is the rapid display of asequence of images of 2-Dor 3-D artwork or modelpositions in order to createan illusion of movement.The effect is an opticalillusion of motion due to thephenomenon of persistenceof vision
Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion.
A 5,000 year old earthen bowl found in Iran in Shahr-i Sokhta has five images of a goat painted along the sides. This has been claimed to be an example of early animation. However, since no equipment existed to show the images in motion, such a series of images cannot be called animation in a true sense of the word.
An Egyptian burial chamber mural, approximatel y 4000 years old, showing wrestlers in action. Even though this may appear similar to a series of animation drawings, there was no way of viewing the images in motion. It does, however, indi cate the artists intention of depicting motion.
A Chinese zoetrope- type device had been invented in 180 AD by the inventor Ding Huan (丁緩).A zoetrope is a device that produces an illusion of action from a rapid succession of static pictures. The term zoetrope is from the Greek words "zoe", "life" and τρόπος - tropos, "turn". It may be taken to mean "wheel of life".
The Phenakistoscope (also spelled Phenakistiscope) was an early animation device that used the persistence of vision principle to create an illusion of motion. The phenakistoscope is the precursor of the zoetrope.The first part of the term phenakistoscope comes from the root Greek word φενακίζειν - phenakizein, meaning "to deceive" or "to cheat", as it deceives the eye by making the pictures look like an animation.
The Praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. It was invented in France in 1877 by Charles-Émile Reynaud.The Praxinoscope improved on the zoetrope by replacing its narrow viewing slits with an inner circle of mirrors, placed so that the reflections of the pictures appeared more or less stationary in position as the wheel turned
A flip book or flick book is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change.John Barnes Linnett was a lithograph printer based in Birmingham, England. Although the French Pierre-Hubert Desvignes is generally credited with being the inventor of the flip book, Linnett was the first to patent the invention, in 1868, under the name of kineograph. Linnett died of pneumonia. His wife sold the patent to an American.
These devices produced the appearance of movement from sequential drawings using technological means, but animation did not really develop much further until the advent of Cinematography. Cinematography (from Greek: kinema - κίνημα "movement" and graphein - γράφειν "to record") is the making of lighting and camera choices when recording photographic images for cinema. It is closelyrelated to the art of still photography. Many additional issues arise whenboth the camera and elements of the scene may be in motion, though this also greatly increases the creative possibilities of the process.There is no single person who can be considered the "creator" of film animation, as there were several people working on projects which could be considered animation at about the same time.
A Thaumatrope is a toy that was The invention of thepopular in Victorian times. A Thaumatrope is usuallydisk or card with a picture on credited to either Johneach side is attached to twopieces of string. When the strings Ayrton Paris or Peter Markare twirled quickly between the Roget.fingers the two pictures appearto combine into a single imagedue to persistence of vision.
Is the phenomenon of the eye bywhich an afterimage is thoughtto persist for approximately onetwenty-fifth of a second on theretina.An afterimage or ghost image orimage burn-in is an opticalillusion that refers to an imagecontinuing to appear in onesvision after the exposure to theoriginal image has ceased.