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Fallofrome riseofbyzantiumedited


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Fallofrome riseofbyzantiumedited

  1. 1. Lecture 11: Fall of Roman Empire + Emergence of Byzantium
  2. 2. Imperial Decline: Barbarians in the Western Empire <ul><li>Increasing presence of “Germans” </li></ul><ul><li>Attila + the Huns </li></ul><ul><li>The Visigoths: Battle of Adrianople (378) </li></ul><ul><li>Alaric: The sack of Rome (410) </li></ul><ul><li>Other barbarian strongholds </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  3. 3. Western Roman Empire: Barbarian Leaders <ul><li>Mercenary demands + mutiny </li></ul><ul><li>Odovacer, King of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of Theodoric: peace + stability </li></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of the Germanic Kingdoms <ul><li>Roman + Germanic institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: Arianism </li></ul><ul><li>Franks: Orthodox Christianity </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>halsall/source/496clovis.html </li></ul>
  5. 5. Possible reasons for fall of Rome <ul><li>Division of Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial decay </li></ul><ul><li>Military decay </li></ul><ul><li>Economic decline </li></ul><ul><li>Plagues </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why did Rome “fall”? <ul><li>&quot;The decline of Rome was the natural and inevitable effect of immoderate greatness. Prosperity ripened the principle of decay; the cause of the destruction multiplied with the extent of conquest; and, as soon as time or accident and removed the artificial supports, the stupendous fabric yielded to the pressure of its own weight. The story of the ruin is simple and obvious: and instead of inquiring why the Roman Empire was destroyed we should rather be surprised that it has subsisted for so long&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , 2nd ed., vol. 4, ed. by J. B. Bury (London, 1909), pp. 173-174.] </li></ul>
  7. 7. Byzantine Empire: The Reign of Justinian (r. 527-565) <ul><li>Reunifying the Empire: conquest of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Battles with Persia </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus Juris Civilis </li></ul><ul><li>Nika Riot 532 </li></ul><ul><li>Splendor of Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>Building projects: Hagia Sophia </li></ul>
  8. 8. Culture of the Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Byzantine Emperor: role in religion </li></ul><ul><li>East vs. West: theological divisions </li></ul><ul><li>Classical culture </li></ul><ul><li>Status of women, Theodora </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Iconoclastic Controversy (8 th /9 th C) <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Leo III </li></ul><ul><li>Opponents vs. supporters of icon worship </li></ul><ul><li>East vs. West: division </li></ul><ul><li>9 th C: End of Iconoclasm </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>“… the invisible things of God since the creation of the world are made visible through images. We see images in creation which remind us faintly of God, as when, for instance, we speak of the holy and adorable Trinity, imaged by the sun, or light, or burning rays, or by a running fountain, or a full river, or by the mind, speech, or the spirit within us, or by a rose tree, or a sprouting flower, or a sweet fragrance…I do not worship matter, I worship the God of matter, who became matter for my sake, and deigned to inhabit matter, who worked out my salvation through matter. I will not cease from honouring that matter which works my salvation. I venerate it, though not as God. How could God be born out of lifeless things?...was not the thrice-happy and thrice blessed wood of the Cross matter?...Is not the most holy book of the Gospels matter?... is not the body and blood of our Lord matter? Either do away with the veneration and worship due to all these things, or submit to the tradition of the Church in the worship of images, honouring God and His friends, and following in this the grace of the Holv Spirit…” </li></ul><ul><li>St. John Damascus On Holy Images , trans. by Mary H. Allies (London, Thomas Baker, 1898), pp. 10-17. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Byzantium after Justinian: Power struggles (7 th -8 th C) <ul><li>Byzantine reforms: </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative: Extarchs </li></ul><ul><li>Military: Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Threats: </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic Lombards (Italy) </li></ul><ul><li>Balkan Tribes: Avars, Slavs, Bulgars </li></ul><ul><li>Rus (Kiev) </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Macedonian Dynasty (867-1056) <ul><li>Basil I – Dynastic Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Territory reconquered </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of Basil II (976 -1025) </li></ul><ul><li>Macedonian Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>10 th C: Decline of Byzantine Empire </li></ul>