The Fall of Rome


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The Fall of Rome

  1. 1. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  2. 2. The Third Century Crisis <ul><li>Political decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warlordism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Military decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbarian autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social outlooks on the military </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban contraction </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Twilight of the Gods <ul><li>Clientage </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic patterns of commerce </li></ul><ul><li>The decline of the imperial ideal </li></ul><ul><li>From realism to abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>The growth of cults </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Ancient Hebrews <ul><li>ca. 2000-1800 BC Migration of Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 1600 BC Descent into Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 1350 BC Akhenaten’s monolatry </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 1290-1240 BC the Exodus </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 1250-1200 BC Entry into Canaan </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 1250-1020 Era of the Judges </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Hebrew Kingdom <ul><li>ca. 1020-1000 BC reign of Saul </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 1000-961 BC reign of David </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 961-922 reign of Solomon </li></ul><ul><li>922 BC division of kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>722 BC fall of Israel to Assyrians </li></ul><ul><li>587/586 BC fall of Judea to Babylonians </li></ul><ul><li>539 BC Return to Jerusalem </li></ul>
  6. 6. Roman Occupation <ul><li>332 BC Alexander’s conquest of Persia </li></ul><ul><li>165 BC Maccabean revolt </li></ul><ul><li>63 BC Pompey conquers Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>66-73 AD Revolt against the Romans </li></ul><ul><li>After 73 AD: the Diaspora </li></ul>
  7. 7. Monotheism <ul><li>God’s place in the scheme of nature </li></ul><ul><li>The Ancient Near East, a comparison: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt and the Hymn to Aten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babylon and the Enuma Elish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hebrews and the Book of Genesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waters above, waters below </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Hymn to the Aten <ul><li>You rise in perfection on the horizon of the sky, living Aten, who started life. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever you are risen upon the Eastern horizon you fill evry land with your perfection. </li></ul><ul><li>You are appealing, great, sparkling, high over every land; your rays hold together the lands as far as everything you have made… </li></ul><ul><li>Lord of eternity: a Nile in the sky for the foreigners and all creatures that go upon their feet, a Nile coming back from the Underworld for Egypt. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Enuma Elish <ul><li>WHEN on high the Heavens had not been named, Firm ground below had not been called by name, Nothing but ‘Primordial Apsu’ the Begetter, [Fresh Water] and ‘Mummu Tiamat’, She Who Bore them All, [Salt Water] –their waters commingling as a single body– </li></ul><ul><li>Then the lord paused to view [Tiamat’s] dead body, That he might divide the monster and do artful works. He split her like a shellfish into two parts: Half of her he set up and ceiled as sky, Pulled down the bar and posted guards. He bade them to allow not her waters to escape. He crossed the heavens and surveyed (its) regions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Genesis <ul><li>In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day. And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Elements of Judaism <ul><li>Creed, cult, community, and eschatology </li></ul><ul><li>The sh’ma </li></ul><ul><li>Controversies within Judaism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pharisees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sadducees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Zealots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Essenes </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Growth of Christianity <ul><li>8-4 BC the Birth of Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 30 AD Crucifixion of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 38 AD Paul’s vision </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 38-67 AD Paul’s travels and letters </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 70 AD earliest written Gospels </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 100 AD Gentile majority in the Christian community </li></ul>
  13. 13. Early Christianity <ul><li>The Jerusalem church: continuity and modification </li></ul><ul><li>Pauline Christianity: into the Hellenistic world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrality of creed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of cultic life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christianity as a “counter-culture” </li></ul><ul><li>The Beatitudes </li></ul>
  14. 14. Diocletian <ul><li>Imperial reorganization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefectures and dioceses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tetrarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Military build-up </li></ul><ul><li>The Dominate </li></ul><ul><li>Persecution of Christianity </li></ul>
  15. 15. Constantine <ul><li>312 The Battle of Milvian Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>313 The Edict of Milan </li></ul><ul><li>324 Shuffling the imperial deck </li></ul><ul><li>325 The Council of Nicaea </li></ul><ul><li>330 Foundation of Constantinople </li></ul>
  16. 16. Christianity in Command <ul><li>Theodosius and the end of Paganism </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional structures of the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Social composition of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>The sacramental system </li></ul><ul><li>The Canon </li></ul>
  17. 17. Christianity and Classical Culture <ul><li>St. Jerome and the Vulgate </li></ul><ul><li>St. Augustine and The City of God </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity and militarism </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Stoicism and Christian Platonism </li></ul>
  18. 18. An Empire’s Fall <ul><li>The Migration of the Peoples ( AKA the Barbarian Invasions) </li></ul><ul><li>378 Battle of Adrianople </li></ul><ul><li>410 The Sack of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Puppet emperors </li></ul><ul><li>476 Deposition of Romulus Augustus </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Dark Ages <ul><li>Decline of central political authority </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of literacy among the laity </li></ul><ul><li>Local economic self-sufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Retreat into the countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Depopulation </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Papacy <ul><li>Patristic Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>The Two Swords </li></ul><ul><li>The Petrine Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory the Great (590-604) </li></ul><ul><li>Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>597 the Mission to Canterbury </li></ul>
  21. 21. Monasticism <ul><li>Hagiographies and St. Anthony </li></ul><ul><li>Celtic monasticism and St. Patrick </li></ul><ul><li>St. Benedict’s order </li></ul><ul><li>The Role of Poverty </li></ul>
  22. 22. Germanic Tribes <ul><li>Social Organization: the Comitatus </li></ul><ul><li>Gender relations </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisprudence: the wergild , trial, and compurgation </li></ul><ul><li>Christianization of the Barbarians </li></ul><ul><li>Arianism and Catholicism: Christianity’s civil war </li></ul><ul><li>The Franks and Anglo-Saxons </li></ul>
  23. 24. Summary <ul><li>The collapse of the Roman Empire reflected the confluence of a variety of causes, including external pressures, internal ideological developments, and Roman material decline. In its absence, the West would embark on a new path of civilization that would only partially reflect its classical origins. Christianity would be the single most significant element of this “medieval” culture. Those elements preserved of Roman culture and society are in many ways the ones that the early Christians elected to keep. </li></ul>