color
    • Evolution of gas
    • Formation of precipitate
    • Emission of heat and light
  • 8. Phases of Matter PROPERTY SOLID LIQUID GAS Mass definite definite definite Shape definite indefinite Indefinite Volume definite indefinite indefinite Compressibility Almost incompressible Almost incompressible compressible Arrangement of particles compact Near each other Far from each other Motion of the particles Very little motion Moderate motion Fast moving
  • 9. Forms of Matter Homogenous Mixture Solutions
  • 10.
    • Pure substance
    • matter having definite composition and distinct properties.
    • Elements
      • a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances.
      • the simplest forms of matter that can exist under normal laboratory conditions.
      • composed of one kind of atoms; the smallest particles of an element that retain the properties of the element.
  • 11. Properties of Metals and Non metals METALS NON METALS Hard, dense, solid Less dense and softer Strong Dull Shiny Brittle Malleable and ductile Insulators High conductivity on heat and electricity Low melting point High densities Low densities sonorous Not sonorous
  • 12.
    • Compound
      • substances that is made up of two or more elements; composed of two or more kinds of atoms.
      • can be separated into simpler substances only by chemical reaction.
  • 13. Properties of acids and bases ACIDS BASES Cause litmus paper to turn red Cause litmus paper to turn blue Taste sour Taste bitter Dissolve metals producing various salt and hydrogen gas React with acids to form salts and water Feel slippery on the skin
  • 14.
    • Mixture
    • is a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retain its own properties.
    • Homogenous
    • having uniform appearance throughout.
    • Solution
    • a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
    • Example: sugar dissolved in water
  • 15.
    • Heterogeneous
    • appearance is not the same throughout; do not have uniform composition.
    • Suspension
    • a heterogeneous mixture in which some particles remain suspended as can be seen by the naked eye. Example: mud in water
    • Colloid
    • - a heterogeneous mixture in which some particles are too small to be seen by the naked eye but enough to remain suspended.
    • - Appears to be homogenous but when viewed with a powerful microscope, some particles can be seen suspended. Example: jelly and mayonnaise
  • 16. COMPARISON OF THE PROPERTIES OF SOLUTION, COLLOID AND SUSPENSION PROPERTY SOLUTION COLLOID SUSPENSION Particle size Less than 1 nm 1 to 100 nm More than 100 nm Appearance clear cloudy Cloudy Separation Does not separate Does not separate Separates or settles Filterability Passes through the filter paper Passes through the filter paper Particles do not pass through filter paper Effect of beam of light Light can pass through Scatters light Light cannot pass through Example Salt solution mayonnaise Muddy water
  • 17. Methods to separate components of Mixture
    • 1. Mechanical Separation 6. Sedimentation
    • 2. Filtration 7. Decantation
    • 3. Distillation 8. Chromatography
    • 4. Fractional Distillation 9. Centrifugation
    • 5. Crystallization 10. Extraction