Greek political life

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Greek political life

  1. 1. Greek Culture and Political Development
  2. 2. I. Land of Greece <ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No place over 50 miles from sea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mountainous Peninsula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small independent communities </li></ul><ul><li>Geography would make unity a problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City States never united under one government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seafarers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fisherman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pirates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lots of contacts with others </li></ul><ul><li>Shared a common language </li></ul>
  3. 3. Crete Greece Peloponnesus Sparta Athens Knossos Mycenae
  4. 4. II. Minoans <ul><li>Minoans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crete (see map – previous slide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2800 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mostly Traders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land too poor for farming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King Minos </li></ul><ul><li>Knossos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Down fall around 1450 B.C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible Volcano eruption 1628 BC </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. III. Early Greek History <ul><li>Mycenae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1600 to 1100 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warrior Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agamemnon – commander-in-chief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycenae Legends passed on in Greek Epics by Homer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greek Dark Age – very little cultural development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1100 to 750 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revival starting around 750 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works of Homer 700 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illiad & Odyssey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greek Cultural Influences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. IV. Greek City State <ul><li>Polis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City State => Independent political unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concept as totally independent of each other but still Greek in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Many City States existed and were usually small in size </li></ul><ul><li>Acropolis => located in the center of the city-state </li></ul><ul><li>Agora </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketplace </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. V. Growth of Greek City-States <ul><li>Greek Colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread Greek Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established in Italy, France, Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased Trade Created Wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy Merchants developed political power </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Democratic Ideals </li></ul><ul><li>Oligarchies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power rested with just a few => mainly the wealthy </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. VI. Citizenship in Greece <ul><li>Citizens with Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens without rights </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Citizens </li></ul>
  9. 9. VII. City-State Government <ul><li>Reign of kings </li></ul><ul><li>Overthrown by Aristocrats => “Means the Best” </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of new military techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phalanx Fighting (soldiers lined 8x8) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rise of Tyrants (dictators) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some would abuse power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rise of Democratic Ideals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>650 BC </li></ul></ul>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  10. 10. VIII. City State of Sparta <ul><li>Sparta – located on Peloponnesus </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered Neighbors – instead of colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Spartan Society </li></ul><ul><li>“ Equals” were the descendants of Original Spartans </li></ul><ul><li>Half Citizens – Taxed, Served in Military, but no Political power </li></ul><ul><li>Helots (Spartans were outnumbered by the Helots) – Conquered Peoples who were Sparta’s Slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>> 650 BC Helots revolted. After 30 yrs the revolt was put down . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> This forced Sparta to establish a Military state . </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. IX. Spartan Life <ul><li>Military State => All life in Sparta revolved around the military – society based on total war </li></ul><ul><li>Led by 2 kings – served as military commanders </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Elders 28 Men </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly – Made up of All Equals </li></ul><ul><li>Military life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys went to Barrack life at 7 and stayed until 30 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Duty until 60 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women Encouraged to Raise strong soldiers and future mothers of soldiers . </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. X. Spartan Life Continued <ul><li>Infants were examined and if they were not considered healthy they were taken and left on a hillside to die. </li></ul><ul><li>--------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Women – trained to be strong – usually married by the age of 19. </li></ul><ul><li>--------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Women had more personal rights and freedom than other Greek women. </li></ul><ul><li>--------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>They were the head of the household while their husband was away fighting. </li></ul>
  13. 13. XI. Spartan Government <ul><ul><li>Oligarchy => Power rested with just a few => mainly the wealthy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Little Cultural Emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Little Individual Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Few Cultural Achievements </li></ul>
  14. 14. XII. Athenian Government <ul><li>Athens – part of central Greece call Attica </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressed public service and education for men . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys started school at 7 and graduated at 18 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic / Geometry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing / Art </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnastic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetoric (public Speaking) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freemen were citizens </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. XIII. Athenian Government Con’t <ul><li>At one point in history Athens had the following types of government: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tyranny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. XIV. Path to Athenian Democracy <ul><li>Development of Written Laws </li></ul><ul><li>621 BC – 500 BC Ruled by Tyrants </li></ul><ul><li>Draco </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draconian Code 621 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salon => Freed Debtors </li></ul><ul><li>Cleisthenes – led Athens to democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided Athens into 10 Tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Tribes Selects 50 Men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of 500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct Democracy – each citizen participate directly in government decisions </li></ul>
  17. 17. XV. Life in Classical Athens <ul><li>Large Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economy based on Farming and Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Many Fine Public Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Less Extravagant Private Homes </li></ul><ul><li>Most Parents Arranged Marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Women had very little power . </li></ul>
  18. 18. XVI. Life in Classical Athens Con’t <ul><li>At the age of 18 every man served 2 years in military service . </li></ul><ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>- How did the life of girls compared to boys? </li></ul>
  19. 19. XVII. Greek Philosophy <ul><li>Nature of the Universe explained through unifying principles </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of reality and human existence </li></ul><ul><li>Thales – 1 st philosopher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions about the cosmos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parmenides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed rules of logic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democritus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of mater being composed of atoms </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. XVIII. Socrates <ul><li>Belief in the individuals power to reason </li></ul><ul><li>Question authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Know Thyself” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less memorization and more questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Socratic method - question and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Charged with corruption of youth and denial of the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates executed </li></ul>
  21. 21. XIX. Plato – Student of Socrates <ul><li>Dialogue format of writings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed prominent Greeks debating the knowledge of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“The Republic” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The virtuous state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men and Women as equals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Academy </li></ul>
  22. 22. XX. Aristotle – Student of Plato <ul><li>Observation and investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Broad academic interests </li></ul>
  23. 23. XXI. Greek Drama <ul><li>Created Drama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action, Dialogue, Conflict, Emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tragedies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero, Fate, Outside Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeat Usually because of pride </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comedies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioned old ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heroes usually solve their problems </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. XXII. Literature <ul><li>Defended Greek Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek play writers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sophocles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Euripides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aristophanes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Only men performed in the Theater </li></ul><ul><li>Chorus described the action, scenes and gave commentary </li></ul>
  25. 25. XXIII. Literature <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herodotus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Father of History </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thucydides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote History of the Peloponnesian Wars </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. XXIV. Greek Art <ul><li>Traits of Greek art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glorified Humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Gods and Goddesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular human scenes and people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harmony, balance, order, moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty and function </li></ul><ul><li>Art simply of enjoyment </li></ul>
  27. 27. XXV. Greek Art <ul><li>The Ideal, Beautiful Human </li></ul><ul><li>Temples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parthenon </li></ul></ul></ul>

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