Elements, Compounds, And Mixtures

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Elements, Compounds, And Mixtures

  1. 1. Elements
  2. 2. Elements ▫ An element is a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
  3. 3. ▫ A pure substance is a substance in which there is only one type of particle. ▫ Elements are pure substances so each element only contains one type of particle. ▫ Example: Every particle in a 5g nugget of the element gold is like every other particle of gold
  4. 4. • Are particles of a pure substance the same no matter where they are found?
  5. 5. Every element has a unique set of properties ▫ Each element can be identified by its properties. ▫ Each element has its own characteristic properties. ▫ Characteristic properties: properties that don’t depend on the amount of material present in a sample of the element
  6. 6. Characteristic Properties ▫ Physical Properties  Boiling Point  Melting Point  Density ▫ Chemical Properties  Reactivity with different substances
  7. 7. Can you use: density, conductivity, reactivity, melting point to identify each element?
  8. 8. ▫ Elements are grouped into categories based on the properties they share  Example: Iron, nickel, and cobalt are all shiny and conduct heat and electrical current. They’ve been placed into a large group called metals with similar elements. ▫ If you know the category, you know the properties.
  9. 9. Elements are divided into Metals Nonmetals Metalloids
  10. 10. Major Categories of Elements 1. Metals: shiny, good conductors of thermal energy and electric current, malleable (can be hammered into thing sheets) and ductile (can be drawn into thin wires) Elements in this category Iron, Tin, Lead, Copper
  11. 11. 2. Nonmetals: dull, poor conductors of thermal energy and electric current, brittle and unmalleable Elements in this category Neon, Bromine, Sulfur
  12. 12. 3. Metalloids: have properties of both metals and nonmetals, some are shiny while others are dull, some are good conductors while others are not Elements in this category Silicon, Antimony, Boron
  13. 13. Think/Pair/Share ▫ What is a pure substance? ▫ List 3 properties that can be used to identify and classify elements. ▫ Which category of element would be the least appropriate choice for making a container that can be dropped without shattering? Explain why.
  14. 14. Compounds
  15. 15. A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I, J,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R, S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z
  16. 16. Compounds ▫ Pure substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined. ▫ In order for elements to combine, they must react, or undergo a chemical change, with one another.
  17. 17. Familiar Compounds ▫ Table Salt: Sodium and Chlorine ▫ Water: Hydrogen and Oxygen ▫ Sugar: Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen ▫ Carbon Dioxide: Carbon and Oxygen ▫ Baking Soda: Sodium, Hydrogen, Carbon, and Oxygen
  18. 18. Compounds Have Unique Sets of Properties ▫ Physical properties ▫ Chemical properties ▫ Compounds have different properties from the elements that form it.  Ex: Table salt is made of sodium (which reacts violently with water) and chlorine (which is poisonous).
  19. 19. Compounds Can Be Broken Down into Simpler Substances ▫ Either broken down into elements through chemical changes…
  20. 20. ▫ Or undergo chemical changes and form simpler compounds
  21. 21. Compounds Cannot Be Broken Down by Physical Changes ▫ Only way to break down a compound is through a CHEMICAL change.
  22. 22. Think/Pair/Share ▫ How are compounds and elements alike? ▫ How are they different? ▫ A jar contains samples of the elements carbon and oxygen. Does the jar contain a compound? Explain.
  23. 23. Mixtures
  24. 24. ▫ Mixture: combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined ▫ Two or more materials form a mixture if they do not react to form a compound
  25. 25. ▫ Substance in a mixture keep their identities. ▫ Mixtures can be physically separated.
  26. 26. Solutions ▫ Solution: mixture that appears to be a single substance but is composed of particles of two or more substances that are distributed evenly amongst each other ▫ Also described as a homogenous mixture
  27. 27. ▫ Process in which particles separate and spread evenly throughout a mixture is known as dissolving. ▫ The solute is the substance that is dissolved, and the solvent is the substance in which the solute is dissolved.
  28. 28. ▫ Salt water Solute:Salt Solvent: Water
  29. 29. Examples of Different States in Solutions Gas in gas Dry air (oxygen in nitrogen) Gas in liquid Soft drinks (carbon dioxide in water) Liquid in liquid Antifreeze (alcohol in water) Solid in liquid Salt water (salt in water) Solid in solid Brass (zinc in copper)
  30. 30. ▫ Particles in solutions are so small that they never settle out, nor can they be filtered out, and they don’t scatter or block light.
  31. 31. Concentration: How much solute is dissolved? ▫ Concentration: measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent ▫ Knowing the exact concentration of a solution is very important in chemistry and medicine because using the wrong concentration can be dangerous.
  32. 32. ▫ Concentrated ▫ Dilute
  33. 33. Math Break • Many solutions are colorless so you can’t compare their concentrations by looking at the color. You must calculate the concentration. One way to calculate the concentration of a liquid solution is to divide the grams of solute by the milliliters of solvent. • Example: Concentration of a solution in which 35 g of salt is dissolved in 175 mL of water is 35 g salt = 0.2 g/mL 175 mL water Calculate the concentration of Solution A which has 55 g of sugar dissolved in 500 mL of water.
  34. 34. Math Break 55 g sugar = 0.11 g/mL in Solution A 500 mL water ▫ Calculate the concentration of Solution B which has 36 g of sugar in 144 mL of water. 36 g sugar= 0.25 g/mL in Solution B 144 mL water  Which solution is the more dilute one? Solution A  Which is the more concentrated? Solution B
  35. 35. What affects how quickly solids dissolve in liquids?
  36. 36. Suspensions ▫ Mixture in which particles of a material are dispersed throughout a liquid or gas but are large enough that they settle out. ▫ A suspension can be separated by passing it through a filter
  37. 37. Application ▫ Many medicines, such as remedies for upset stomachs, are suspensions. The directions on the label instruct you to shake the bottle well before use. ▫ Why must you shake the bottle? ▫ What problem could arise if you don’t?
  38. 38. Biology Connection ▫ Blood is a suspension. The suspended particles, mainly red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, are actually suspended in a solution called plasma. Plasma is 90% water and 10% dissolved solutes including sugar, vitamins, and proteins.
  39. 39. Colloids ▫ Mixture in which the particles are dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out. ▫ Colloids you might use often include: milk, mayonnaise, stick deodorant, gelatin, and whipped cream ▫ Colloids cannot be separated by filtration.
  40. 40. Think/Pair/Share ▫ What are 2 methods of making a solute dissolve faster? ▫ Identify the solute and solvent in a solution made from 15 mL of oxygen and 5 mL of helium.

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