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Overview    BEEPS   LiTS         Population Census    Household Surveys   Extra Slides




           The Sources and Uses of Survey Data on
                          Armenia

                           Shushanik Hakobyan

                             University of Virginia


                           September 18, 2009
Overview          BEEPS      LiTS     Population Census   Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Outline


           1   Overview of Micro Data

           2   Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey
               (BEEPS)

           3   Life in Transition (LiTS)

           4   2001 Population Census

           5   Household Surveys
Overview      BEEPS     LiTS     Population Census   Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Types of Micro Data



      Unit of observation
          A firm
           An individual

      Data structure
          Cross-section data: Observations on a set of variables in a
          given period, t, for individual units i=1,2,. . . ,n.
           Independent cross-sections => Pooled data
           Panel (or longitudinal) data
Overview     BEEPS      LiTS     Population Census   Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Micro Data on Armenia



      Firm-level data
          Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey
          (BEEPS)

      Individual-level data
          Life in Transition Survey (LiTS)
           Population Census
           Household Surveys (CRRC, NSS)
Overview      BEEPS      LiTS      Population Census   Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Sample Questions


      Sample Questions
           How tax evasion varies with frequency of bribes to tax officials?
           How likely are the individuals in one income group to move up,
           down, or remain in the same income group over time?
           How remittances influence spending on education?
           What is the pattern of educational assortative mating in
           Armenia? Do women marry up, down, or men with the same
           educational attainment?
           What is the return to education in Armenia (do wages rise with
           educational attainment)?
           How to measure income distribution using household surveys?
Overview      BEEPS       LiTS       Population Census   Household Surveys     Extra Slides



Firm-Level Data

      Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey
      (BEEPS)
           Examines the quality of the business environment
           Conducted by the EBRD and World Bank
           Surveys firms in 26 transition countries plus Turkey
           Rounds/number of surveyed firms: 1999/4,104; 2002/6,667;
           2005/9,655
           2005 Manufacturing Overlay: 1,713 enterprises in 7 countries
           Panel Component: 1,500 firms surveyed in both 2002 and 2005
           Comparator Surveys in 2004: 3,300 enterprises in 7
           non-transition economies
           Format: STATA and CSV
           http://www.ebrd.com/country/sector/econo/surveys/beeps.htm
           Also available at http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/ (Registration
           required)
Overview            BEEPS             LiTS            Population Census         Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Application of BEEPS

              How tax evasion varies with frequency of bribes to tax officials?

                   Fraction of Sales Concealed by Frequency of Bribes to Tax Officials

                          Variable                          Mean          Std. Dev.         N
                   1      Never                              0.12           0.21          2,445
                   2      Seldom                             0.21           0.25           763
                   3      Sometimes                          0.21           0.24           729
                   4      Frequently                         0.28           0.27           455
                   5      Usually                            0.31           0.27           236
                   6      Always                             0.31           0.28           181
                   7      Not Reported                       0.18           0.28           288
                          Total                              0.18           0.25          5,097
                          Missing                              –              –            643

      Source: Joulfaian, David, Bribes and Business Tax Evasion
Overview   BEEPS        LiTS             Population Census                 Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Determinants of Tax Evasion
                   Tobit estimates of Determinants of Tax Evasiona




                        a Estimates control for industry, size and country.

                     * Significant at the 5 percent level, ** at 10 percent level.
Overview      BEEPS       LiTS       Population Census   Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Individual-Level Data

      Life in Transition (LiTS)
           Provides insights into how transition has affected the lives of
           people (comprehensive assessment of relationships among life
           satisfaction and living standards, poverty and inequality, trust in
           state institutions, satisfaction with public services, attitudes to a
           market economy and democracy)
           Conducted by the EBRD and World Bank
           Covers 27 countries in transition plus Turkey and Mongolia
           Surveys 1,000 households in each country (29,000 in total)
           Retrospective questions about employment in the period
           between 1989 and 2006
           Format: STATA and CSV
           http://www.ebrd.com/country/sector/econo/surveys/lits.htm
Overview              BEEPS         LiTS            Population Census            Household Surveys             Extra Slides



LiTS: Income Mobility

               How likely are the individuals in one income group to move up,
               down, or remain in the same income group over time?

                        Subjective ranking: income mobility between 1989 and 2006
                                                 2006 Quintiles
           1989 Quintiles       1            2          3          4         5         All      Individuals
            poorest 20%       26.7%        53.0%     16.9%        1.3%     2.1%       100%           267,362
            2nd quintile      8.8%         27.7%     58.1%        5.4%     0.0%       100%           320,140
            3rd quintile      10.5%        34.0%     44.0%      10.3%      1.2%       100%           506,791
            4th quintile      11.5%        42.3%     41.0%        5.2%     0.0%       100%           720,929
            richest 20%       18.5%        30.0%     36.6%      10.6%      4.3%       100%           229,474
                All           13.6%        38.0%     40.8%        6.6%     1.1%       100%       2,044,696

      Computed from the 2006 LiTS household survey (see data page of www.aea.am to download)
Overview      BEEPS          LiTS         Population Census      Household Surveys   Extra Slides



LiTS: Remittances and Education Spending
           How remittances influence spending on education?

                                      Summary Statistics
                                            No Remittances      With Remittances
              Variables of interest        Mean       Std Dev   Mean      Std Dev
              Education Expenditures         184         363     389         555
              Health Expenditures            98          227     148         302
              Male                          71%         46%     55%         50%
              Age of Head                    50           14     50          17
              School age children           1.79         0.83   1.70        0.86
              University education         17.8%       38.3%    25.3%      43.7%
              Post-graduate education       0.4%        6.0%    0.0%        0.0%
              Receive social benefits       20.2%       40.2%    9.9%       30.0%
              Gifts from locals             2.0%       13.9%    6.6%       25.0%
              Observations                   461                 91
Overview       BEEPS           LiTS             Population Census                 Household Surveys        Extra Slides



LiTS: Remittances and Education Spending
           Dependent variable: Education expenditures
           Specification: OLS

             Variables                                     Coefficient                 s.e.   t-statistic
             Remittances                                        243.21*            57.06           4.26
             Remittances most important                       -155.52**            81.20          -1.92
             Male head                                            -13.65           36.78          -0.37
             Age – head                                             -1.09            6.90         -0.16
             Age squared                                             0.00            0.06         -0.05
             Head education – university                        186.43*            42.37           4.40
             Head education – post-graduate                    1396.56*         270.195            5.17
             Head unemployed                                      -47.45         122.00           -0.39
             Receive social benefits                            -157.23*            42.70          -3.68
             Receive transfers from charities                     -77.96         171.51           -0.45
             Receive gifts from locals                             40.85         100.82            0.41
             Constant                                             250.14         168.42            1.49
             Observations                                             552
                            * Significant at the 5 percent level, ** at 10 percent level.
Overview      BEEPS       LiTS       Population Census   Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Individual-Level Data


      Population Census
           Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International
           (IPUMS-International)
           Free access to census microdata for 44 countries
           2001 Armenian Population Census: 10% sample
           Universe: 81,929 households, 326,560 individuals
           Format: fixed-format ASCII, supported by STATA, SAS and
           SPSS
           https://international.ipums.org/international (Registration
           required)
Overview       BEEPS        LiTS       Population Census    Household Surveys      Extra Slides



Educational Assortative Mating

           Definition: Positive (negative) assortative mating on a characteristic
           means that individuals tend to match with partners who are similar
           (dissimilar) with respect to that characteristic.
           Do the Armenian women marry up, down, or men with the same
           educational attainment? How these choices change across different age
           cohorts and how differences in age, among others, influence the choices
           made?
           Data: 2001 Armenian Population Census
                Restricted to women born between 1921 and 1970: 46,653 couples
                Observe age, educational attainment, province or region of
                residence
                Measures of educational attainment
                   1   up to 3 years of primary education
                   2   lower secondary or 4-8 years
                   3   higher secondary
                   4   professional
                   5   university graduate
Overview           BEEPS            LiTS            Population Census            Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Descriptive Statistics




      Source: Hakobyan, Shushanik and David Joulfaian, Educational Assortative Mating in Armenia
Overview   BEEPS   LiTS     Population Census   Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Educational attainment of partners by female birth cohorts
Overview   BEEPS   LiTS               Population Census                Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Ordered Probit Estimates of Choices




                          Estimates control for region fixed effects.
Overview      BEEPS     LiTS       Population Census   Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Individual-Level Data




      Household Surveys
           NSS Household Surveys
               not publicly available
               surveys approximately 4000 households
           CRRC Data Initiative
Overview           BEEPS       LiTS        Population Census      Household Surveys            Extra Slides



2003 NSS Household Survey


              What is the return to education in Armenia?

           Summary Statistics: 2003 Monthly Salary by Education Level (in Drams)

           Education                  Number of Obs       Avg monthly wage            Std Dev
           Less than Secondary             86                  26167                   20580
           Secondary                       585                 29992                   24669
           Secondary Special               781                 25781                   24119
           Less than High                  24                  34534                   28577
           High Education                  810                 34758                   92064
           Total                          2286                 30146                   59302


              Restricted to ages 25 to 60 and those who report monthly compensation only
Overview              BEEPS      LiTS                    Population Census             Household Surveys             Extra Slides



OLS: Return to Education

              w   i   = β 0 + β 1 Age + β 2 Age 2 + β 3 Second + β 4 Secspec +
                                        i                     i                    i                        i

                           + β 5 Lesshigh + β 6 High + β 7 Female + ε
                                               i                    i                      i      i




                                                   All                  Women only                Men only
           Variable                     Coef.             t-stat        Coef.     t-stat         Coef.          t-stat
           Age                      2338**                 1.82          485       0.49           3502           1.47
           Age squared                      -27**         -1.77              -6   -0.94               -41       -1.44
           Secondary                        5494           0.82      5148**        1.69           5016           0.44
           Secondary Special                4525           0.68         1981       0.97           4730           0.42
           Less than High               12826              0.95         7122       0.67          16080           0.63
           High Education           13135*                 1.98         5387       1.37        18758**           1.66
           Female                  -22051*                -8.96
           Constant                 -14828                -0.56      5172**        1.81         -40109          -0.81
Overview      BEEPS       LiTS      Population Census   Household Surveys     Extra Slides



Income Measures


      Definitions of income based on Luxembourg Income Studies
      (LIS - http://www.lisproject.org/)
           Market Income (MI): gross salaries/wages, self-employment
           income, property income, pensions
           Gross Income (GI): MI plus old-age and survivors benefits,
           sickness benefits, disability benefits, child benefits,
           unemployment compensation benefits, maternity benefits,
           military benefits, social insurance, social assistance, near-cash
           benefits (housing), alimony/child support, private transfers,
           scholarship, other income
           Net Disposable Income (DPI): GI minus income taxes,
           mandatory employee contributions, mandatory contributions
           for self-employment
Overview      BEEPS        LiTS      Population Census             Household Surveys       Extra Slides



Income Distribution

           Highly skewed distribution

                                  Market Income Distribution
                40
                30
             Percent
              2010
                0




                       0          100000                  200000                  300000
                                     Household Market Income
Overview      BEEPS     LiTS     Population Census   Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient

           Lorenz curve of market income
               Stata command: glcurve varname, lorenz




           Gini coefficient of market income = 0.52
               Stata command: ineqdeco varname
Overview       BEEPS             LiTS            Population Census             Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Computing Income Deciles
           Sections used: Diary of income, Education, Monetary and Commodity Flows
           between Households
           Time unit: month
           Currency consistency: convert dollars and rubles into drams
           Unit of observation: Individual
           Stata command
                  xtile newvar = varname, n(10)
                  tab newvar, summ(varname)
                                   Market Income per capita      Gross Income per capita

                       Deciles          Mean         Std Dev          Mean        Std Dev

                         1                  0             0           203.57       340.69
                         2              730.19        185.24         1819.80       478.10
                         3          1558.42           384.50         3458.48       461.78
                         4          3194.01           533.58         5236.65       513.76
                         5          4977.41           453.64         6799.48       466.63
                         6          6343.55           379.53         8483.87       581.32
                         7          8101.41           661.70     10562.37          640.52
                         8         10898.31           964.11     13365.54          982.29
                         9         15109.87          1634.80     17719.36         1596.65
                         10        29160.64         12751.66     33421.15        16059.51
Overview   BEEPS   LiTS        Population Census   Household Surveys   Extra Slides




                    Thank you!
                   For questions, please email
                          sh9db@virginia.edu.
Overview   BEEPS    LiTS     Population Census   Household Surveys   Extra Slides



Tobit: Marginal Effects




                   where λ is inverse Mills ratio.

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The Sources and Uses of Survey Data on Armenia

  • 1. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides The Sources and Uses of Survey Data on Armenia Shushanik Hakobyan University of Virginia September 18, 2009
  • 2. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Outline 1 Overview of Micro Data 2 Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) 3 Life in Transition (LiTS) 4 2001 Population Census 5 Household Surveys
  • 3. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Types of Micro Data Unit of observation A firm An individual Data structure Cross-section data: Observations on a set of variables in a given period, t, for individual units i=1,2,. . . ,n. Independent cross-sections => Pooled data Panel (or longitudinal) data
  • 4. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Micro Data on Armenia Firm-level data Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) Individual-level data Life in Transition Survey (LiTS) Population Census Household Surveys (CRRC, NSS)
  • 5. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Sample Questions Sample Questions How tax evasion varies with frequency of bribes to tax officials? How likely are the individuals in one income group to move up, down, or remain in the same income group over time? How remittances influence spending on education? What is the pattern of educational assortative mating in Armenia? Do women marry up, down, or men with the same educational attainment? What is the return to education in Armenia (do wages rise with educational attainment)? How to measure income distribution using household surveys?
  • 6. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Firm-Level Data Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) Examines the quality of the business environment Conducted by the EBRD and World Bank Surveys firms in 26 transition countries plus Turkey Rounds/number of surveyed firms: 1999/4,104; 2002/6,667; 2005/9,655 2005 Manufacturing Overlay: 1,713 enterprises in 7 countries Panel Component: 1,500 firms surveyed in both 2002 and 2005 Comparator Surveys in 2004: 3,300 enterprises in 7 non-transition economies Format: STATA and CSV http://www.ebrd.com/country/sector/econo/surveys/beeps.htm Also available at http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/ (Registration required)
  • 7. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Application of BEEPS How tax evasion varies with frequency of bribes to tax officials? Fraction of Sales Concealed by Frequency of Bribes to Tax Officials Variable Mean Std. Dev. N 1 Never 0.12 0.21 2,445 2 Seldom 0.21 0.25 763 3 Sometimes 0.21 0.24 729 4 Frequently 0.28 0.27 455 5 Usually 0.31 0.27 236 6 Always 0.31 0.28 181 7 Not Reported 0.18 0.28 288 Total 0.18 0.25 5,097 Missing – – 643 Source: Joulfaian, David, Bribes and Business Tax Evasion
  • 8. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Determinants of Tax Evasion Tobit estimates of Determinants of Tax Evasiona a Estimates control for industry, size and country. * Significant at the 5 percent level, ** at 10 percent level.
  • 9. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Individual-Level Data Life in Transition (LiTS) Provides insights into how transition has affected the lives of people (comprehensive assessment of relationships among life satisfaction and living standards, poverty and inequality, trust in state institutions, satisfaction with public services, attitudes to a market economy and democracy) Conducted by the EBRD and World Bank Covers 27 countries in transition plus Turkey and Mongolia Surveys 1,000 households in each country (29,000 in total) Retrospective questions about employment in the period between 1989 and 2006 Format: STATA and CSV http://www.ebrd.com/country/sector/econo/surveys/lits.htm
  • 10. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides LiTS: Income Mobility How likely are the individuals in one income group to move up, down, or remain in the same income group over time? Subjective ranking: income mobility between 1989 and 2006 2006 Quintiles 1989 Quintiles 1 2 3 4 5 All Individuals poorest 20% 26.7% 53.0% 16.9% 1.3% 2.1% 100% 267,362 2nd quintile 8.8% 27.7% 58.1% 5.4% 0.0% 100% 320,140 3rd quintile 10.5% 34.0% 44.0% 10.3% 1.2% 100% 506,791 4th quintile 11.5% 42.3% 41.0% 5.2% 0.0% 100% 720,929 richest 20% 18.5% 30.0% 36.6% 10.6% 4.3% 100% 229,474 All 13.6% 38.0% 40.8% 6.6% 1.1% 100% 2,044,696 Computed from the 2006 LiTS household survey (see data page of www.aea.am to download)
  • 11. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides LiTS: Remittances and Education Spending How remittances influence spending on education? Summary Statistics No Remittances With Remittances Variables of interest Mean Std Dev Mean Std Dev Education Expenditures 184 363 389 555 Health Expenditures 98 227 148 302 Male 71% 46% 55% 50% Age of Head 50 14 50 17 School age children 1.79 0.83 1.70 0.86 University education 17.8% 38.3% 25.3% 43.7% Post-graduate education 0.4% 6.0% 0.0% 0.0% Receive social benefits 20.2% 40.2% 9.9% 30.0% Gifts from locals 2.0% 13.9% 6.6% 25.0% Observations 461 91
  • 12. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides LiTS: Remittances and Education Spending Dependent variable: Education expenditures Specification: OLS Variables Coefficient s.e. t-statistic Remittances 243.21* 57.06 4.26 Remittances most important -155.52** 81.20 -1.92 Male head -13.65 36.78 -0.37 Age – head -1.09 6.90 -0.16 Age squared 0.00 0.06 -0.05 Head education – university 186.43* 42.37 4.40 Head education – post-graduate 1396.56* 270.195 5.17 Head unemployed -47.45 122.00 -0.39 Receive social benefits -157.23* 42.70 -3.68 Receive transfers from charities -77.96 171.51 -0.45 Receive gifts from locals 40.85 100.82 0.41 Constant 250.14 168.42 1.49 Observations 552 * Significant at the 5 percent level, ** at 10 percent level.
  • 13. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Individual-Level Data Population Census Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International (IPUMS-International) Free access to census microdata for 44 countries 2001 Armenian Population Census: 10% sample Universe: 81,929 households, 326,560 individuals Format: fixed-format ASCII, supported by STATA, SAS and SPSS https://international.ipums.org/international (Registration required)
  • 14. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Educational Assortative Mating Definition: Positive (negative) assortative mating on a characteristic means that individuals tend to match with partners who are similar (dissimilar) with respect to that characteristic. Do the Armenian women marry up, down, or men with the same educational attainment? How these choices change across different age cohorts and how differences in age, among others, influence the choices made? Data: 2001 Armenian Population Census Restricted to women born between 1921 and 1970: 46,653 couples Observe age, educational attainment, province or region of residence Measures of educational attainment 1 up to 3 years of primary education 2 lower secondary or 4-8 years 3 higher secondary 4 professional 5 university graduate
  • 15. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Descriptive Statistics Source: Hakobyan, Shushanik and David Joulfaian, Educational Assortative Mating in Armenia
  • 16. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Educational attainment of partners by female birth cohorts
  • 17. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Ordered Probit Estimates of Choices Estimates control for region fixed effects.
  • 18. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Individual-Level Data Household Surveys NSS Household Surveys not publicly available surveys approximately 4000 households CRRC Data Initiative
  • 19. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides 2003 NSS Household Survey What is the return to education in Armenia? Summary Statistics: 2003 Monthly Salary by Education Level (in Drams) Education Number of Obs Avg monthly wage Std Dev Less than Secondary 86 26167 20580 Secondary 585 29992 24669 Secondary Special 781 25781 24119 Less than High 24 34534 28577 High Education 810 34758 92064 Total 2286 30146 59302 Restricted to ages 25 to 60 and those who report monthly compensation only
  • 20. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides OLS: Return to Education w i = β 0 + β 1 Age + β 2 Age 2 + β 3 Second + β 4 Secspec + i i i i + β 5 Lesshigh + β 6 High + β 7 Female + ε i i i i All Women only Men only Variable Coef. t-stat Coef. t-stat Coef. t-stat Age 2338** 1.82 485 0.49 3502 1.47 Age squared -27** -1.77 -6 -0.94 -41 -1.44 Secondary 5494 0.82 5148** 1.69 5016 0.44 Secondary Special 4525 0.68 1981 0.97 4730 0.42 Less than High 12826 0.95 7122 0.67 16080 0.63 High Education 13135* 1.98 5387 1.37 18758** 1.66 Female -22051* -8.96 Constant -14828 -0.56 5172** 1.81 -40109 -0.81
  • 21. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Income Measures Definitions of income based on Luxembourg Income Studies (LIS - http://www.lisproject.org/) Market Income (MI): gross salaries/wages, self-employment income, property income, pensions Gross Income (GI): MI plus old-age and survivors benefits, sickness benefits, disability benefits, child benefits, unemployment compensation benefits, maternity benefits, military benefits, social insurance, social assistance, near-cash benefits (housing), alimony/child support, private transfers, scholarship, other income Net Disposable Income (DPI): GI minus income taxes, mandatory employee contributions, mandatory contributions for self-employment
  • 22. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Income Distribution Highly skewed distribution Market Income Distribution 40 30 Percent 2010 0 0 100000 200000 300000 Household Market Income
  • 23. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient Lorenz curve of market income Stata command: glcurve varname, lorenz Gini coefficient of market income = 0.52 Stata command: ineqdeco varname
  • 24. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Computing Income Deciles Sections used: Diary of income, Education, Monetary and Commodity Flows between Households Time unit: month Currency consistency: convert dollars and rubles into drams Unit of observation: Individual Stata command xtile newvar = varname, n(10) tab newvar, summ(varname) Market Income per capita Gross Income per capita Deciles Mean Std Dev Mean Std Dev 1 0 0 203.57 340.69 2 730.19 185.24 1819.80 478.10 3 1558.42 384.50 3458.48 461.78 4 3194.01 533.58 5236.65 513.76 5 4977.41 453.64 6799.48 466.63 6 6343.55 379.53 8483.87 581.32 7 8101.41 661.70 10562.37 640.52 8 10898.31 964.11 13365.54 982.29 9 15109.87 1634.80 17719.36 1596.65 10 29160.64 12751.66 33421.15 16059.51
  • 25. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Thank you! For questions, please email sh9db@virginia.edu.
  • 26. Overview BEEPS LiTS Population Census Household Surveys Extra Slides Tobit: Marginal Effects where λ is inverse Mills ratio.