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  1. 1. Lecture 7: The Hellenistic Age (323 – 30 BCE)
  2. 2. Macedonian Kingdom <ul><li>Hereditary monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Barbaroi </li></ul><ul><li>399 BCE: anarchy </li></ul><ul><li>How did Macedon rise to power? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rise of Macedonia: King Philip (r. 359-336 BCE) <ul><li>Warfare in Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Military innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Companions ( Hetairoi ) </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanxes - Sarissa </li></ul><ul><li>Catapult </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: conquer Greece. 338 BCE victory: Battle of Chaeronea </li></ul><ul><li>League of Corinth </li></ul><ul><li>Pausanias: assassination </li></ul>
  4. 4. Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE): Military Conquests <ul><li>Persian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>334 BCE: Granicus River </li></ul><ul><li>333 BCE: Issus </li></ul><ul><li>332 BCE: Conquered Tyre, liberated Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>330: Destroys Persepolis </li></ul><ul><li>2. India </li></ul>
  5. 5. Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE): Reorganizing the Empire <ul><li>Great King: establishing order </li></ul><ul><li>Persian influence </li></ul><ul><li>Satraps </li></ul><ul><li>Greek migrations </li></ul><ul><li>Threat of Macedonian subjects: suppressed </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>On Alexander’s proskynesis: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Alexander desired people actually to do his obeisance, from the underlying idea that his father was Ammon and not Philip….he was now expressing his admiration for the ways of the Persians and Medes, both in his change of dress…there was no lack of flatterers to give him his wish” ( Anabasis ; Brunt 1976) </li></ul><ul><li>“… he bore himself haughtily towards the Barbarians, like one fully persuaded of his divine birth and parentage, but with the Greeks it was within limits and somewhat rarely that he assumed his own divinity…Alexander himself was not foolishly affected or puffed up by the belief in his divinty, but used it for the subjugation of others” (Life of Alexander; Perrin 1919, adapted ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hellenistic Successor States <ul><li>His death = power struggle, 3 kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Ptolemaic Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Seleucid Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Antigonid Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenistic monarch </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Ptolemy II </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance: The Maccabees </li></ul>
  8. 8. I Maccabees 1:44-50: <ul><li>“ Moreover, the King sent agents with written orders to Jerusalem and the towns of Judea. Ways and customs foreign to the country were to be introduced. Burnt- offerings, sacrifices, and libations in the Temple were forbidden; Sabbaths and feast-days were to be profaned. Altars, idols, and sacred precincts were to be established; swine and other unclean beasts to be offered in sacrifice. They must leave their sons uncircumcised; they must make themselves in every way abominable, unclean, and profane, and so forget the law and change all their statutes. The penalty for disobedience was death” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hellenistic Culture: Political/Social Developments <ul><li>Asia Minor + Greece = “hellenization”. </li></ul><ul><li>Polis to cosmopolis </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchy vs. democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Value of citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Economic divide </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for women </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hellenistic Culture: The Arts <ul><li>Reflection of cultural changes </li></ul><ul><li>Kingship: patronage to the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandria: King Ptolemy I </li></ul><ul><li>Expansive themes </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hellenistic Culture: The Arts (continued) <ul><li>Literature: </li></ul><ul><li>Comedy: Menander </li></ul><ul><li>Theocritus: pastoral poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Callimachus: Alexandrianism </li></ul><ul><li>History : Polybius </li></ul>
  12. 12. Scientific Discoveries <ul><li>Science: </li></ul><ul><li>Theophrastus, on plants and human </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics : </li></ul><ul><li>Euclid: geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Archimedes </li></ul>
  13. 13. Scientific Discoveries, continued <ul><li>Astronomy: </li></ul><ul><li>Heraclides of Pontus + Aristarchus of Samos: Heliocentric theory </li></ul><ul><li>Eratosthenes: measuring earth </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine : humors </li></ul><ul><li>Diocles: human anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Dissections: Herophilus + Eraisistratus </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hellenistic Philosophy: Overview <ul><li>Plato + Aristotle: legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics: inner peace </li></ul><ul><li>Epicureanism </li></ul><ul><li>Stoicism </li></ul><ul><li>The Skeptics </li></ul><ul><li>The Cynics </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hellenistic Philosophy: Epicureanism <ul><li>Epicurus (341-271 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Values: passivity, withdrawal, simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: Pleasure + inner peace </li></ul><ul><li>Rejects fear of Gods, no afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>The Garden </li></ul><ul><li>Open to all </li></ul>
  16. 16. Epicurus: Sayings <ul><li>“ It is vain to ask of the gods what man is capable of supplying for himself” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We maintain that pleasure is the end…freedom from pain in the body and from trouble in the mind” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We must release ourselves from the prison of affairs and politics” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A free life cannot acquire many possessions, because this is not easy to do without servility to mobs or monarchs” </li></ul><ul><li>From Cyril Bailey, ed. And trans. Epicurus: The extant Remains </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hellenistic Philosophy: Stoicism <ul><li>Zeno (c. 335-c.263 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Stoa Poikile (Painted Portico): lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Divine logos, principle of order </li></ul><ul><li>Single family </li></ul><ul><li>Peace of mind: submission </li></ul>
  18. 18. Hellenistic Philosophy: The Skeptics and the Cynics <ul><li>The Skeptics: </li></ul><ul><li>No true knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Cratylus: problem of change </li></ul><ul><li>The Cynics: </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity: no possessions </li></ul><ul><li>Reject social conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: reject needs/desires (or opposite) </li></ul><ul><li>Diogenes the Dog </li></ul>
  19. 19. Lecture 7: What do you need to know? <ul><li>King Philip + Alexander the Great: key battles, central accomplishments, notions of kingship, challenges/revolts </li></ul><ul><li>Successor states: What are they? What problems arose? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hellenization”: What was it, and why was it significant? What ideological shifts did it cause? </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenistic Art: General characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of literary, scientific, medical accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy: 4 important schools, general beliefs, key figures </li></ul>