Lecture 5:  Archaic Greece (800-479 BCE)
1100-750 BCE: Dark Ages <ul><li>Political and economic decline of Mycenaean Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Urban life disa...
Literary Achievements  of the Archaic Age <ul><li>Importation of the 22 letter Phoenician alphabet </li></ul><ul><li>Rise ...
Cultural Developments in Greece: Panhellenic Games <ul><li>Fostered common Greek identity </li></ul><ul><li>Central part o...
Political Developments in Greece: The Greek Polis <ul><li>Polis , “City-state”, a self-governing community </li></ul><ul><...
Political Developments in Greece: The Hoplite Revolution <ul><li>725-650 BCE: changes in military equipment and tactic </l...
Sparta: Overview <ul><li>Geographical isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful polis in Archaic/Classical periods </li></ul><u...
Sparta: Social Classes <ul><li>Spartiate  - citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Perioeci  – free subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Helots ...
Sparta: Political Structure <ul><li>Elements of monarchy, oligarchy and democracy  </li></ul><ul><li>Dual monarchy  </li><...
Spartan Values <ul><li>Militaristic state: height after 700 BCE, need to control Messians (helots) </li></ul><ul><li>Educa...
Spartan Men <ul><li>Left home at the age of 7  </li></ul><ul><li>Organized into troops and played competitive games until ...
Spartan Women <ul><li>Taught to read and write </li></ul><ul><li>Centrality of physical education </li></ul><ul><li>Domest...
 
 
Athenian Government: Introduction <ul><li>Athens: Largest territory/population of any Greek polis in 8 th /7 th  C BCE </l...
Reforms of Solon (640-559 BCE) <ul><li>Freed all slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Cancelled agricultural debts </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Rise of Tyrants <ul><li>Tyrant: one who seized power in a polis </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis ...
Tyranny of Pisistratus  (590-528 BCE) <ul><li>561 BCE: seized power </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly: increase in power </li></u...
Rule of Cleisthenes <ul><li>Elected by assembly </li></ul><ul><li>508-502 BCE: Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of demo...
Persian Empire: Cyrus the Great (550-530 BCE) <ul><li>Power struggle: Medes and Persians </li></ul><ul><li>6 th  C BCE: em...
Achievements of Persian Empire <ul><li>Vast road networks </li></ul><ul><li>Transport of soldiers and goods </li></ul><ul>...
Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism <ul><li>Prophet Zarathustra (Zoroaster) </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>...
Persian Empire: Darius the Great (r. 522-486 BCE) <ul><li>522: seizes power </li></ul><ul><li>Strong administration, econo...
The Persian Wars (490-479 BCE) <ul><li>490 BCE: Persia invades Greece at Battle of Marathon. Greek victory! </li></ul><ul>...
Lecture5archaicgreece
Lecture5archaicgreece
Lecture5archaicgreece
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Lecture5archaicgreece

560

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
560
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lecture5archaicgreece

  1. 1. Lecture 5: Archaic Greece (800-479 BCE)
  2. 2. 1100-750 BCE: Dark Ages <ul><li>Political and economic decline of Mycenaean Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Urban life disappears, villages are abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Writing, crafts, and commercial network of trade disappears </li></ul><ul><li>Migrations to islands of western Anatolia and region of Ionia </li></ul><ul><li>850 BCE: Economic life in Greece improves; urban life reappears </li></ul>
  3. 3. Literary Achievements of the Archaic Age <ul><li>Importation of the 22 letter Phoenician alphabet </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in recording of oral traditions, legends, and songs </li></ul><ul><li>Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey : </li></ul><ul><li>Dates to the 8 th C BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Epic poem tells story of Trojan War </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cultural Developments in Greece: Panhellenic Games <ul><li>Fostered common Greek identity </li></ul><ul><li>Central part of aristocratic culture </li></ul><ul><li>Chariot-racing, discus-throwing, wrestling, and foot-racing </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic Games </li></ul>
  5. 5. Political Developments in Greece: The Greek Polis <ul><li>Polis , “City-state”, a self-governing community </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the polis: </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Council of male elders </li></ul><ul><li>Agora </li></ul><ul><li>Centrality of temples to Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Individual: citizenship to 1 polis only </li></ul>
  6. 6. Political Developments in Greece: The Hoplite Revolution <ul><li>725-650 BCE: changes in military equipment and tactic </li></ul><ul><li>Hoplites : units of well-armed foot soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged as large infantry units ( phalanx ) = most effective </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sparta: Overview <ul><li>Geographical isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful polis in Archaic/Classical periods </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal + Polytheistic (typical) </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Spartan system: credited to Lycurgus. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sparta: Social Classes <ul><li>Spartiate - citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Perioeci – free subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Helots – serfs, limited freedom (central) </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of equality for free men </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship: limited to those born in Sparta </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sparta: Political Structure <ul><li>Elements of monarchy, oligarchy and democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Dual monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Council ( gerousia ) of 28 elders </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly ( damos) </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on service to the state </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of Peloponnesian League </li></ul>
  10. 10. Spartan Values <ul><li>Militaristic state: height after 700 BCE, need to control Messians (helots) </li></ul><ul><li>Education: emphasis on discipline, endurance of pain, survival </li></ul><ul><li>Virtues of self-denial, simplicity, obedience, courage </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on serving state; denial of individuality </li></ul>
  11. 11. Spartan Men <ul><li>Left home at the age of 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Organized into troops and played competitive games until age 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Underwent four years of military training </li></ul><ul><li>Age 30: became citizens, allowed to live with wives </li></ul><ul><li>Age 60: End of military service </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Fulfill military needs of state </li></ul>
  12. 12. Spartan Women <ul><li>Taught to read and write </li></ul><ul><li>Centrality of physical education </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions with men: less restricted </li></ul><ul><li>No share in government </li></ul><ul><li>Had children, but did not raise them </li></ul><ul><li>Polygamy common </li></ul><ul><li>Married at 18: abduction </li></ul>
  13. 15. Athenian Government: Introduction <ul><li>Athens: Largest territory/population of any Greek polis in 8 th /7 th C BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered people did NOT become helots </li></ul><ul><li>Power of basileus ( king) fades </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Areopagus, council of nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Election of 9 Archons </li></ul><ul><li>6 th C BCE: Growing tension of aristocrats and peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Solution? </li></ul>
  14. 16. Reforms of Solon (640-559 BCE) <ul><li>Freed all slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Cancelled agricultural debts </li></ul><ul><li>Created 4 social classes – economic basis </li></ul><ul><li>Laws written down – fair enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Boule (council) of 400 – advisory board for general assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Limit authority of aristocrats </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen participation in government </li></ul><ul><li>Successful? Economic strife: Rich and poor both dissatisfied </li></ul>
  15. 17. Rise of Tyrants <ul><li>Tyrant: one who seized power in a polis </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on involving all classes: participatory government </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness of tyranny: short-lived </li></ul>
  16. 18. Tyranny of Pisistratus (590-528 BCE) <ul><li>561 BCE: seized power </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly: increase in power </li></ul><ul><li>Attack on powers of nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens: more involved in government </li></ul><ul><li>Building projects, trade and economy, the arts </li></ul><ul><li>510 BCE: Overthrown by aristocrats </li></ul>
  17. 19. Rule of Cleisthenes <ul><li>Elected by assembly </li></ul><ul><li>508-502 BCE: Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of democracy </li></ul><ul><li>New boule : Council of Five Hundred </li></ul><ul><li>Division into 10 tribes: unified territory </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation: avoid revolts </li></ul><ul><li>*Fundamental aspects of Athenian democracy in place* </li></ul>
  18. 20. Persian Empire: Cyrus the Great (550-530 BCE) <ul><li>Power struggle: Medes and Persians </li></ul><ul><li>6 th C BCE: emergence of Persian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrus: military genius, 20 years of conquest </li></ul><ul><li>546 BCE: Anatolia conquered </li></ul><ul><li>539 BCE: Babylonia conquered </li></ul><ul><li>By 522 BCE: greatest empire in the world </li></ul>
  19. 21. Achievements of Persian Empire <ul><li>Vast road networks </li></ul><ul><li>Transport of soldiers and goods </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of cultural ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized government: balance of power and tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Hebrews </li></ul>
  20. 22. Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism <ul><li>Prophet Zarathustra (Zoroaster) </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Dualistic: Ahura Mazda (good) vs. Angra Mainyu (evil) </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on ethics and afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>Official religion of Persian Empire/tolerant of other faiths </li></ul><ul><li>Kings: earthly representations of Ahura Mazda </li></ul><ul><li>Influential to Judaism, Christianity, Islam </li></ul>
  21. 23. Persian Empire: Darius the Great (r. 522-486 BCE) <ul><li>522: seizes power </li></ul><ul><li>Strong administration, economy, trade </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial expansion </li></ul><ul><li>510 BCE: Ionian Greece conquered </li></ul><ul><li>Ionian revolt (with aid of Athenians) </li></ul><ul><li>494 BCE: Persia crushes rebellion </li></ul>
  22. 24. The Persian Wars (490-479 BCE) <ul><li>490 BCE: Persia invades Greece at Battle of Marathon. Greek victory! </li></ul><ul><li>Themistocles (523-458 BCE): rise of the navy and triremes </li></ul><ul><li>480 BCE: Xerxes I invades Greece, huge army and navy </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork of Sparta (Battle of Leonidas) and Athens (Battle of Salamis). </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Victory (again)! </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×