Everything has an origin. Objects that we
use are made out of different kind of
matter and materials.
In this unit we are going to see the ways
we find matter in our everyday life,
characteristics of different materials and
how can we save materials by recycling.
WHAT IS MATTER?
Matter is everything around you. Matter is formed by groups of atoms that
form molecules. The atoms that are in the molecules stay linked because
they share or change electrons.
Molecules are formed by 2 or
more atoms of 1 or more
elements. For example: a
water molecule is formed by 2
atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom
Andries p 87
Solids have a defined shape and volume, molecules
are so close together that they form a hard
Examples: Wood, stone...
When you take a stone, wood,
plastic…and change it from one place
to another, they don t change size or
Shape and size of solids are the same
as long as we don t transform them by
carving, cutting, hitting…
Molecules in solids are tightly together.
They vibrate but they can t move.
Liquids fill up the shape of their containers. Liquids
can flow into any container and change their shape,
while they stay with the same volume.
Examples: Water, oil, milk, juice...
When you pour water into a glass, the
water gets the shape of the glass. If
you change that water into a bowl, it
gets the shape of the bowl.
The amount of water doesn t
change, only the shape.
Molecules in liquids are close together.
They move and slide past each other.
Gases don t have a defined shape or volume. They
take the shape and the size of their container.
Gases are as big as their containers.
Examples: Hydrogen, oxygen...
Gases are all around us. They move
and grow as long as they have space
to do it.
Molecules in gases are separated and free.
They move around and vibrate at high speed.
MATTER STATE CHANGES
Everything consists of
of elements (except group 8) are n
DocScientia p 14
A chemical bond occurs when
together to form a new substance with
new properties and in so doing have a
noble gas electron structure and a lower
DocScientia p 14
describes an idea
DocScientia p 14
- are shared
eparticle is a
have half-filled orbitals that overlap to f
e-negativity Polar or
must be the same or t
WHAT IS A CHEMICAL?
has a definite
composition or is used
or produced in a
Sugar is an example of a chemical
Anything that has mass and occupies space
All matter is composed of atoms
Extremely small chemically indivisible particle
Atom is Greek for “that which cannot be divided”
Greek philosopher Democritus is given credit for idea
Modern science can now divide an atom, so new definition includes chemically
An atom cannot be divided and retain it’s chemical properties
THREE MAJOR CLASSES OF
located on the left of the Periodic Tablemost of the elements
located on the right of the Periodic
Metalloids- on the zigzag line between Metals and
Nonmetals- have properties that are skewedi.e.…Silicon is conductive
will have to memorize the symbol and element
name for approximately 40 common elements
MORE WAYS TO DESCRIBE
Element: any substance that cannot be broken up into
simpler substances by chemical means
Compound: a substance formed when atoms of two or
more elements join together
silver, copper, hydrogen, oxygen nitrogen
H20 (water), CO2 (carbon dioxide)
Mixture: a material of two or more substances that are not
chemically bound to each other and can be separated
Blood: water-based mixture including
Proteins, sugars, salt, oxygen, carbon dioxide
PROPERTIES OF METALS
Metals are good conductors of heat and
Metals are malleable
Metals are ductile (can be drawn into
Metals have high tensile strength
Metals have luster (shiny)
PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS
Carbon, the graphite in “pencil lead” is a great
example of a nonmetallic element.
Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and
Nonmetals tend to be brittle
Many nonmetals are gases at room
be separated into simpler substances by
physical methods (physical changes)
only be changed in identity and properties by
do not vary- Unique Density, Constant
Boiling and Melting Points
elements- Can be
changes, always in
a definite ratio
• The properties of a compound are different
from its component elements.
• A compound is a made up of two or more
elements combined chemically.
• Most of the matter in the universe exists as
• Table salt, NaCl, and water H2O, are
• This figure shows
water to form
Components retain their characteristic properties
May be separated into pure substances by
physical methods sifting, evaporation, magnetism,
Mixtures of different compositions may have widely
Do NOT have definite boiling/melting points
Homogenous mixtures look the
same throughout but can be
separated by physical means
salt water, soda
the same composition throughout
Components are indistinguishable
Can exist between all phases of matter:
air (gases) brass (alloy- blend of
multiple metals -solids)
soda (gas, solid, liquid)
Solutions are homogenous mixtures
that do not scatter light. These
mixtures are created when
something is completely dissolved
in pure water. Therefore, they are
easily separated by distillation or
evaporation. Appear in one phase of
Examples: sugar water, salt water
PARTS OF A SOLUTION
part that does the
dissolving- water is our
part that was
Heterogeneous mixtures are composed
of large pieces that are easily
separated by physical means (ie.
density, polarity, metallic properties,
Pond Water, Vegetable SoupSuspensions Visible particles
Starch Water: invisible to the eye
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES –
OBSERVABLE TRAITS OF A MATERIAL
THAT MAY BE MEASURED WITHOUT
ALTERING THE SUBSTANCE
EXAMPLES: MASS, COLOR, MELTING
POINT, BOILING POINT, DENSITY
Please determine a method to separate the following and
determine the type of matter:
Oil and Water
Iron and Sand
Sand and Salt
Sulfur and Sugar
WE CAN USE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
TO SEPARATE MIXTURES:
WHAT ARE THE
TO THE RIGHT?
What do you think the material is that made this
How could you be sure?
Density- the amount of material in a
volume- unique to the
CHEMICAL CHANGEAN IRREVERSIBLE
IDENTITY AND MAKE
UP OF THE MATERIAL
There is no observable change in the
quantity of matter during a chemical
reaction or a physical change.
In other words, matter cannot be
created nor destroyed. It is just
converted from one form to
Energy comes in two forms :
Kinetic Energy: Movement
Potential Energy: Stored
All matter, regardless of
state, undergoes physical and
chemical changes. These changes
can be microscopic or macroscopic.
A physical change occurs when the
substance changes state but does not
change its chemical composition. It is
not permanent and is reversible!
Example Phase Changes!
For example: Ice melting
to water. The form or
changed, but the
properties of that
substance are the same
(i.e. it has the same
melting point, boiling
Characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing
substance into another substance
Physical state (liquid, gas, or solid)
NAMES OF WATER PHASE
Endothermic Requires Energy
to go forward
Melting: Solid Liq
Exothermic Gives energy off
Evaporation ( spon)
ALL CHEMICAL CHANGES CAN BE WRITTEN AS A
A + B AB
B are the starting
is the result- product
Reaction with acids
Reaction with bases
Ability to act as
Reaction with oxygen
Reaction with other
Ability to act as
Physical and chemical properties may be intensive or extensive.
properties such as density, color, and
boiling point do not depend on the size of the
sample of matter and can be used to identify
Extensive properties such as mass and volume do depend
on the quantity of the sample.
Physical properties are those that we can determine without changing
the identity of the substance we are studying.
The physical properties of sodium metal can be observed or measured.
It is a soft, lustrous, silver-colored metal with a relatively low melting
point and low density.
Hardness, color, melting point and density are all physical properties.
Property that is
unique to the material
of energy required to
heat 1 gram of a substance
by 1 degree Celsius
-Why do you choose to sit on the
wooden bleachers on a cold fall
day for a football game instead of
the metal bleachers?
Chemical properties describe the way a substance can change or react
to form other substances.
These properties, then, must be determined using a process that
changes the identity of the substance of interest.
of the chemical properties of alkali metals such as
sodium and potassium is that they react with water. To
determine this, we would have to combine an alkali
metal with water and observe what happens.
other words, we have to define chemical properties
of a substance by the chemical changes it undergoes.
States of Matter
The physical forms of matter, either
solid, liquid, or gas, are called the states of
• Solids are a form of matter that
have their own definite shape and
• Liquids are a form of matter that
have a definite volume but take the
shape of the container.
States of Matter (cont.)
• Gases have no definite shape or
volume. They expand to fill their
• Vapor refers to the gaseous state
of a substance that is a solid or
liquid at room temperature.
Standardized Test Practice
Concepts in Motion