Thobile matter and material

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Thobile matter and material

  1. 1. MATTER AND MATERIAL THOBILE NKOSI 201109811
  2. 2. 1. INTRODUCTION Everything has an origin. Objects that we use are made out of different kind of matter and materials. In this unit we are going to see the ways we find matter in our everyday life, characteristics of different materials and how can we save materials by recycling.
  3. 3. WHAT IS MATTER? Matter is everything around you. Matter is formed by groups of atoms that form molecules. The atoms that are in the molecules stay linked because they share or change electrons. ATOM Molecules are formed by 2 or more atoms of 1 or more elements. For example: a water molecule is formed by 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen. MOLECULE
  4. 4. The particles in solids, liquids, and gases: Andries p 87
  5. 5. Three phases of matter Andries p 87
  6. 6. MATTER STATES SOLID Solids have a defined shape and volume, molecules are so close together that they form a hard structure. Examples: Wood, stone... EXPLANATION: When you take a stone, wood, plastic…and change it from one place to another, they don t change size or shape. Shape and size of solids are the same as long as we don t transform them by carving, cutting, hitting… SOLID’S MOLECULES Molecules in solids are tightly together. They vibrate but they can t move.
  7. 7. MATTER STATES LIQUID Liquids fill up the shape of their containers. Liquids can flow into any container and change their shape, while they stay with the same volume. Examples: Water, oil, milk, juice... EXPLANATION: When you pour water into a glass, the water gets the shape of the glass. If you change that water into a bowl, it gets the shape of the bowl. The amount of water doesn t change, only the shape. LIQUID’S MOLECULES Molecules in liquids are close together. They move and slide past each other.
  8. 8. MATTER STATES GAS Gases don t have a defined shape or volume. They take the shape and the size of their container. Gases are as big as their containers. Examples: Hydrogen, oxygen... EXPLANATION: Gases are all around us. They move and grow as long as they have space to do it. GAS’ MOLECULES Molecules in gases are separated and free. They move around and vibrate at high speed.
  9. 9. MATTER STATES MATTER STATE CHANGES GAS SOLID MELTING SOLIDIFICATION LIQUID
  10. 10. Atomic bonds
  11. 11. Everything consists of of elements (except group 8) are n DocScientia p 14
  12. 12. A chemical bond occurs when bond together to form a new substance with new properties and in so doing have a noble gas electron structure and a lower Ep. DocScientia p 14 Chemical bonds
  13. 13. A model describes an idea or thought DocScientia p 14
  14. 14. Between non-metals - are shared eparticle is a Smallest have half-filled orbitals that overlap to f e-negativity Polar or must be the same or t non-polar bonds form
  15. 15. WHAT IS A CHEMICAL? Any substance that has a definite composition or is used or produced in a chemical process.  Sugar is an example of a chemical
  16. 16. MATTER  Anything that has mass and occupies space  All matter is composed of atoms  Atom:  Extremely small chemically indivisible particle  Atom is Greek for “that which cannot be divided”  Greek philosopher Democritus is given credit for idea  Modern science can now divide an atom, so new definition includes chemically indivisible  An atom cannot be divided and retain it’s chemical properties
  17. 17. THREE MAJOR CLASSES OF ELEMENTS  Metals- located on the left of the Periodic Tablemost of the elements  Non-Metals- located on the right of the Periodic Table  Metalloids- on the zigzag line between Metals and Nonmetals- have properties that are skewedi.e.…Silicon is conductive  You will have to memorize the symbol and element name for approximately 40 common elements
  18. 18. MORE WAYS TO DESCRIBE MATTER  Element: any substance that cannot be broken up into simpler substances by chemical means   Compound: a substance formed when atoms of two or more elements join together   silver, copper, hydrogen, oxygen nitrogen H20 (water), CO2 (carbon dioxide) Mixture: a material of two or more substances that are not chemically bound to each other and can be separated  Blood: water-based mixture including  Proteins, sugars, salt, oxygen, carbon dioxide
  19. 19. PROPERTIES OF METALS Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity Metals are malleable shaped) (can be  Metals are ductile (can be drawn into wires)  Metals have high tensile strength  Metals have luster (shiny)
  20. 20. PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS Carbon, the graphite in “pencil lead” is a great example of a nonmetallic element.  Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and Electricity  Nonmetals tend to be brittle  Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature
  21. 21. WHAT IS NOT MATTER?
  22. 22.  Fixed composition  Cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical methods (physical changes)  Can only be changed in identity and properties by chemical methods  Properties do not vary- Unique Density, Constant Boiling and Melting Points
  23. 23. Elements Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes Compounds  Chemically joined elements- Can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes, always in a definite ratio
  24. 24. Compounds (cont.) SECTION 3-4 • The properties of a compound are different from its component elements.
  25. 25. Compounds SECTION 3-4 • A compound is a made up of two or more elements combined chemically. • Most of the matter in the universe exists as compounds. • Table salt, NaCl, and water H2O, are compounds.
  26. 26. Compounds (cont.) SECTION 3-4 • This figure shows electrolysis of water to form hydrogen and oxygen.
  27. 27.  Variable composition  Components retain their characteristic properties  May be separated into pure substances by physical methods sifting, evaporation, magnetism, etc…  Mixtures of different compositions may have widely different properties  Do NOT have definite boiling/melting points
  28. 28. Homogenous mixtures look the same throughout but can be separated by physical means Examples: salt water, soda
  29. 29. Have the same composition throughout Components are indistinguishable Can exist between all phases of matter: air (gases) brass (alloy- blend of multiple metals -solids) soda (gas, solid, liquid)
  30. 30. Solutions are homogenous mixtures that do not scatter light. These mixtures are created when something is completely dissolved in pure water. Therefore, they are easily separated by distillation or evaporation. Appear in one phase of matter Examples: sugar water, salt water
  31. 31. PARTS OF A SOLUTION  Solvent- part that does the dissolving- water is our universal solvent  Solute- part that was dissolved (salt)
  32. 32. Heterogeneous mixtures are composed of large pieces that are easily separated by physical means (ie. density, polarity, metallic properties, size). Pond Water, Vegetable SoupSuspensions Visible particles Starch Water: invisible to the eye
  33. 33. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES – OBSERVABLE TRAITS OF A MATERIAL THAT MAY BE MEASURED WITHOUT ALTERING THE SUBSTANCE EXAMPLES: MASS, COLOR, MELTING POINT, BOILING POINT, DENSITY
  34. 34. Please determine a method to separate the following and determine the type of matter: Oil and Water Iron and Sand Sand and Salt Sulfur and Sugar WE CAN USE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TO SEPARATE MIXTURES:
  35. 35. WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SUBSTANCE TO THE RIGHT? What do you think the material is that made this bracelet? How could you be sure? Density- the amount of material in a given volume- unique to the
  36. 36. CHEMICAL CHANGEAN IRREVERSIBLE CHANGE THAT CHANGES THE IDENTITY AND MAKE UP OF THE MATERIAL EXAMPLES: RUSTING BURNING
  37. 37.  There is no observable change in the quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or a physical change. In other words, matter cannot be created nor destroyed. It is just converted from one form to another
  38. 38. Energy comes in two forms : Kinetic Energy: Movement Potential Energy: Stored
  39. 39. All matter, regardless of state, undergoes physical and chemical changes. These changes can be microscopic or macroscopic.
  40. 40. A physical change occurs when the substance changes state but does not change its chemical composition. It is not permanent and is reversible! Example Phase Changes!
  41. 41. PHYSICAL CHANGE For example: Ice melting to water. The form or appearance has changed, but the properties of that substance are the same (i.e. it has the same melting point, boiling point, chemical composition, etc.)
  42. 42. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  Characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing substance into another substance  Color  Odor  Taste  Size  Physical state (liquid, gas, or solid)  Boiling point  Melting point  Density
  43. 43. NAMES OF WATER PHASE CHANGES Endothermic Requires Energy to go forward  Melting: Solid Liq   Condensation Gas Liq Boiling (forced) Liquid Gas  Exothermic Gives energy off  Liq Solid Evaporation ( spon) Liquid Gas  Sublimation Solid Gas Freezing:  Deposition: Gas Solid
  44. 44. A substance changes into something new. It is irreversible.
  45. 45. ALL CHEMICAL CHANGES CAN BE WRITTEN AS A REACTION  A + B  AB  A, B are the starting materials- reactants  AB is the result- product
  46. 46.  Reaction with acids   Reaction with bases (alkalis) Ability to act as reducing agent  Reaction with oxygen (combustion) Reaction with other elements  Ability to act as oxidizing agent Decomposition into simpler substances  Corrosion  
  47. 47.  Physical and chemical properties may be intensive or extensive.
  48. 48.  Intensive properties such as density, color, and boiling point do not depend on the size of the sample of matter and can be used to identify substances. 
  49. 49.  Extensive properties such as mass and volume do depend on the quantity of the sample.
  50. 50.  Physical properties are those that we can determine without changing the identity of the substance we are studying.
  51. 51.  The physical properties of sodium metal can be observed or measured. It is a soft, lustrous, silver-colored metal with a relatively low melting point and low density.  Hardness, color, melting point and density are all physical properties.
  52. 52. SPECIFIC HEAT  Physical Property that is unique to the material  Amount of energy required to heat 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius  -Why do you choose to sit on the wooden bleachers on a cold fall day for a football game instead of the metal bleachers?
  53. 53.  Chemical properties describe the way a substance can change or react to form other substances.  These properties, then, must be determined using a process that changes the identity of the substance of interest.
  54. 54.  One of the chemical properties of alkali metals such as sodium and potassium is that they react with water. To determine this, we would have to combine an alkali metal with water and observe what happens.  In other words, we have to define chemical properties of a substance by the chemical changes it undergoes.
  55. 55. States of Matter . The physical forms of matter, either solid, liquid, or gas, are called the states of matter. • Solids are a form of matter that have their own definite shape and volume. • Liquids are a form of matter that have a definite volume but take the shape of the container.
  56. 56. States of Matter (cont.) • Gases have no definite shape or volume. They expand to fill their container. • Vapor refers to the gaseous state of a substance that is a solid or liquid at room temperature. .
  57. 57. Chemistry Online Study Guide Chapter Assessment Standardized Test Practice Image Bank RESOURCES MENU Concepts in Motion
  58. 58. REFERENCES HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/LKOTZE/ANDRIES-3-MATTER-ANDMATERIALS?QID=7E688C52-F047-4944-85E77235149636D8&V=QF1&B=&FROM_SEARCH=1 HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/THOBILENKOSI/SAVEDFILES?S_TITLE=MATTERAND-MATERIALS-WEBQUEST-18980794&USER_LOGIN=PAULASLESSONS HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/THOBILENKOSI/SAVEDFILES?S_TITLE=MATTERAND-MATERIALS&USER_LOGIN=PAULASLESSONS HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/THOBILENKOSI/SAVEDFILES?S_TITLE=3-MATTERAND-MATERIALS&USER_LOGIN=LKOTZE

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