AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt


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AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt

  1. 1. Greece and Iran 1000 – 30 B.C.E.
  2. 2. Ancient Iran 1000 – 30 B.C.E.
  3. 3. Geography and Resources <ul><li>Surrounded by mountains, deserts, and Persian Gulf. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open to attack from Central Asian nomads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water very scarce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caused creation of underground irrigation networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources available: copper, tin, iron, gold, silver, and timber </li></ul><ul><li>Created extensive road system </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rise of Persian Empire <ul><li>550 B.C.E. – Cyrus overthrew Median king and began Persian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Persian Empire built by 3 kings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darius I </li></ul></ul>Darius I Cambyses Cyrus
  5. 5. Taking Over <ul><li>Cyrus captures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lydia in Anatolia (546 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia (539 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Darius I extends empire east to Indus Valley and west to European Thrace. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Map of Persian Empire
  7. 7. Organization and Ideology <ul><li>Empire divided into 20 provinces after Darius I. </li></ul><ul><li>Satrap administered each province </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satrap was related or connected to royal family, position tended to become hereditary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satraps in distant provinces had much autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provinces required to pay annual tribute of gold and silver </li></ul>
  8. 8. Persian Kings <ul><li>Kings seen as aloof and majestic </li></ul><ul><li>Kings were masters of all subjects and nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Owned and administered vast tracts of “king’s land” around empire </li></ul><ul><li>Acted as lawgivers, but allowed people to live according to their traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Managed administration at capital of Susa </li></ul><ul><li>Performed ceremonies at Persepolis </li></ul>
  9. 9. Zoroastrianism <ul><li>Zoroaster lived between 1700–500 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Zoroaster wrote the Gathas or hymns of Zoroastrianism. </li></ul><ul><li>The universe is dualistic </li></ul><ul><li>God of good, Ahuramazda, locked in epic battle with the god of evil, Angra Mainyu. </li></ul><ul><li>This dualism may have influenced Judaism and Christianity. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Rise of the Greeks 1000 – 500 B.C.E.
  11. 11. Geography and Resources <ul><li>Part of Mediterranean ecological zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great area for migration, transfer of crops and technology, trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greek culture area is Greek mainland and islands and the western edge of Anatolia. </li></ul><ul><li>No water resources for irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not support large population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Few metal resources, little timber </li></ul><ul><li>Many harbors </li></ul>
  12. 12. Map of Ancient Greece
  13. 13. Emergence of the Polis <ul><li>“ Dark Age” after Mycenaean period from 1150 – 800 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended when contact and trade with Mediterranean lands reestablished. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phoenicians supplied Greeks with alphabetic writing system. </li></ul><ul><li>Archaic period begins (800 – 480 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosive population growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift to agricultural economy, import food and materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of urbanization, specialization, and polis </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Polis <ul><li>Urban center and its rural territory </li></ul><ul><li>Acropolis </li></ul><ul><li>Agora </li></ul><ul><li>Fortified Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Public Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>No sharp distinction between urban and rural inhabitants </li></ul>
  15. 15. Acropolis at Athens Parthenon
  16. 16. War <ul><li>Frequent wars between city-states </li></ul><ul><li>Used hoplites in warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close formation of heavily armored infantrymen to break enemy’s line of defense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soldiers were farmer-citizens who served for short periods of time when needed </li></ul>
  17. 17. Colonization <ul><li>Greeks sent excess population to colonies in the Mediterranean and Black Sea. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough resources to support them in Greek mainland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brought Greeks in contact with other peoples with new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Sharpened sense of Greek identity </li></ul><ul><li>Spurred invention of coins in Lydia during the early sixth century B.C.E. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rule in Greece <ul><li>Emergence of middle class in Archaic Greek society led to one-man rule by tyrants in the mid-seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced power of traditional elites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tyrants eventually rejected </li></ul><ul><li>Governments developed in two ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. New Intellectual Currents <ul><li>Developed concepts of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philosophers question traditional Greek religion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to explain rationally why world was created, what it is made of, why it changes. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The reason you are in class… <ul><li>Late sixth century B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>“logographers” in Ionia gathered information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peoples of the Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background of important Greek families </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This method was adopted by Herodotus in Histories . </li></ul><ul><li>Herodotus collected information about Greeks and Persians going to war AND he tried to explain why. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Herodotus He developed the discipline of “history” in its modern sense. History is the Greek word for inquiry.
  22. 22. Sparta <ul><li>Polis in the Pelopponese in southern Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta took over fertile land of Messenia and enslaved the people to feed themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of slave uprising caused Spartans to create a severe and highly militarized society in which all Spartan males trained for the army. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Spartan Soldier
  24. 24. Spartan Spirit
  25. 25. Spartan Warriors
  26. 26. Athens <ul><li>Very large hinterland allowed for a population of about 300,000 in fifth century B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Period of rule by tyrants in sixth century B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ejected tyrants and developed a democracy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pericles completed transition to democracy in 460s-450s. </li></ul><ul><li>Government included Assembly, Council of 500, and People’s Courts. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Athens
  28. 28. Struggle of Persia and Greece 526 – 323 B.C.E.
  29. 29. Early Encounters <ul><li>499 B.C.E. – Greek cities in Anatolia stage 5-year revolt against Persian rule. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aided by Eretria and Athens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This revolt led to the Persian Wars. </li></ul>
  30. 30. First Persian War <ul><li>Generals of Darius I: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captured Eretria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked Athens in 490 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attack on Athens foiled when Athenian forces defeated Persians at Marathon. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A messenger named Philippidès ran from Marathon to Athens to tell of the victory. He died from exhaustion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The marathon is now run to celebrate his heroism. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Second Persian War <ul><li>480 B.C.E. – Xerxes led large army and fleet against Greeks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Greek city-states submitted to his domination. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sparta organized Hellenic League to defeat Persians. </li></ul><ul><li>Athens organized Delian League to go on offensive and drove Persians out of eastern Mediterranean (except Cyprus). </li></ul>
  32. 32. Height of Athenian Power 480 – 323 B.C.E.
  33. 33. Classical Period <ul><li>Dominant role of Athens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperial power because of Delian League </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power based on Athenian navy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created trireme – 170 oar boat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower-class men were rowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the rowers were so important, they demanded full rights of citizenship </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Wealth of Athens <ul><li>Used power to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out profitable trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract tribute from subject states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wealth of Athens allowed it to construct massive public works projects, put on grand festivals and support arts and sciences. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Socrates <ul><li>One of the most influential philosophers of this time. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on ethics and precise meaning of words. </li></ul><ul><li>Created Socratic Method of question and answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Charged with corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods of the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentenced to death. </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Death of Socrates
  37. 37. Plato <ul><li>Explored justice, excellence, and wisdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Taught that the world as we see it is a pale reflection of a higher, ideal reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Transitioned from oral to written culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Read and wrote books </li></ul><ul><li>Founded a school called “The Academy” </li></ul>
  38. 38. Plato’s Academy
  39. 39. Philosophy in Ancient Greece
  40. 40. Athenian Democracy <ul><li>Very limited in its scope </li></ul><ul><li>Only free adult males could participate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-15% of total population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women, slaves, foreigners did not have rights of citizens </li></ul>
  41. 41. Athenian Slaves <ul><li>Mostly foreign </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Regarded as property </li></ul><ul><li>Average family owned 1 or more slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Treated like domestic servants </li></ul><ul><li>Provided males with time for political activity </li></ul>
  42. 42. Women in Ancient Greece <ul><li>In Sparta – women free and outspoken </li></ul><ul><li>In Athens – women confined and oppressed </li></ul><ul><li>Athenian marriages – young women to older men </li></ul><ul><li>Duties of wife – produce and raise children, weave cloth, cook, and clean </li></ul>
  43. 43. Pelopponesian War <ul><li>Imperial Athens upset other city-states </li></ul><ul><li>431 B.C.E. – Athenian and Spartan alliances go to war. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta, with Persian navy, defeats Athens in 404 B.C.E. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Sparta <ul><li>Sparta became very arrogant. </li></ul><ul><li>This inspired opposition from other city-states. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal conflict allowed Persia to regain their lost territory in Anatolia. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Macedonia <ul><li>Northern Greek Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>King Philip developed it into a great military power </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened army by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving soldiers longer spears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using cavalry and infantry forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing new siege equipment like catapults </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. King Philip of Macedonia
  47. 47. Macedonian Catapult
  48. 48. Alexander the Great <ul><li>Invaded Persia in 336 B.C.E. and won </li></ul><ul><li>Goal was to conquer the known world </li></ul><ul><li>Built his own empire as far as Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Used Persian, Greek, and Macedonian officials in his empire </li></ul>
  49. 49. Alexander the Great
  50. 50. Alexander’s Empire
  51. 51. Hellenistic Synthesis
  52. 52. Death of Alexander the Great <ul><li>When Alexander died, his empire broke into 3 kingdoms, each ruled by a Macedonian dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>This period is the Hellenistic Age (323-30 B.C.E.) </li></ul>
  53. 53. Seleucid Kingdom <ul><li>Core area of Mesopotamia, Syria, part of Anatolia, Iran, and Indus Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Iran and Indus Valley territory lost in second century B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Seleucids established new Greek-style cities </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained Persian style of administrative system </li></ul>
  54. 54. Ptolemies <ul><li>Ruled Egypt and sometimes Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Took over Egyptian administrative and taxation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Made Alexandria their capital and encouraged Greek immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle and language of most Egyptian population did not change, but they resented Greek rule </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian uprisings became common in early second century B.C.E. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Antigonids <ul><li>Ruled Macedonia and parts of Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Spartans and other city-state confederations resisted Macedonian rule </li></ul><ul><li>Athenians remained neutral in fight for rule </li></ul>
  56. 56. Alexandria <ul><li>Greatest city of the Hellenistic age. </li></ul><ul><li>Population of 500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Featured the Mausoleum of Alexander, Library, and Museum. </li></ul><ul><li>City was a political center, great center of learning, and major trading city. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Alexandria <ul><li>Greek city – Greeks had citizenship and participated in government (Assembly and Council) </li></ul><ul><li>City had public baths, theaters, gymnasiums. </li></ul><ul><li>City had significant Jewish population that dominated 2 of 5 residential districts </li></ul>
  58. 58. Alexandria
  59. 59. Hellenization <ul><li>Intermarriage between Greeks and non-Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Greek language and lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of indigenous and Greek culture </li></ul>
  60. 60. Hellenistic Civilization