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History 121 ancient greece 4

Greece Lecture-the ones with the audio symbol are new-watch those

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History 121 ancient greece 4

  1. 1. Greece: Land of Philosophy, Democracy, and War
  2. 2. Sparta Social organization Boys were surrendered to Sparta at age 7 Organized into small groups then units Trained to fight As older teens they were organized into units and given military training A law driven society The laws were not written but were “inscribed on the heart.” Focus was on social good, strength, and sacrifice Meals eaten together in common messes-to prevent sloth and self-indulgence A culture of toughness, masculinity (laconic)
  3. 3. Political organization Lykourgos-Gave them the laws Power of king limited Council of Five-Ephors (overseers) Selected from Council of Elders Assembly Social Organization King Old ruling families Free citizens Peroikoi Helots Slaves
  4. 4. A society with no culture Slavery Militarism Hardness
  5. 5. Athens: The Birthplace of Democracy and Philosophy Athens in economic crisis Solon the Reformer-638-558 BCE, elected Chief Executive in 594 BCE Diké-social justice Paucity of land One-sixth farmers (sharecropping)-contemporary examples? Reasonable Laws-revisions of Draconian Laws Economic Reforms: The forgiving of debt (Debt owed by U.S. consumers in 2016-12.5 trillion) Found slaves and bought their freedom Redistribution of land Olive oil and wine banned export of cereals **A usable past?
  6. 6. Government organization Archons The Four Hundred Removed aristocratic requirement (social mobility) The Assembly Class conflict ensues Solon’s solutions too centrist The Men of the Coast, the Men of the Plains, the Men of the Hills
  7. 7. The Democratic Tyrant-Pisistratus (605-527)-in power from 546-528 BCE Third time is the charm Land redistribution Lower taxes on the poor Better water systems The Rule of Hippias-527-510 BCE Removing the Tyrant King Kleomenes of Sparta leads a force to Athens to drive out Hippias Kleisthenes and Isagoras in fierce debate about immigrant workers Spartans back Isagoras as chief archon Athenians rise up and drive out the Spartans and Isagoras Defense of their political institutions
  8. 8. Reforms of Kleisthenes-507 BCE Attempting to minimize strength of old families Organizes the city into 30 districts All regions included in each district-plains, hills, coast Ostracism (ostracon)-6,000 votes Council expanded to 500 Additional duties Continuing Democratization through 460 BCE 462-council stripped of its power Government by Assembly Laws originate directly from the citizens Government run by the citizens (Assembly)
  9. 9. The Greco-Persian War King Darius commanded a massive Persian Empire Inherited by his son Xerxes Athens supports an unsuccessful revolt by Ionian Greeks in 499 BCE
  10. 10. Battle of Marathon-490 BCE Armies of Darius marching on Athens Sparta refuses assistance (religious festival) Tactical success (hoplites) Persians defeated **what role of a Homeric culture here? Greeks built their strength Constructed a fleet of triremes Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis-480 BCE Xerxes sweeps south-laying waste Thermopylae defeat (victory) Trickery and Salamis
  11. 11. The Delian League-478 BCE Created for protection against Persia 150 Greek city-states Athens lead this league Cities contributed troops and armaments or payment Athens ruthlessly controlled the league ***What is the historical lesson?
  12. 12. The Peloponnesian War 431-404 BCE Develops as Athens reaches its cultural, political, and economic peak Delian League vs. the Peloponnesian League (Sparta) Athens-naval power Sparta-land force The Sicily Expedition Colonial discontent Rise of oligarchy

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