WHI.5: Ancient Greece -- Part 1


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WHI.5: Ancient Greece -- Part 1

  1. 1. WHI.5: ANCIENT GREECE – PART 1 SOL COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW World History & Geography to 1500 A.D. Mr. Seward, Instructor of History – I.C. Norcom High School
  2. 2. Influence of Geography on Greek Development  Locations and places  Aegean Sea  Balkan and Peloponnesus Peninsula  Europe & Asia Minor  Mediterranean Sea  Black Sea  Dardanelles Strait  Athens, Sparta, Troy  Macedonia
  3. 3. Influence of Geography on Greek Development  Economic and Social Development  Agriculture (limited arable land)  Commerce and the spread of Hellenic culture  Shift from barter to money economy (coins)
  4. 4. Influence of Geography on Greek Development  Political development  Mountainous terrain both helped and hindered the development of city-states.  Greek cities were designed to promote civic and commercial life.  Colonization was prompted by overpopulation and the search for arable land.
  5. 5. Greek Mythology  Greek mythology  Based on polytheistic religion  Offered explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events  Greek gods and goddesses  Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Aphrodite  Symbols and images in Western literature, art, and architecture
  6. 6. GOD OR GODDESS POWER OR RESPONSIBILITY Zeus King of the Gods and ruler of Mount Olympus Hera Wife of Zeus, Protector of families, children, and the home Apollo God of truth, intelligence, music, and poetry Athena Goddess of wisdom Aphrodite Artemis Goddess of love and beauty Goddess of wildlife and hunting`
  7. 7. Athens and Sparta  Social structure and citizenship in the Greek polis  Citizens (free adult males) had political rights and the responsibility of civic participation in government.  Women, slaves, and foreigners had no political rights.
  8. 8. Athens and Sparta  Athens  Stages in the evolution of Athenian government:  Monarchy  Central power is held by a ruler (king or queen) who inherited the position.  Aristocracy  Rule by a small group of people (oligarchy); usually landowners  Tyranny  Rulers who achieved power by force  Democracy  Citizens take part in the daily affairs of government
  9. 9. Athens and Sparta  Athens  Tyrants who worked for reform:  Draco  Created harsh code of laws in which both minor and serious crimes were punished by death.  Solon   Changed the “Draconian Code” Outlawed debt slavery, opened high offices to more people, allowed some foreigners to become citizens, and gave more power to the assembly.  Origin of democratic principles:  Direct democracy, public debate, duties of the citizen
  10. 10. Athens and Sparta  Sparta  Oligarchy (rule by a small group)  Two kings and a Council of Elders  Major decisions made by citizens  Rigid social structure in order to control conquered people and slaves (helots)  Militaristic  Boys and aggressive society started military training at age seven.  Girls brought up to strengthen their bodies for child bearing.
  11. 11. Persian and Peloponnesian Wars  Importance of Persian Wars (490–476 B.C.)  Persian wars united Athens and Sparta against the Persian Empire.  Athenian victories over the Persians at Marathon and Salamis left Greeks in control of the Aegean Sea.  Athens preserved its independence and continued innovations in government and culture.
  12. 12. Persian and Peloponnesian Wars  Importance of Peloponnesian War (431–404 B.C.)  Caused in part by competition for control of the Greek world  Athens and the Delian League  Sparta and the Peloponnesian League  Turning point of the Peloponnesian War  Spartan army overwhelmed the Athenians  Pericles allowed people living in the countryside to come inside Athens’ city walls; resulting in overcrowding, disease, plague, and death.  Athenians surrendered.
  13. 13. Persian and Peloponnesian Wars    The Peloponnesian War ended Athenian domination of the Greek world. The Athenian economy revived and Athens remained the cultural center of Greece yet the spirit and energy of Athens declined. Athens decline resulted in slowing of cultural advance and the weakening of political power
  14. 14. Questions ? Comments ? Observations ? Criticisms?