(Social) Darwin and the Theory of Evolution


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(Social) Darwin and the Theory of Evolution

  1. 2. <ul><li>Dec 27, 1831- English natural historian and geoplogist Charles Darwin stepped aboard the H.M.S. Beagle to begin a voyage to South America and the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>In the course of the 5-year voyage, he became convinced that species of animals and human beings had evolved from lower forms. </li></ul><ul><li>1859- he published On the Origin of Specie </li></ul><ul><li>1871- The Descent of Man </li></ul><ul><li>He argued that human and apes descended from a common ancestors. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Hominids
  3. 4. <ul><li>Considered as the earliest humans </li></ul><ul><li>Lived 4 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>After 14 million years, there were signs of physical improvements among the hominids. </li></ul><ul><li>The shape of their hipbone and the bones in their legs and feet hinted of their capability to stand straight. </li></ul><ul><li>The teeth were similar with those of man than those of the ape. </li></ul><ul><li>Has small skull. </li></ul>
  4. 7. Australopithecus
  5. 8. <ul><li>1924, a fossil estimated to be 2.8 million years old wsa discovered in an excavation and was named Australopithecus Africanus. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin and Greek word mean “southern ape” by Professor Raymund Dart of Johannesburg. </li></ul><ul><li>It has very similar characteristics to that of the ape except that its jaw was rounded. </li></ul><ul><li>1938, Robert Broom discovered another specie of the hominid in South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>It has big teeth and jaw; estimated to be between 1.5-1.9 million years old, and it was called Australopithecus Robustus. </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>1959, Mary Leakey discovered the third hominid species, and it was called Australopithecus Bosei. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in Olduvai George in Tanzania, East Africa and the fossils were estimated 2 million years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of seemingly large human-like teeth and cranial bone fragments. </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>They knew how to hunt small or even big animals and glean bones of wild animals. </li></ul><ul><li>They also used primitive tools for cutting things. </li></ul><ul><li>They are believed to have acquired important skills necessary to protect themselves when hunting. </li></ul>
  8. 11. Homo Habilis
  9. 13. <ul><li>Considered to belong to the very first group categorized as man-like, the Homo Habilis appeared 2 million years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>2 years after the discover of bosei man, Jonathan the son of Mary Leakey discovered the 1.8 million year old cranial; the remains of an erect primate with a much larger brain than the Nutcracker Man. </li></ul><ul><li>Homo Habilis means “man having ability” </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 types of Homo Habilis : Peking Man and Java Man. </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>Homo Habilis is characterized bi bipedality or upright walking but still with limited thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Considered to be knowledgeable in making tools made of stone in caves where they lived as part of communal groups. </li></ul>
  11. 17. <ul><li>The first to have walked erect </li></ul><ul><li>Lived from about 1.5 million years to about 300 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>First species that migrated out of Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Able to craft a variety of stone tools and implements. </li></ul><ul><li>Learned how to use fire for the purpose of keeping warm, protecting himself against wild animals, and perhaps, cooking food. </li></ul>
  12. 20. <ul><li>Between the last 750 000 and 500 000 years, the cave dwellers learned additional skills to help them survive the rigors of prehistoric times. </li></ul><ul><li>1856- evidence of early migration was found. </li></ul><ul><li>They were skilled toolmakers and crafty hunters. </li></ul><ul><li>They also built shelters out of tree branches and bones but also lived in caves. </li></ul><ul><li>Has the capability to control their world. </li></ul><ul><li>They know how to perform religious ceremonies (e.g. burial) </li></ul>
  13. 21. Cro-Magnon Man
  14. 22. <ul><li>Found in the southwestern part of France were the reamins of skulls resembled those of the modern human beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Learned to improve weapons and tools made not just of stones and bones but other materials as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Used bones as needle to sew his clothing which was made up of animal skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Attributed to the Cro-Magnon man is the creation of the famous cave murals of Lascaux, Southern France and Altamira in Northern Spain. </li></ul>