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Chapter 06

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  • The power saw improves operational efficiency by facilitating cutting operations at fires & other emergencies. The saw can be dangerous when operated improperly or in disregard to safety precautions.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
    • 2. Chapter 6 Fire Department Resources
    • 3. Objectives
      • List fire department facilities
      • List advantages of a department having its own facilities
      • Describe the purpose of each of the fire department facilities
      • Describe the types of fire apparatus and their functions
      • List the types of tools carried on fire apparatus
    • 4. Objectives (con’t.)
      • Describe the use of the various tools carried on fire apparatus
      • Describe the different types of personal protective equipment firefighters use
      • Describe the types and uses of aircraft in fire fighting
    • 5. Introduction
      • The modern fire department relies on facilities and equipment as resources
      • Some facilities are not available at every fire department due to need or budget constraints
      • Equipment has evolved over a period of many years
        • Varies in fire departments according to situations and types of fires
    • 6. Fire Department Facilities
      • Includes the following:
        • Headquarters
        • Automotive repair facility
        • Training center
        • Warehouse/central stores
        • Communications center
        • Fire stations
    • 7. Headquarters
      • Houses managerial/command staff
      • Concentrates decision makers in one location
      • May be located at main fire station or at other location
    • 8. Automotive Repair Facility
      • Fleet maintenance
      • Apparatus build up
      • Mechanical expertise for fire equipment
    • 9. Training Center
      • Training center
        • Specially constructed or improvised
        • Drill tower (see Figure 6-4)
          • Ladder training (ground/aerial)
          • Hi-rise training
          • High angle rescue
    • 10. Training Center (con’t.)
      • Burn building
        • Search and interior attack drills
        • Fire environment demonstrations
        • Ventilation drills
        • Hazardous materials drills, including simulated drug labs
        • Safety Note : Follow NFPA 1403 standards for live
        • drills
    • 11. Training Center (con’t.)
      • Classrooms
        • Equipment
          • VCR, TV, white boards
        • Clean/controlled environment
          • Lighting, seating
        • May be shared with other agencies
      • Storage rooms
        • Apparatus, equipment, supplies
    • 12. Training Center (con’t.)
      • Drafting pit
        • Operating training
      • On-site hydrants
        • For drill tower and burn building
        • Testing on hydrant hookups
      • Driver training/testing course
        • Emergency stops, high-speed lane changes
    • 13. Training Center (con’t.)
      • Hazardous materials props
        • Plumbing props, railroad tank cars, large tanks
        • Useful for confined space rescue training
      • Studio
        • Create and duplicate training materials
        • Produce closed-circuit TV programs
      • Offices
        • Instructor support
        • Library of training materials
    • 14. Warehouse/Central Stores
      • Stock day-to-day needs, from toilet paper to PPE
      • Keep items readily available
      • Maintain equipment
        • SCBA and medical oxygen refill
        • Hose repair
    • 15. Communications Center
      • Receives calls for emergency assistance
      • Relevant 911 calls routed to fire department dispatcher
      • Dispatcher enters call information into CAD system
      • CAD system displays information to dispatch required units
      • Enhanced 911 and CAD systems give incident address and equipment information
    • 16. Fire Stations
      • Began as apparatus storage sheds
      • Provide living quarters, office space, and apparatus room
      • Accommodate women in the fire service
      • Provide handicapped access
      • Blend in with neighborhood
    • 17. Fire Stations (con’t.)
      • Keep well maintained
      • Occupy a large, secured lot
      • Supply room for maneuvering apparatus to perform drills
      • House equipment for vehicle maintenance
        • Motor block heater, electric and air hose reels, air compressor, hose tower
      • Store turnouts in ventilated storage cabinets
    • 18. Fire Apparatus
      • Many types required
      • Build up from cab and chassis
        • Commercial or custom cabs
      • Meet NFPA 1901 Automotive Fire Apparatus requirements
        • Safety Note : Wear seat belts, remain seated and
        • belted in until told to exit
    • 19. Cab and Chassis
      • Tour of cab
        • Large mirrors
        • Air brake pressure gauge
        • Oil pressure gauge
        • Fuel level gauge
        • Manual or automatic transmission
    • 20. Cab and Chassis (con’t.)
      • Pump transfer case
        • Transfers power to pump
      • Automatics equipped with brake and throttle pedals
      • Diesel may have “jake brake”
        • Turns motor into air compressor for braking
        • Saves vehicle brakes from wear/overheating
    • 21. Cab and Chassis (con’t.)
      • Switches for lights and siren
      • Light bar on cab includes alley and red lights
      • Air horns in front bumper
      • Electronic siren with several tones
      • Radio system has multi-channel capability
        • Administrative and emergency operations channels
        • Communications with other jurisdictions
    • 22. Cab and Chassis (con’t.)
      • Intercom system allows intra-cab communications
      • SCBA mounted in cab for quick donning
      • Mobile Data Computer (MDC) connect to CAD and AVL
      • Global positioning system (GPS) allows vehicle tracking and relay of position to aircraft
      • Double battery setup for startup power and warning lights
    • 23. Motor
      • Diesel becoming most common
        • Long life and durability
        • Abundance of torque
        • Turbo and/or supercharged
        • Oversized alternator
        • High idle switch keeps amperage up
    • 24. Modular Apparatus
      • Cab and chassis
      • Replaceable buildup
        • Flat bed with skid unit
      • Allows greater flexibility
    • 25. Pumper/Engine
      • Triple combination most common
        • Hose
        • Water tank
        • Pump
    • 26. Water Tanks
      • Various sized water tanks
        • 200 to 1,500 gallons
      • Baffles to prevent sloshing and weight shift
      • Plastic gaining popularity as tank material
        • Unharmed by foam
        • Does not rust
    • 27. Foam Systems
      • Foam systems
        • Class A
          • Superior knockdown on ordinary combustibles
        • Class B
          • For hydrocarbon fuels
          • Often uses flow meter
        • CAFS
          • Uses compressed air
    • 28. Pumps
      • Main purpose is to lift water
      • Centrifugal most common as main pump
      • Construction
        • Impeller is the vaned wheel inside case
        • Suction inlets introduce water into eye of impeller
        • Impeller spins, forcing water outward against walls of casing
    • 29. Centrifugal Pumps
      • Casing uses volute area to convert centrifugal energy to pressure
      • Volute discharges water into plumbing
      • Plumbing connects to various outlets (discharges)
    • 30. Centrifugal Pumps (con’t.)
      • Relief valve
        • Reroutes excess pressure to suction side
        • Prevents pressure surges
      • Pressure governor
        • Controls motor speed
        • Less speed = less pressure
        • Prevents pressure surges
      • Safety Note : Should always be set at a safe operating
      • pressure to provide firefighter safety
    • 31. Centrifugal Pumps (con’t.)
      • Advantages
        • Can spin without discharging water
        • Take advantage of pressure from inlet side
        • Can pump dirty water
        • Equipped with screens to limit size of debris entering pump
      • Safety Note : If no water is discharged, it can reach
      • scalding temperatures
    • 32. Centrifugal Pumps (con’t.)
      • Disadvantages
        • Can only act on the water that enters
        • Cannot draw water from a static source
        • Cavitation can occur if the discharge exceeds intake pressure
        • May damage pump impeller
    • 33. Positive Displacement Pumps
      • Types include rotary gear, piston and diaphragm
      • Discharge volume equals intake volume
      • Used to “prime” centrifugal pumps
        • Evacuates air from pump housing
        • Creates vacuum
        • Atmospheric pressure forces water into pump
      • Used in some high pressure applications
    • 34. Positive Displacement Pumps (con’t.)
      • Advantages
        • Self-priming (can pump air)
      • Disadvantages
        • Must keep a discharge open at all times due to pressure buildup
        • Cannot pump debris
        • Heavy and expensive
    • 35. Aerial Ladder and Elevated Platform Apparatus
      • Two basic configurations
        • Tractor/trailer with tiller
        • Straight chassis
      • Ladder types
        • Extendable with flies
        • With or without basket/platform
        • 108 feet of ground ladders needed to qualify as a ladder truck
    • 36. Aerial Ladder and Elevated Platform Apparatus (con’t.)
      • Additional features
        • Articulated boom
        • Intercom system
        • Breathing air system in platform
        • Plumbing for elevated streams
        • Remote controls in platform
    • 37. Quint
      • Quint apparatus ladder truck/pumper combination includes:
        • Pump
        • Water tank
        • Hose bed
        • Aerial ladder
        • Ground ladders
    • 38. Squads
      • Specialty vehicles to serve department’s special needs
      • Examples
        • Special lighting vehicle
        • Medical and hazardous materials vans
        • Tactical command post and support
        • Rehab
        • Terra torch (for wildland firefighting)
    • 39. Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting (ARFF)
      • Large water tank
      • Foam and dry chemical extinguishing systems
      • All-wheel drive for off-runway operation
      • Turret and ground sweep nozzles
      • Pump and roll capability
      • Hand lines and ladders for fuselage access
    • 40. Fire Tools and Appliances
      • Includes the following:
        • Hose
        • Nozzles
        • Ladders
        • Fittings
        • SCBA
        • Hand Tools
        • Wildland Firefighting Hand Tools
    • 41. Hose
      • Come in various sizes and construction types
      • Use couplings
      • Carried in apparatus hose beds
      • Used for various applications
        • Attack
        • Supply
    • 42.  
    • 43. Figure 6-37 Hose lines, 2 ½ inch, three-inch, and four-inch diameter, laid in hose bed.
    • 44.  
    • 45.  
    • 46. HIGBEE CUT & INDICATOR
    • 47. Nozzles
      • Numerous sizes and designs
      • Combination
        • Fog or straight stream patterns
      • Straight tip/smooth bore
      • Bail handle turns on and off
        • Designed to turn itself off if dropped
    • 48. Nozzles (con’t.)
      • Foam inductors
        • Based on venturi principle
        • Draws concentrate from pail and introduces it into the hose stream
        • Must follow manufacturer’s instructions or quality foam will not be produced
    • 49.  
    • 50.  
    • 51.  
    • 52.  
    • 53.  
    • 54.  
    • 55.  
    • 56.  
    • 57.  
    • 58.  
    • 59.  
    • 60.  
    • 61. Fittings
      • Connect hoses and appliances
        • Allows versatility
      • Reverse direction of hose lays
      • Change hose size or thread type
      • Combine or divide hose lays
    • 62.  
    • 63.  
    • 64.  
    • 65. Ladders
      • Attic ladder: folding 10-foot most common
      • Roof ladder: 14-foot with fold out hooks
      • Extension ladder: bed ladder with one or more flies, various lengths
        • Safety Note : Ladders used must be designed for
        • firefighting use
    • 66. SCBA
      • Self-contained breathing apparatus
      • Four main components
        • Face mask
        • Air bottle
        • Backpack
        • Regulator
      • Low pressure alarm
    • 67. SCBA (con’t.)
      • Protect firefighters from
        • Low oxygen concentration
        • Toxic byproducts
        • Smoke
        • Superheated gases
      • Regulator operates in positive pressure mode to prevent toxic gases from entering face mask
    • 68. SCBA
    • 69. Scott 50 – 4.5 SCBA
    • 70.  
    • 71. General SCBA Components – E.g. MSA Mask Regulator Cylinder Shoulder Straps Waist Strap Cylinder Valve Pressure Reducing Valve
    • 72. Scott 4.5 AV2000 Mask & Pack
    • 73.  
    • 74. Hand Tools
      • General and specialized tools for cutting, forcing, lighting, tightening
        • Hose tools (spanners)
        • Hydraulic rescue tools
        • Air bags
        • Axes
        • Circular saws
        • Chain saws
    • 75.  
    • 76.  
    • 77.  
    • 78.  
    • 79. HYDRA RAM
      • Add picture
    • 80.  
    • 81.  
    • 82.  
    • 83. PARTNER SAW
    • 84. Adjustable depth gauge
    • 85. QUICK-VENT SAW
    • 86. Hand Tools (con’t.)
      • More tools
        • Sledge hammers
        • Pike poles
        • Rubbish hooks
        • Power fans
        • Smoke ejectors
        • Salvage covers/rolled plastic
        • Fire extinguishers
    • 87.  
    • 88.  
    • 89.  
    • 90. Hand Tools (con’t.)
      • More tools (con’t.)
        • Medical aid equipment
        • Automatic external defibrillator
        • Electrical generator
        • Lights/power cords
        • Shovels
        • Thermal imaging camera
      • Many other tools are carried depending on needs
    • 91. Wildland Firefighting Hand Tools
      • For cutting and scraping
        • McLeod
        • Pulaski
        • Axes
        • Shovels
        • Chain saws
        • Fusees (for road flares)
    • 92. Wildland Firefighting Hand Tools (con’t.)
      • Other tools
        • Flagging tape
        • Canteens
        • Portable pumps
        • Tanks
      • Other specialized tools are available
        • Safety Note : Cutting tools are very sharp; use great
        • care!
    • 93. Heavy Equipment
      • Bulldozers create firelines
        • Scrape earth
        • Knock down trees
      • Pumper Cat has water tank on board
      • Special foam units for oil firefighting
    • 94. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
      • Includes the following:
        • Station/work uniform
        • Structure fire PPE
        • Personal alarm/personal safety system
        • Proximity suits
        • Wildland PPE
    • 95. Station/Work Uniforms
      • May be flame-resistant material, cotton or cotton blend
      • Cotton underwear
      • Additional layers help to protect from radiant heat
      • Safety Note : Any clothing made of nylon or related
      • synthetic fabrics can melt to your skin
    • 96. Structure Fire PPE
      • Designed as a system
        • Helmet and hood or ear protection
        • SCBA
        • Coat
        • Pants
        • Boots and gloves
        • Safety Note : PPE must all be worn every time to
        • provide proper protection
    • 97. Personal Alarm / Proximity Suits
      • Personal Alarm Device (PAL or PASS)
        • Required to carry on SCBA suit
        • Emits signal when no motion is detected for approximately 30 seconds
      • Proximity Suits
        • Used to approach flaming fuel
        • Not designed for walking in flames
    • 98. Wildland PPE
      • Designed as a system
        • Hard hat, ear and face protection, and goggles
        • Fire shirt with T-shirt underneath
        • Flame-resistant pants
        • Lace-up boots with lug soles
        • Gloves
        • Fire shelter
      • Safety Note : Never leave vehicle without shelter
    • 99. Emergency Medical PPE
      • Universal precautions
        • Moisture-resistant long-sleeved shirt
        • Latex or vinyl gloves
        • Eye, nose, and mouth protection
    • 100. Aircraft
      • Fixed wing
        • Lead plane
        • Air tankers
        • Smoke jumper transport
      • Rotary wing
        • Troop/materiel transport
        • Water dropping
        • EMS transport
    • 101.
      • Tools and equipment constantly developed or adapted for firefighters
        • Equipment varies according to department needs
        • New tools make job easier and safer
        • Do not become so dependent on power tools that you are ineffective without them
      • Facilities in this chapter are only a representative sample
      • Most important resource: the firefighter
      Summary