MATER AND MATERIALS
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
STATES OF MATTER
Edited by MUSA ELVIS CHAUKE
3RD YEAR STUDENT AT THE UNIVERSI...
Chemistry
A

physical science
that involves the
study of the
properties,
composition,&
structure of matter
and the change...
What is a chemical?
 Any

substance
that has a
definite
composition or is
used or produced
in a chemical
process.



Sug...
MATTER



Anything that has mass and occupies space



All matter is composed of atoms



Atom:


Extremely small chem...
Three Major Classes of Elements
 Metals-

located on the left of the Periodic Tablemost of the elements

 Non-Metals-

T...
More ways to describe matter


Element: any substance that cannot be broken up into simpler
substances by chemical means
...
Properties of Metals
Metals are good
conductors of heat and
electricity


Metals are malleable
(can be
shaped)


Metals ...
Properties of Nonmetals
Carbon, the graphite in “pencil lead” is a great
example of a nonmetallic element.


Nonmetals ar...
What is not
matter?
•

ght
Li
•

city
tri
lec
E
•

und
So


Fixed composition



Cannot be separated into simpler
substances by physical methods
(physical changes)



Can only b...
Elements
 Cannot be
decomposed
into simpler
substances by
chemical
changes

Compounds



Chemically joined
elements- Can...
Compounds (cont.)
Section 3-4

• The properties of a compound are different
from its component elements.
Compounds
Section 3-4

• A compound is a made up of two or more
elements combined chemically.
• Most of the matter in the ...
Compounds (cont.)
Section 3-4

• This figure shows
electrolysis of
water to form
hydrogen and
oxygen.
Variable composition
 Components retain their characteristic
properties
 May be separated into pure substances
by physic...
Homogenous mixtures look the same
throughout but can be separated by
physical means
Examples:

salt water, soda
 Have

the same composition
throughout
 Components are
indistinguishable
 Can exist between all phases of
matter: air (...
Solutions are homogenous mixtures that
do not scatter light. These mixtures are
created when something is completely
disso...
Parts of a solution
 Solvent-

part that
does the dissolvingwater is our
universal solvent

 Solute-

part that
was diss...
How do we increase solubility of a solid
into a liquid
 Heat

it- more
collisions between
solute and solvent

 Mix-

Fre...
Increase solubility of a gas in a liquid


Henrys Law- solubility of the gasis directly
proportional to the pressure abov...
Heterogeneous mixtures are composed of
large pieces that are easily separated by
physical means (ie. density, polarity,
me...
Physical Properties – Observable traits
of a material that may be measured
without altering the substance
Examples: Mass, ...
We can use physical
properties to separate
mixtures: a method to separate the
Please determine

following and determine th...
What are the
physical properties
of the substance to
the right?
What do you think the material is that made this
bracelet?...
Chemical Changean irreversible change
that changes the
identity and make up of
the material
Examples:
Rusting
Burning


There is no observable change in the
quantity of matter during a chemical
reaction or a physical change.

In other word...
Energy comes in two forms :
Kinetic Energy: Movement
Potential Energy: Stored
All matter, regardless of state, undergoes
physical and chemical changes. These
changes can be microscopic or
macroscopic.
A physical change occurs when the
substance changes state but does not change
its chemical composition. It is not
permanen...
Physical Change
For example: Ice melting
to water. The form or
appearance has
changed, but the
properties of that
substanc...
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES



Characteristic of a substance that can be observed
without changing substance into another substan...
Names of Water Phase
Changes
Endothermic Requires Energy to go
Exothermic Gives energy off
forward


Melting: Solid Liq
...
A substance
changes into
something new.
It is irreversible.
All Chemical Changes can be written as a
reaction


A + B  AB

 A,

B are the starting
materials- reactants

 AB

is t...


Reaction with acids





Reaction with bases
(alkalis)

Ability to act as
reducing agent



Reaction with oxygen
(co...


Physical and chemical properties may be intensive or extensive.




Intensive properties such as density, color, and
boiling point do not depend on the size of the
sample of matter and...


Extensive properties such as mass and volume do depend on the
quantity of the sample.


Physical properties are those that we can determine
without changing the identity of the substance we are
studying.


The physical properties of sodium metal can be
observed or measured. It is a soft, lustrous, silvercolored metal with a...
Specific Heat
 Physical

Property that is
unique to the material

 Amount

of energy required to
heat 1 gram of a substa...


Chemical properties describe the way a substance can
change or react to form other substances.



These properties, th...


One of the chemical properties of
alkali metals such as sodium and
potassium is that they react with
water. To determin...
States of Matter

.

The physical forms of matter, either solid,
liquid, or gas, are called the states of matter.
• Solids...
States of Matter (cont.)
.
• Gases have no definite shape or
volume. They expand to fill their
container.
• Vapor refers t...
Resources Menu
Chemistry Online
Study Guide
Chapter Assessment
Standardized Test Practice
Image Bank
Concepts in Motion
Reference
Atreasuredsecret.(2013). Matter and material. Available from :
http://www.slideshare.net/musachauke/savedfiles?s...
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  • Basic characteristics of pure substance:
  • The two categories of pure chemical substances.
  • Basic identification of a mixture.
  • Brainstorm more examples of homogenous mixtures.
  • Definition of Conservation of matter.
  • Definition of physical changes.
  • Definition of chemical change.
  • Chemical Changes are characterized by the following:
  • 201115985 power point slides ( matter and matterial)

    1. 1. MATER AND MATERIALS CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER Edited by MUSA ELVIS CHAUKE 3RD YEAR STUDENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF JOHANNESBURG 201115985
    2. 2. Chemistry A physical science that involves the study of the properties, composition,& structure of matter and the changes it undergoes.
    3. 3. What is a chemical?  Any substance that has a definite composition or is used or produced in a chemical process.  Sugar is an example of a chemical
    4. 4. MATTER  Anything that has mass and occupies space  All matter is composed of atoms  Atom:  Extremely small chemically indivisible particle  Atom is Greek for “that which cannot be divided”  Greek philosopher Democritus is given credit for idea  Modern science can now divide an atom, so new definition includes chemically indivisible  An atom cannot be divided and retain it’s chemical properties
    5. 5. Three Major Classes of Elements  Metals- located on the left of the Periodic Tablemost of the elements  Non-Metals- Table  located on the right of the Periodic Metalloids- on the zigzag line between Metals and Nonmetals- have properties that are skewedie…Silicon is conductive  You will have to memorize the symbol and element name for approximately 40 common elements
    6. 6. More ways to describe matter  Element: any substance that cannot be broken up into simpler substances by chemical means   Compound: a substance formed when atoms of two or more elements join together   silver, copper, hydrogen, oxygen nitrogen H20 (water), CO2 (carbon dioxide) Mixture: a material of two or more substances that are not chemically bound to each other and can be separated  Blood: water-based mixture including  Proteins, sugars, salt, oxygen, carbon dioxide
    7. 7. Properties of Metals Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity  Metals are malleable (can be shaped)  Metals are ductile (can be drawn into wires)  Metals have high tensile strength   Metals have luster
    8. 8. Properties of Nonmetals Carbon, the graphite in “pencil lead” is a great example of a nonmetallic element.  Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and Electricity  Nonmetals tend to be brittle Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature 
    9. 9. What is not matter? • ght Li • city tri lec E • und So
    10. 10.  Fixed composition  Cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical methods (physical changes)  Can only be changed in identity and properties by chemical methods  Properties do not vary- Unique Density, Constant Boiling and Melting Points
    11. 11. Elements  Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes Compounds  Chemically joined elements- Can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes, always in a definite ratio
    12. 12. Compounds (cont.) Section 3-4 • The properties of a compound are different from its component elements.
    13. 13. Compounds Section 3-4 • A compound is a made up of two or more elements combined chemically. • Most of the matter in the universe exists as compounds. • Table salt, NaCl, and water, H2O, are compounds.
    14. 14. Compounds (cont.) Section 3-4 • This figure shows electrolysis of water to form hydrogen and oxygen.
    15. 15. Variable composition  Components retain their characteristic properties  May be separated into pure substances by physical methods sifting, evaporation, magnetism, etc…  Mixtures of different compositions may have widely different properties  Do NOT have definite boiling/melting points 
    16. 16. Homogenous mixtures look the same throughout but can be separated by physical means Examples: salt water, soda
    17. 17.  Have the same composition throughout  Components are indistinguishable  Can exist between all phases of matter: air (gases) brass (alloyblend of multiple metals -solids) soda (gas, solid, liquid)
    18. 18. Solutions are homogenous mixtures that do not scatter light. These mixtures are created when something is completely dissolved in pure water. Therefore, they are easily separated by distillation or evaporation. Appear in one phase of matter Examples: sugar water, salt water
    19. 19. Parts of a solution  Solvent- part that does the dissolvingwater is our universal solvent  Solute- part that was dissolved (salt)
    20. 20. How do we increase solubility of a solid into a liquid  Heat it- more collisions between solute and solvent  Mix- Fresh solvent to solute  Crush- more surface area- more contact
    21. 21. Increase solubility of a gas in a liquid  Henrys Law- solubility of the gasis directly proportional to the pressure above the liquid-  Effervescence- rapid escape of gas from liquid  Decrease temperature- slows down diffusion
    22. 22. Heterogeneous mixtures are composed of large pieces that are easily separated by physical means (ie. density, polarity, metallic properties, size). Pond Water, Vegetable Soup- Suspensions Visible particles Starch Water: invisible to the eye :colloid
    23. 23. Physical Properties – Observable traits of a material that may be measured without altering the substance Examples: Mass, Color, Melting Point, Boiling Point, Density
    24. 24. We can use physical properties to separate mixtures: a method to separate the Please determine following and determine the type of matter: Oil and Water Iron and Sand Sand and Salt Sulfur and Sugar
    25. 25. What are the physical properties of the substance to the right? What do you think the material is that made this bracelet? How could you be sure? Density- the amount of material in a given volume- unique to the material
    26. 26. Chemical Changean irreversible change that changes the identity and make up of the material Examples: Rusting Burning
    27. 27.  There is no observable change in the quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or a physical change. In other words, matter cannot be created nor destroyed. It is just converted from one form to another
    28. 28. Energy comes in two forms : Kinetic Energy: Movement Potential Energy: Stored
    29. 29. All matter, regardless of state, undergoes physical and chemical changes. These changes can be microscopic or macroscopic.
    30. 30. A physical change occurs when the substance changes state but does not change its chemical composition. It is not permanent and is reversible! Example Phase Changes!
    31. 31. Physical Change For example: Ice melting to water. The form or appearance has changed, but the properties of that substance are the same (i.e. it has the same melting point, boiling point, chemical composition, etc.)
    32. 32. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  Characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing substance into another substance  Color  Odor  Taste  Size  Physical state (liquid, gas, or solid)  Boiling point  Melting point  Density
    33. 33. Names of Water Phase Changes Endothermic Requires Energy to go Exothermic Gives energy off forward  Melting: Solid Liq  Boiling (forced) Liquid Gas  Evaporation ( spon) Liquid Gas  Sublimation Solid Gas Condensation  Gas Liq  Freezing: Liq Solid  Deposition: Gas Solid
    34. 34. A substance changes into something new. It is irreversible.
    35. 35. All Chemical Changes can be written as a reaction  A + B  AB  A, B are the starting materials- reactants  AB is the resultproduct
    36. 36.  Reaction with acids   Reaction with bases (alkalis) Ability to act as reducing agent  Reaction with oxygen (combustion) Reaction with other elements  Ability to act as oxidizing agent Decomposition into simpler substances  Corrosion  
    37. 37.  Physical and chemical properties may be intensive or extensive.
    38. 38.   Intensive properties such as density, color, and boiling point do not depend on the size of the sample of matter and can be used to identify substances.
    39. 39.  Extensive properties such as mass and volume do depend on the quantity of the sample.
    40. 40.  Physical properties are those that we can determine without changing the identity of the substance we are studying.
    41. 41.  The physical properties of sodium metal can be observed or measured. It is a soft, lustrous, silvercolored metal with a relatively low melting point and low density.  Hardness, color, melting point and density are all physical properties.
    42. 42. Specific Heat  Physical Property that is unique to the material  Amount of energy required to heat 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius  -Why do you choose to sit on the wooden bleachers on a cold fall day for a football game instead of the metal bleachers?
    43. 43.  Chemical properties describe the way a substance can change or react to form other substances.  These properties, then, must be determined using a process that changes the identity of the substance of interest.
    44. 44.  One of the chemical properties of alkali metals such as sodium and potassium is that they react with water. To determine this, we would have to combine an alkali metal with water and observe what happens.  In other words, we have to define chemical properties of a substance by the chemical changes it undergoes.
    45. 45. States of Matter . The physical forms of matter, either solid, liquid, or gas, are called the states of matter. • Solids are a form of matter that have their own definite shape and volume. • Liquids are a form of matter that have a definite volume but take the shape of the container.
    46. 46. States of Matter (cont.) . • Gases have no definite shape or volume. They expand to fill their container. • Vapor refers to the gaseous state of a substance that is a solid or liquid at room temperature.
    47. 47. Resources Menu Chemistry Online Study Guide Chapter Assessment Standardized Test Practice Image Bank Concepts in Motion
    48. 48. Reference Atreasuredsecret.(2013). Matter and material. Available from : http://www.slideshare.net/musachauke/savedfiles?s_title=matter16243469&user_login=atreasuredsecret [ Accessed 06 March 2014] Braisitz(2011). Matter and change. Available from :http://www.slideshare.net/briansitz/matter-and-change-9735404[06 March 2014] Hamz, J.(2010). Chemistry and change. Available from: //www.slideshare.net/jhamze/cmc-chapter-03 [06 March 2014] Hernandez,E.(2012).Matter and material. Available from: http://www.slideshare.net/alexrhernandez7777/matter-27998160?qid=6343c4aef420-4fb7-bab5-c888b8836185&v=default&b=&from_search=1 [Accessed 06 March 2014]

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