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Science Power Point Chapter 2

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Science Power Point Chapter 2

  1. 1. CHEMISTRY| CHAPTER 2 Lexi Ringsby
  2. 2. What is matter? Matter is everything, and can be either a pure substance, or a mixture. Matter Pure Substances MixtureElement Compound Homogenous Heterogenous
  3. 3. Pure SubstancesCan only be broken down chemicallyIn a fixed ratioUnique set of properties, independent of amountCan be either a compound or elementCompound ex: H2OH2O is a compound because it is made up of two or more elements, represented bycapital letters, and because its smallest particle is a moleculeElement ex: Au (gold)Au is an element because its smallest particle is an atom, and has only one capital
  4. 4. MixturesUnlike pure substances, mixtures are not in any fixed ratioDoes not have a unique set of propertiesCan be separated physicallyex: salt and pepperSalt and pepper is an example of a mixture because it is not in a fixed ratio, can beseparated by physical means, and does not have unique properties.
  5. 5. Heterogeneous MixturesA heterogeneous mixture is a mixture that is not uniform throughout, and is madeup of substances that remain physically separate.ex: sandSand is heterogeneous because it has visibly different substances in it, that vary insize, as well as properties
  6. 6. Homogeneous MixturesHomogenous mixtures are uniform throughoutHave particles that are the same sizeex: salt water
  7. 7. Suspensions, Colloids, and SolutionsA suspension, a heterogeneous mixture, is layeredex: oil and waterA colloid=homogenous and has larger particles that make it impossible to seethroughex: homogenized milkSolutions: a homogenous mixture with smaller particles that make it possible to seethroughex: gatorade
  8. 8. Physical PropertiesDensity, conductivity, hardness, viscosity, boiling point, melting point, andmalleability are all physical propertiesPhysical properties can be used to either to determine if the substance is pure, toseparate mixtures, or to simply determine what a substance is.
  9. 9. SEPARATIONTECHNIQUES
  10. 10. DistillationDistillation involves separating mixtures based on boiling point data.Equipment used: A distillation apparatus.
  11. 11. FiltrationFiltration involves using some sort of filter paper to separate a mixture. Left in thepaper remains the residue, while inside the test tube is the filtrateEquipment: Test tube, filter paper, original mixture, and funnel.
  12. 12. ExamplesFiltration Example: Separation of sulfur and sodium chloride both substancesare mixed with water, the sulfur is filtered out. Then, salty water is placed inevaporating dish and water is evaporated using evaporation.Distillation Example: Unknown liquid lab.
  13. 13. CHEMICALPROPERTIES
  14. 14. Evidence of a Chemical Change1. Change of colorex: oxidization of copper makes it turn green2. Production of a gasex: water electrolysis demo3. Formation of a precipitateex: cottage cheese
  15. 15. Chemical PropertiesFlammability: materials that burn can be used as fuel. When something is burned,it can never be brought back. Therefore, it is a chemical property.Reactivity: the property that describes how readily a substance combineschemically with other substances. When a substance reacts, it cannot be broughtback, again proving that it is a chemical property.
  16. 16. Electrolysis Demo
  17. 17. REVIEW QUESTIONS
  18. 18. Blue food coloring is added towater. Is this a physical change or a chemical change?
  19. 19. Answer: That is a physicalchange, because the original water could be obtained by using distillation.
  20. 20. Fill in this chart.
  21. 21. What is an alloy?
  22. 22. Answer: An alloy is a mixture of metal.Follow up question: Is gold an alloy? No. It is a pure substance.
  23. 23. Answer
  24. 24. What are the physicalproperties we know of ?
  25. 25. Answer: Hardness, density,malleability, odor, melting point, boiling point,viscosity, conductivity, and solubility.

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