The protestantreformationedited

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The protestantreformationedited

  1. 1. Lecture 19: The 16 th C Protestant Reformation
  2. 2. Causes for Religious Reformation <ul><li>Wealth + corruption of the church </li></ul><ul><li>Church rituals: loss of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Inner spirituality </li></ul><ul><li>Printing Press </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Humanists </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas More: Utopia </li></ul><ul><li>Desiderius Erasmus: In Praise of Folly </li></ul>
  3. 3. Martin Luther <ul><li>Conversion + doubt </li></ul><ul><li>95 Thesis: attack on sale of indulgences </li></ul><ul><li>Dominican friar Tetzel </li></ul><ul><li>The Freedom of the Christian: salvation by faith alone </li></ul><ul><li>Military means to reform </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition leading to The Diet of Worms (1521) </li></ul>
  4. 4. German Peasants’ Revolt <ul><li>Peasant rebellion: 12 Articles </li></ul><ul><li>An Admonition to Peace : Luther’s support </li></ul><ul><li>Warning against armed force </li></ul><ul><li>Luther’s attack: Against the Thieving, Murderous Hordes of Peasants (1525) </li></ul><ul><li>Victory to the State </li></ul>
  5. 5. Success of Luther’s Message <ul><li>Corruption of Church </li></ul><ul><li>Political motivations: freedom from Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Support of humanist Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to women: the sacred home </li></ul><ul><li>Power of print + propaganda </li></ul>
  6. 6. Swiss Reformation: Ulrich Zwingli <ul><li>Popularity + influence in Zurich </li></ul><ul><li>No scriptural basis = unchristian </li></ul><ul><li>Results: Literal interpretation + Standardization </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict with Luther: The Eucharist </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of reconciliation </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting in Marburg </li></ul>
  7. 7. Swiss Reformation: John Calvin <ul><li>Invitation to Geneva </li></ul><ul><li>Social organization: strict moral code </li></ul><ul><li>Institutes of the Christian Religion: literal scripture </li></ul><ul><li>Church structure: Pastors, teachers, elders, deacons </li></ul><ul><li>Predestination: Doctrine of the Elect </li></ul><ul><li>Role of good works </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Calvinism </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinism in Scotland: John Knox </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Reformation in Britain <ul><li>Henry VIII: requesting an annulment </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament: English King as head of church </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic practices remain: Six Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Edward VI: Protestant transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Mary: Catholicism reasserted </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth: compromise </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Radical Reformation: Anabaptists <ul><li>Opposition to infant baptism </li></ul><ul><li>Pacifism, communism, separation of church + state </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Melchiorites </li></ul><ul><li>Persecution </li></ul>
  10. 10. Counter Reformation: The Jesuits <ul><li>Ignatius Loyola </li></ul><ul><li>Fanatic obedience </li></ul><ul><li>Self-mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Monasticism discipline + intensive preaching </li></ul><ul><li>Flaw of predestination </li></ul><ul><li>Promise of hope + emotional impact </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in power </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tactics of the Counter-Reformation <ul><li>Pope Paul III, the reformer </li></ul><ul><li>The Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Censorship: Index of Prohibited Books </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Trent: Reform </li></ul><ul><li>No reconciliation: permanent split </li></ul>

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