Lecture2edited

348 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
348
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lecture2edited

  1. 1. Lecture 2: Egyptian Civilization, 10,000 – 1100 BCE
  2. 2. Time Periods <ul><li>Predynastic period: 10,000 – 3000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Old Kingdom: 3000-2200 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Kingdom: 2040-1785 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>New Kingdom: 1600-1100BCE </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview: Predynastic period <ul><li>Nile River: agriculturally prosperous </li></ul><ul><li>5000-4000 BCE: Emergence of small towns </li></ul><ul><li>Same transition to agriculture, rise in trade </li></ul>
  4. 4. Old Kingdom (3000-2200 BCE) <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>2 kingdoms - Upper + Lower Egypt (King Menes - Narmer) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly organized, centralized theocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in art, architecture, literature, medicine, and technological skills </li></ul><ul><li>Capital city of Memphis </li></ul>
  5. 5. Political Structure <ul><li>Hierarchy: Kings, court officials, provincial governors, city mayors </li></ul><ul><li>Kings </li></ul><ul><li>Religious, social, + political life </li></ul><ul><li>Divine figures of authority, half-divine </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained order by caring for temples </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Priests </li></ul><ul><li>Main duty: act of behalf of King in temple </li></ul><ul><li>Elite families: hereditary power </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy: massive estates </li></ul><ul><li>Advised kings </li></ul><ul><li>Collected taxes, organized building projects, administered justice </li></ul>
  7. 7. Peasants and Artisans <ul><li>Carefully regulated lives: movements limited, taxed heavily </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of population (80%) </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural work or domestic servants for elite. </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding season: large building projects </li></ul>
  8. 8. Egyptian Writing <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Script independent of cuneiform </li></ul><ul><li>Hieroglyphics (&quot;sacred carvings&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly with pen and ink on fine paper (papyrus) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Role of the Scribe <ul><li>Trained in hieroglyph writing </li></ul><ul><li>Records of king’s possessions, food production </li></ul><ul><li>Years of schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge = privileged status </li></ul>
  10. 10. Egyptian Religion <ul><li>Overview : </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Each region: own patron deity </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs + rituals: life after death </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian religion centralized </li></ul><ul><li>Function of temple: religious </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Gods <ul><li>Re, the sun God </li></ul><ul><li>Creator of universe </li></ul><ul><li>Most important deity of Old Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Kings: &quot;sons of Re&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Course through sky + underworld = daily pattern for King’s life, death, and resurrection. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Representation of the Gods <ul><li>Early representations: Gods as animals, eg. falcon, vulture, cobra, dog, cat or crocodile. Animals possessed religious significance. </li></ul><ul><li>Later representations : Human (anthropomorphism), often retained animal's head or body. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Burial Tombs: The Pyramids <ul><li>Overview : </li></ul><ul><li>Construction: 2680-2400 BCE (replaced with rock-cut tombs) </li></ul><ul><li>4-sided, stone </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose : Burial tombs for Kings </li></ul><ul><li>First pyramid : </li></ul><ul><li>Saqqara: King Djoser </li></ul><ul><li>6 steps: ladder to heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly lavish </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>2600 BCE: Great Pyramid at Giza </li></ul><ul><li>Built by King Khufu (or Cheops) </li></ul><ul><li>Largest human-made structure in ancient world </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of greatness of Old Kingdom </li></ul>
  15. 15. Features of Burial Tombs <ul><li>Supplies for journey into afterlife: every day + valuable luxury items </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings on walls of tombs: spiritual purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Walls of chamber: hieroglyphics </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mummification <ul><li>Practice: According to Herodotus, most refined method of mummification: </li></ul><ul><li>“… first of all they draw out the brain through the nostrils with an iron hook….then they make an incision in the flank with a sharp Ethiopian stone through which they extract all the internal organs…” </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose : Slowly dry a dead body, prevent it from rotting. Preserving body in death kept soul alive </li></ul><ul><li>Ka : Indestructible vital principle. Left body at death: ka , on its return, would not find body decomposed </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>*Religious beliefs = Basis of Egyptian life* </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine : Magical utterances: disease attributed to gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomy : for correct time to perform religious rites + sacrifices. </li></ul><ul><li>Literature : Earliest examples - religious themes. </li></ul><ul><li>Government : King as divine monarch - intermediary between gods + man. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Middle Kingdom (2040-1785 BCE) <ul><li>Old Kingdom collapsed: economic decline, drought, deterioration of Kings </li></ul><ul><li>2200-2040 BCE: First Immediate Period, anarchy + civil war </li></ul><ul><li>2040 BCE: Mentuhotep II, Middle Kingdom </li></ul>
  19. 19. Characteristics of Middle Kingdom <ul><li>Power of the Kings waned </li></ul><ul><li>Tombs less extravagant </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy open to literate </li></ul><ul><li>More public-work projects; more concern for ordinary people </li></ul><ul><li>2. Renewed interest in foreign policy - trading + military </li></ul>
  20. 20. Osiris, God of the Dead <ul><li>Local deity in Lower Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>First intermediate period: replaced Re as most popular deity </li></ul><ul><li>Judged the dead before Osiris </li></ul><ul><li>Osiris weighed heart - true confession? </li></ul><ul><li>Promise of immortality: religious democratization </li></ul>
  21. 21. Importance of the Afterlife <ul><li>Optimistic worldview : Afterlife possible for all </li></ul><ul><li>Death = continuation of one's life on earth with proper burial, prayer, and ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid Texts : earliest known writings about resurrection </li></ul><ul><li>Book of the Dead : spells, incantations, prayers, hymns, + rituals to attain immortality </li></ul>
  22. 22. New Kingdom (1600-1100BCE) <ul><li>Expulsion of Hyksos from Egypt (1550 BCE): King Ahmose I overthrew </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth, military success, + splendor </li></ul><ul><li>Temple building + elaborate tombs </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramids discontinued. Rock-cut tombs in Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens at Thebes </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of deity Amun-Re </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Territorial Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>After Hyksos rule: more interest in foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent army </li></ul><ul><li>Army + chariot warfare technology = territorial expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Palestine conquered under King Thutmose I (1504-1492 BCE) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Dynamic Leaders of New Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Hatshepsut (1479-1458 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>First female pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>Temple at Deir el Bahri in Thebes </li></ul><ul><li>Policies of peace; also military expeditions, mining, agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Man in art: aware of unusual position </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Thutmose III (1458-1425 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Son of Hatshepsut </li></ul><ul><li>Reign of military glory </li></ul><ul><li>Amenhotep III (1412-1375 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Height of new Egyptian imperial state </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of magnificent new buildings + temples </li></ul>
  26. 26. Religious Revolution of the Amarna Period <ul><li>Growth in power of priests of Amon </li></ul><ul><li>Amenhotep IV (1367-1350 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to priesthood </li></ul><ul><li>Aten, the sun, as universal and the only God </li></ul><ul><li>Changed name: Akhenaton (“one useful to Aten&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Significance: First instance of Monotheism in Egypt </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Capital from Thebes to the north </li></ul><ul><li>Closed temples, forbade festivals to other Gods, attacked traditional beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Response? </li></ul><ul><li>Lost support of priests and people </li></ul><ul><li>Successor Tutankhamon (1347-1339 BCE) restored old traditions, capital back to Thebes </li></ul>
  28. 28. Age of Ramesses II (1279-1213 BCE) <ul><li>Regained control of Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Monuments at Pi-Ramesse, Memphis, Abydos, Thebes, + Abu Simbel </li></ul><ul><li>1269 BCE: Treaty with Hittites </li></ul><ul><li>By 1100 BCE: New Kingdom expired </li></ul>
  29. 29. Rivals to Egyptian Civilization <ul><li>Hittite Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Anatolia by 1650 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful, wealthy, multiethnic </li></ul><ul><li>Trade + communication in International Bronze Age </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict with Egypt: Battle of Kadesh 1274 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Eternal treaty: diplomatic peace </li></ul>
  30. 30. Lecture 2: What do you need to know? <ul><li>Old Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Political structure, particularly power of kings </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of hieroglyphics and importance of scribes </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian Religion: what were the defining characteristics? How is this evident in social practices (burial tombs, mummification) </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>What transformations took place? </li></ul><ul><li>New Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Military success </li></ul><ul><li>Important leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Religious revolution: under who? What was it? Results? </li></ul>

×