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Living in the Stone Age
Examining History:  Prehistory <ul><li>PRE-HISTORY - period before written history </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 1.75 mi...
Development of Humans <ul><li>Homo Habilis   </li></ul><ul><li>Latin for “handy man”   </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in eastern ...
 
Neanderthals vs Cro Magnon <ul><li>NEANDERATHAL </li></ul><ul><li>Neander Valley- Germany </li></ul><ul><li>6 cm taller th...
Great Leap Forward <ul><li>35 000 years ago when changes brought about innovation, creativity to humans (Homo Sapiens Sapi...
“ Lithos” = stone <ul><li>Paleolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Greek “palaios” means “old” </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Paleolithi...
Comparing the  Stone Ages <ul><li>PALEOLITHIC </li></ul><ul><li>small groups of 5-10 families </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic to...
Social Structure:  Paleolithic Age <ul><li>closer social relationships  </li></ul><ul><li>Social stratification =  emergen...
Social Structure:  Neolithic Age <ul><li>Increasing knowledge = more control of food supply </li></ul><ul><li>End of Ice A...
Religion & Art in Paleolithic Age <ul><li>The Paleolithic Age (Cro-Magnon) was the first to develop fine art as drawings <...
Caves at Lascaux  [lass co] <ul><li>Painting at Lascaux Caves (south central France) found in 15 000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li...
Venus of Willendorf <ul><li>Small sculptures such as the  Venus of Willendorf   were common to the Paleolithic Age </li></...
Weapons & Technology <ul><li>PALEOLITHIC </li></ul><ul><li>Better hunting strategies due to co-operation and more lethal w...
 
 
STONEHENGE <ul><li>Stonehenge is located on Salisbury Plain in England </li></ul><ul><li>Created 2800-1500 BCE </li></ul><...
Mystery of Stonehenge <ul><li>Stonehenge was built in 3 major stages over 1300 years (tribal people, Beaker people, Battle...
Major Innovations of the Stone Age <ul><li>More complex human societies (from semi-nomadic to permanent cities; domesticat...
ALL THESE LEAD TO THE FIRST  “CIVILIZATION”
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(Social) Living Stone Age

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(Social) Living Stone Age

  1. 1. Living in the Stone Age
  2. 2. Examining History: Prehistory <ul><li>PRE-HISTORY - period before written history </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 1.75 million years ago, earliest people first began using small pieces of rock as tools </li></ul><ul><li>Massive development of humans over years in 4 major groups: 1) Homo Habilis (2 million years ago) 2) Homo Erectus (1 million years ago) 3) Neanderthal (100 000 years ago) 4) Cro-Magnon (50 000 years ago) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Development of Humans <ul><li>Homo Habilis </li></ul><ul><li>Latin for “handy man” </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in eastern Africa > spread north to Asia </li></ul><ul><li>fossilized human bones found with stone tools and animal fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Skulls – humans had a flatter head with a brain only 2/3 size; approximately 1.5 m tall </li></ul><ul><li>Built shelters of braches and collected bird eggs and wild berries for food; hunted wild pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Tools / weapons = rocks, braches, sharp stones </li></ul><ul><li>No clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Did not know how to use fire </li></ul><ul><li>Homo Erectus </li></ul><ul><li>Latin for “upright man” </li></ul><ul><li>Discoveries of “Java Man” (Indonesia) and “Peking Man” (China) </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in Afria, south Europe, Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Skulls- humans had long, flat and sharply angled at back (between ape and human head) </li></ul><ul><li>Thighbone- identical to modern humans > walk upright </li></ul><ul><li>Charred animals bones found = they used fire to cook </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that homo erectus was a descendant of homo habilis </li></ul><ul><li>Make fire= first by coals or volcanic ash; later by friction= made life easier as they could survive in colder climates </li></ul><ul><li>Tools / weapons= bones, rocks, blades for carving, spears </li></ul><ul><li>Homo Sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Latin for “reasoning man” </li></ul><ul><li>250 000 years ago= emergence of Homo Sapiens who evolved from homo erectus </li></ul><ul><li>is the species to which all modern day people belong </li></ul>
  4. 5. Neanderthals vs Cro Magnon <ul><li>NEANDERATHAL </li></ul><ul><li>Neander Valley- Germany </li></ul><ul><li>6 cm taller than homo erectus; thick eyebrow ridge </li></ul><ul><li>Tools= knives, spear sharpeners made from chipped rock </li></ul><ul><li>Animals hides worn as clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in caves kept warm with fire </li></ul><ul><li>First to bury the dead (graves with bodies carefully prepared </li></ul><ul><li>CRO MAGNON </li></ul><ul><li>South France- clearing away earth from back of a rock shelter locally known as Cro-Magnon </li></ul><ul><li>First appeared in Europe 30 000 years ago following ice age </li></ul><ul><li>Brain as large as modern day human; approx. 2 metres tall with modern “faces” </li></ul><ul><li>Tools= slim, sharp edge blades, chisels, knives, spearheads, lamps (stone bowl with animal grease and lit fur or moss) </li></ul><ul><li>Animals bones and teeth used to make musical instruments, jewellery </li></ul><ul><li>Cave paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Fierce warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Wiped out Neanderthals </li></ul>
  5. 6. Great Leap Forward <ul><li>35 000 years ago when changes brought about innovation, creativity to humans (Homo Sapiens Sapiens) </li></ul><ul><li>2 FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES OCCURRED: </li></ul><ul><li>Development of modern anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of innovative behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Production of crafted tools and more sophisticated weapons </li></ul><ul><li>development of trade for raw materials and ornaments </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of sculptures, paintings and crafted objects that showcased beauty and religion </li></ul>
  6. 7. “ Lithos” = stone <ul><li>Paleolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Greek “palaios” means “old” </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Paleolithic age was 50 000 – 10 000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Greek “neo” means “new” </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Revolution occurred between 9000 – 4000 BCE </li></ul>
  7. 8. Comparing the Stone Ages <ul><li>PALEOLITHIC </li></ul><ul><li>small groups of 5-10 families </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic to semi-nomadic </li></ul><ul><li>Closer relationships between bands of people ie. Cro-Magnon society </li></ul><ul><li>NEOLITHIC </li></ul><ul><li>People abandoned semi-nomadic life and began farming </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural revolution was a progression of the “Great Leap Forward” </li></ul><ul><li>planting of crops </li></ul><ul><li>domesticating of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Better tools & weapons </li></ul>
  8. 9. Social Structure: Paleolithic Age <ul><li>closer social relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Social stratification = emergence of leadership and beginning of social classes </li></ul><ul><li>Social roles: patriarchal; men were big game hunters </li></ul><ul><li>women captured small game and made clothing; women & children were gatherers </li></ul>
  9. 10. Social Structure: Neolithic Age <ul><li>Increasing knowledge = more control of food supply </li></ul><ul><li>End of Ice Age = better for agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>As population grew, so did the competition for land </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from semi-nomadic to permanent towns and cities (first city was Jericho, in Mesopotamia between 8000 – 7000 BCE) and more occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Trade by barter system ( obsidian – most valued traded material traded for farm produce) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of hierarchical class system </li></ul>
  10. 11. Religion & Art in Paleolithic Age <ul><li>The Paleolithic Age (Cro-Magnon) was the first to develop fine art as drawings </li></ul><ul><li>CAVE PAINTINGS of deer, horses and animals which are now extinct </li></ul><ul><li>cultural explosion in art as more tools, jewellery, and sculptures/ figurines of clay, ivory and stone emerged </li></ul><ul><li>More advanced spiritual practices with graves found jewelry and spears made of mammoth tusks buried with bodies = this suggests a ritual burial with a view of an afterlife </li></ul>
  11. 12. Caves at Lascaux [lass co] <ul><li>Painting at Lascaux Caves (south central France) found in 15 000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Painters used irregularities in cave walls to add a 3-D effect to figures </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings portray an awe and reverence towards animals which shows that for the first time people were expressing religious beliefs (rituals related to hunting magic; sacrifices of animals) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Venus of Willendorf <ul><li>Small sculptures such as the Venus of Willendorf were common to the Paleolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture features exaggerated curves (large breasts and wide hips) on female figure </li></ul><ul><li>Venus figurines are symbolic of the importance of fertility of a mother goddess </li></ul>
  13. 14. Weapons & Technology <ul><li>PALEOLITHIC </li></ul><ul><li>Better hunting strategies due to co-operation and more lethal weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Better tools for skinning game, preparing food, sewing clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Cro-Magnons stored food over winter showing more planning </li></ul><ul><li>bow and arrow around 20 000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>NEOLITHIC </li></ul><ul><li>efficient tools which helped farm and make weapons and tools </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication of animals to do manual work and the planting of crops freed people from the pursuit of food </li></ul><ul><li>leisure activities (art, music, sports, religion) </li></ul>
  14. 17. STONEHENGE <ul><li>Stonehenge is located on Salisbury Plain in England </li></ul><ul><li>Created 2800-1500 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Stonehenge is an example of a Neolithic megalith (megalith = Greek for “big stones”) </li></ul><ul><li>Exact purpose is unknown: religious rituals, agricultural markers or astronomical observatories? </li></ul>
  15. 18. Mystery of Stonehenge <ul><li>Stonehenge was built in 3 major stages over 1300 years (tribal people, Beaker people, Battle Axe folk people </li></ul><ul><li>Megaliths stones approx. 45 t and Heel Stone is 31 t </li></ul><ul><li>Great debate over the positioning of the stones </li></ul><ul><li>stones reflect an understanding of astronomy and mathematics (positions reflect sunrise, eclipses of sun and moon </li></ul><ul><li>stones could be a religious ritual to sun or moon gods </li></ul><ul><li>Others believe stones were built to show changing seasons for agriculture </li></ul>
  16. 19. Major Innovations of the Stone Age <ul><li>More complex human societies (from semi-nomadic to permanent cities; domestication of animals; leisure time) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of social hierarchies </li></ul><ul><li>Development of alliances and cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage customs </li></ul><ul><li>Development of trade goods and routes </li></ul><ul><li>Religious rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Refined sense of artistic beauty </li></ul>
  17. 20. ALL THESE LEAD TO THE FIRST “CIVILIZATION”

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