Humanitarian Intervention

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  • Humanitarian Intervention

    1. 1. <ul><li>Dr. William Vocke </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Fellow </li></ul>www.carnegiecouncil.org
    2. 2. GEC: Ecological Intervention <ul><li>To prevent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major environmental emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-border dangers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecocide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Together with humanitarian concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese whalers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesian loggers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American polluters </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. GEC <ul><li>Military Intervention & Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>illiberal democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honduras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President’s survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military coup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burma/Myanmar? </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Trojan Horse & Empty Rhetoric? <ul><li>Trojan Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarian intervention as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimating language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursue national interest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empty Rhetoric </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t generate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political WILL </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Daniel Goldhagen: Genocide and Politics <ul><li>American author and former associate professor of political science and social studies at Harvard University, author of two books about the Holocaust, Hitler's Willing Executioners (Alfred A. Knopf, 1996) and A Moral Reckoning </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide is a systemic problem </li></ul><ul><li>A political decision for political ends </li></ul><ul><li>A form of eliminationism </li></ul>
    6. 6. Right to Intervene <ul><li>Intervention is legitimate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorize intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter VII, UN Charter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UN Charter does not prevent: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ban on force”- Article 2 (4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonintervention Rule – Article 2 (7) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Anne-Marie Slaughter: International Law & Human Rights <ul><li>Dean, Woodrow Wilson School Princeton University. Professor & Director of Graduate and International Legal Studies at Harvard Law School. Former President of the American Society of International Law. As of January 23, 2009, Anne-Marie Slaughter is Director of Policy Planning, State Department. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Modifies Wilson’s “self-determination” </li></ul><ul><li>Requires entire international community to respond </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Legal Prohibition against Initiating Wars, 1875–2005 Kegley (2006)
    9. 9. Nonintervention Norm in International Law since 1820 Kegley (2006)
    10. 10. UN & War <ul><li>UN </li></ul><ul><li>1. Indirect: </li></ul><ul><li>Social and economic roots of armed conflict </li></ul><ul><li>WHO, FAO, UNESCO </li></ul><ul><li>2. Direct: </li></ul><ul><li>Directly bring fighting under control </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve armed conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain peace </li></ul>
    11. 11. The UN’s Headquarters and Global Network Kegley (2006)
    12. 12. UN and Peace <ul><li>Preventive diplomacy </li></ul><ul><li>Peace keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Peace making </li></ul><ul><li>Peace building </li></ul><ul><li>Peace enforcement </li></ul>
    13. 13. UN Peace Missions since 1948 Kegley (2006)
    14. 14. Civil Wars <ul><li>More frequent, longer, external involvement, resistant to negotiation, savage </li></ul><ul><li>International dimension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When systems change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great power intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversionary theory of war </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The Causes of Civil Wars <ul><li>Is violence necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>Relative deprivation (graph) </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic stress- young men </li></ul><ul><li>Geography (mountains & resources) </li></ul><ul><li>Secessionist revolts, irredentism </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism, ethnic warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Failing states </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth </li></ul>
    16. 16. J Curve Hypothesis A B Standard of Living Time Expectations Reality J Curve Hypothesis Relative Deprivation C
    17. 17. Demographic Stress and the Likelihood of Civil War Kegley (2006)
    18. 18. Other Global Issues <ul><li>Diseases: HIV/AIDS, SARS </li></ul><ul><li>Harmful pests: Non-native species </li></ul><ul><li>International organized crime: drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Global migration crisis: 20 million refugees </li></ul><ul><li>Failed states </li></ul>
    19. 19. GEC <ul><li>Am I My Brother’s Keeper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who do you help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. The Human Condition <ul><li>Global South: </li></ul><ul><li>2.7 billion people live on $2 or less per day </li></ul><ul><li>life expectancy less than 60 years </li></ul><ul><li>many lack basic sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>many lack safe drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>many lack adequate housing </li></ul><ul><li>many undernourished </li></ul>
    21. 22. Measuring Human Development <ul><li>Dependency Theory (core & periphery) </li></ul><ul><li>Human needs: basic physical, social, and political requirements needed for survival and security </li></ul><ul><li>Human Development Index (HDI) </li></ul><ul><li>combines life expectancy, literacy, income, and years of education </li></ul><ul><li>better measure than per capita GNP, or PPP </li></ul><ul><li>Integration vs. Fragmentation (Freeman) </li></ul>
    22. 23. Measuring Human Development: What is Quality of Life? Kegley (2006)
    23. 24. Map of Human Development Kegley (2006)
    24. 25. The Global Refugee Crisis <ul><li>Refugees: flee for safety to another country because of a well-founded fear of persecution; avg. 21 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Internally displaced people: people involuntarily uprooted from their homes, but still in their own countries </li></ul><ul><li>Failed states </li></ul>
    25. 26. Threats to Human Security <ul><li>ethnocentrism </li></ul><ul><li>xenophobia </li></ul><ul><li>ethnonationalism </li></ul><ul><li>ethnic cleansing </li></ul><ul><li>irredentism </li></ul><ul><li>“ clash of civilizations” </li></ul>
    26. 27. The World’s Major Civilizations: Kegley (2006)
    27. 28. Protecting Human Rights <ul><li>UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>noncombatant immunity </li></ul><ul><li>international regimes with enforcement powers </li></ul><ul><li>revising international law </li></ul><ul><li>prosecution of war criminals: Milosevic </li></ul><ul><li>humanitarian intervention </li></ul>
    28. 29. Five Goals of Sanctions <ul><li>1. compliance: alter behavior of target </li></ul><ul><li>2. subversion: topple leader from power </li></ul><ul><li>3. deterrence: of objectionable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>4. international symbolism: send messages to other actors </li></ul><ul><li>5. domestic symbolism: to gain support from own populace by taking action </li></ul>
    29. 30. Sanctions <ul><li>punitive actions for previous objectionable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>common tool of coercive diplomacy </li></ul><ul><li>alternative to military force </li></ul><ul><li>boycotts </li></ul><ul><li>occasional successes, but often failure </li></ul>
    30. 31. Joel Rosenthal: Duties, Fairness, & Ethics <ul><li>President, Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on the history of Human Rights in 20 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Pillars of Ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluralism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights & Responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairness </li></ul></ul>
    31. 33. Military Intervention <ul><li>Overt or covert use of force </li></ul><ul><li>Covert operations: secret activities </li></ul><ul><li>can heighten tensions and lead to war </li></ul><ul><li>nonintervention norm </li></ul><ul><li>intervention can be for moral or humanitarian reasons </li></ul>
    32. 34. Humanitarian Intervention: Old and New Views <ul><li>Humanitarian Intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State sovereignty vs. Human rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsibility to Protect (R2P) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims perspective </li></ul></ul>
    33. 35. R2P Questions? <ul><li>If Security Council is deadlocked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHO has authority to sanction intervention? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can it be “illegal but legitimate”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African Union – “the right … to intervene in a Member State pursuant to a decision by the Assembly…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a humanitarian crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHEN should intervention occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African Union – “…grave circumstances, namely: war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity.” </li></ul></ul>
    34. 36. Alex Bellamy: Prevention & Intervention <ul><li>Professor of peace and conflict studies at the University of Queensland; books include Kosovo and International Society (2002), Security Communities and Their Neighbours: Regional Fortresses or Global Integrators? (2004), Understanding Peacekeeping (edited with Paul D. Williams and Stuart Griffin, 2004), International Society and Its Critics (editor, 2004), Just Wars: From Cicero to Iraq (2006), Fighting Terror: Ethical Dilemmas (2008), and Responsibility to Protect (2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention is the best answer </li></ul><ul><li>Security Council is politics </li></ul><ul><li>Dafur – issue is making it work </li></ul>
    35. 38. Bellamy <ul><li>key measure for success for R2P is whether or not we can reduce the frequency of genocide and mass atrocities—that is, reduce the number of cases that get so bad that they come before the Council. </li></ul><ul><li>second school of thought is that the measure of success for R2P is whether you can make the Council react more quickly to crises once they have occured </li></ul>
    36. 39. R2P: Who <ul><li>First: responsibility of the state to protect its own people. </li></ul><ul><li>Second: responsibility of the international community to assist the state </li></ul><ul><li>Third: duty of the international community to take timely and decisive action where a state is manifestly failing to protect its people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapters VI, VII, and VIII; UN Charter </li></ul></ul>
    37. 40. R2P: When <ul><li>Just cause thresholds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large-scale loss of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethic cleansing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precautionary principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right intention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last resort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportional means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonable prospects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International consensus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate </li></ul></ul>
    38. 41. Iraq War & R2P <ul><li>Prior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General consensus- Security Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal consensus- “illegal but legitimate” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unilateral requirement- demanded by circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credibility of US & UK diminished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R2P language used to avoid intervention </li></ul></ul>
    39. 42. Google China: “do no evil” <ul><li>Pro-technology groups </li></ul><ul><li>Free market forces </li></ul><ul><li>US Industries lobbies </li></ul><ul><li>National Security </li></ul><ul><li>advocates </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>advocates </li></ul>
    40. 43. Conclusion <ul><li>Humanitarian Intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has become a NORM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains highly political </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R2P language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argument for non-intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimately political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention become the goal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trojan Horse? Empty Rhetoric? Genuine Concern? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YES, YES, YES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires Global community </li></ul></ul>
    41. 44. Daniel Goldhagen: Sovereignty & Genocide <ul><li>American author and former associate professor of political science and social studies at Harvard University, author of two books about the Holocaust, Hitler's Willing Executioners (Alfred A. Knopf, 1996) and A Moral Reckoning </li></ul><ul><li>Trend- Genocide has become domestic </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty protects states </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty must be amended </li></ul>
    42. 45. Daniel Goldhagen: Prevent Mass Murder <ul><li>American author and former associate professor of political science and social studies at Harvard University, author of two books about the Holocaust, Hitler's Willing Executioners (Alfred A. Knopf, 1996) and A Moral Reckoning </li></ul><ul><li>What is the life of 1 of 1M worth? </li></ul>
    43. 46. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>www.carnegiecouncil.org
    44. 47. Footnotes & References <ul><li>Video Clips are indicated by a full-screen slide that is blank, has a person’s picture, or has the CCEIA logo. These are available on YouTube, on the Carnegie Council channel. </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures and maps are personal, from Flicker under Creative Commons open license, or available from free sources like .gov and Wikipedia. </li></ul><ul><li>Some slides and maps are adapted from Charles Kegley, World Politics in Transition (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic source information is generally noted on the slides where appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Definitional material is occasionally abstracted from Wikipedia. </li></ul>
    45. 48. Concepts <ul><li>Ethics: criteria for evaluating right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Morality: principles about how we should behave </li></ul><ul><li>Civil society </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights: political rights and civil liberties recognized as inalienable for all people </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctions: punitive actions by one state against another for past objectionable behavior </li></ul>

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