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Unit 3. apuntes.


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Unit 3. apuntes.

  1. 1. Unit 3: Ancient Greece 2.2. The Archaic Age: colonisation  Between the 8th and the 6th centuries the poleis were governed by the chiefs or kings, but they gradually lost power to the aristocracy, who hold public positions.  Aristocracy oppressed the weakest social groups and tyrants took power by force.  Tyrants took away the citizens’ rights and freedom, although they introduced some economic reforms.  As population grew there was not enough farmland to grow crops. Merchants and artisans expanded their trade. Consequently Ancient Greeks started to establish colonies around the Mediterranean Sea. They also began to produce coins.
  2. 2. 2.3. The Classical Age This was the most splendid period, from the 5th to the 4th century BC. The most important poleis were: ATHENS SPARTA  Peasant and other groups protested against the abuse of power by the governing aristocracy.  Some reforms were introduced, such as giving political power to the Ekklesia (Citizens’ Assembly). This measure was introduced by Solon (lawmaker).  Democracy was established in Athens. o Citizens held the power  Voted from laws  Elected public representatives.  Decided whether to go to war or not and make peace with enemies.  The Ekklesia elected magistrates and voted on the laws. These magistrates carried out the assembly’s decisions. The members of the Council, who prepared the laws, were chosen among the Assembly by casting or drawing of lots.  Oligarchical system: power hold by a small group of people.  Sparta poleis were ruled by two kings, 28 elders (Gerousia) and five officials (ephors).  The king performed civil and religious functions.  According to Spartan tradition, Lycurgus the Lawmaker wrote the laws that governed Sparta.
  3. 3. MILITARY CONFLICTS In this period the Greeks took part in several wars.  In the Persian Wars (494-479 BC), they fought the Persians over control of the coasts of Asia Minor. Athens organized an association of city states called the Delian League and sent a powerful fleet to conquer the Persians.  In the Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 BC), the Greek city states fought each other. Athens. Athens wanted to control the Delian League’s treasure and forced other poleis to stay in the association.Sparta was opposed to this and tensions started between the poleis. Sparta won and imposed an oligarchy on Athens. 2.4. The Hellenistic Age  From the 4th century, Macedonia (North of Greece) began to conquer the Greek city states.  Macedonia was governed by a hereditary monarchy.  In 359 BC, Philip II came to the throne and the expansion began.  His son Alexander the Great created the largest empire the Ancient World had ever seen. He took control of the rest of Greece, Syria, Egypt and Mesopotamia. He conquered the Persians and went as far as India.  After his death, the generals shared out his empire. It was divided into: o Macedonia and Greece o Asia Minor, Syria, Mesopotamia and the old Persian Empire o Egypt (Where Alexandria was founded).  Between the 2nd and the 1st centuries BC, Rome formed a new huge empire and conquered these territories.