Lecture9romanempireedited

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Lecture9romanempireedited

  1. 1. Lecture 9: The Early Roman Empire 31 BCE - 284 CE
  2. 2. The Age of Augustus <ul><li>Pax Romana </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian: “Augustus Caesar” </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial cult </li></ul><ul><li>Republic to Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Senate: illusion of power </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Rule of Augustus <ul><li>Military power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty + incentive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Praetorian guard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building projects </li></ul><ul><li>Julian Marriage laws: marriage, procreation, adultery </li></ul>
  4. 4. Julio-Claudian Dynasty 27 BCE–68 CE <ul><li>Hereditary monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius - paranoia </li></ul><ul><li>Germanicus (“Caligula”) - insanity </li></ul><ul><li>Claudius - conquers Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Nero – the great fire + the “golden house” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Flavian Dynasty 69-96 CE <ul><li>Vespasian – Colosseum </li></ul><ul><li>Titus – Seige of Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Domitian – building restorations </li></ul>
  6. 6. Antonine Age 96-192 CE <ul><li>Nerva – Adopting an heir </li></ul><ul><li>Trajan – conquers Dacians, builds forum </li></ul><ul><li>Hadrian – wall, pantheon </li></ul><ul><li>Pious – peace before the storm </li></ul><ul><li>Marcus Aurelius – barbarian threats </li></ul><ul><li>“ The 5 Good Emperors” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Severan Dynasty (193-235 CE) <ul><li>Commodus + Pertinax : end of the Antonine Age </li></ul><ul><li>Septimius Severus </li></ul><ul><li>Caracalla </li></ul><ul><li>235-284: Military anarchy + disorder </li></ul>
  8. 8. Roman Law and Citizenship <ul><li>Jus civile vs jus gentium </li></ul><ul><li>Natural law </li></ul><ul><li>Civil vs. Criminal Law </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit of the Law </li></ul><ul><li>Codification </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship: inequality </li></ul>
  9. 9. Centers of Roman Life and Architectural Splendor <ul><li>Roman Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Colosseum </li></ul><ul><li>Palatine Hill </li></ul><ul><li>The Pantheon </li></ul>
  10. 10. Provincial Cities <ul><li>1. Rule of Governors </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reforms under Augustus </li></ul><ul><li>Fairer taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Governors: less </li></ul><ul><li>power + corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial Councils </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies + Romanization </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rural Life <ul><li>Colony + Villa </li></ul><ul><li>Literary idealization </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh realities </li></ul><ul><li>Villa Urbana + </li></ul><ul><li>Villa Rustica </li></ul>
  12. 12. Literary Achievements <ul><li>Historical Writing: </li></ul><ul><li>Livy </li></ul><ul><li>Tacitus </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry: </li></ul><ul><li>Ovid </li></ul><ul><li>Horace </li></ul><ul><li>Virgil </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenal </li></ul><ul><li>“ What chiefly makes the study of history beneficial and fruitful is this, that you behold the lessons of every kind of experience as upon a famous monument; from these you may choose for your own state what to imitate, and mark for avoidance what is shameful....” -Livy </li></ul>
  13. 13. Juvenal, Excerpt <ul><li>“… think now about all those other perils of the night: how high it is to the roof up there from which a tile falls and smashes your brains; how many times broken, leaky jars fall from windows; how hard they strike and break the pavement. You could be thought lazy and careless if you go to dinner without writing a will. There are as many deaths waiting for you as there are open windows above your head. Therefore you should hope and fervently pray that they only dump their sewage on you…” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Scientific Discoveries <ul><li>Galen </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine and Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Ptolemy </li></ul><ul><li>The Almagest – Geocentric universe </li></ul><ul><li>Guide to Geography </li></ul>
  15. 15. Judaism in the Roman Empire <ul><ul><li>Jews in Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judea: Great </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolt of 66 CE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar-Kokhba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rebellion 132 CE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mishnah </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. What do you need to know? <ul><li>Augustus: What important reforms/changes does he bring? </li></ul><ul><li>Successor dynasties: general characteristics, important events </li></ul><ul><li>Significance of Roman law </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural centers of Roman life? </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial cities: changes under Augustus? </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic/literary developments: general styles/themes/discoveries of writers </li></ul><ul><li>Key developments for Judaism </li></ul>

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