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Magic Pixie Wonder Dust 3000 (Enterprise Edition): Designing Motivational Experiences

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Slides from my UX London 2014 workshop on gameful design.

Slides from my UX London 2014 workshop on gameful design.

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Magic Pixie Wonder Dust 3000 (Enterprise Edition): Designing Motivational Experiences Magic Pixie Wonder Dust 3000 (Enterprise Edition): Designing Motivational Experiences Presentation Transcript

  • magic pixie wonder dust 3000 (enterprise Edition) designing motivational experiences Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) UX London, May 30, 2014 c b
  • 2 Why care How it works 3 4 How to do it 1 What it is
  • 2 Why care How it works 3 4 How to do it 1 What it is
  • What happened here?
  • From Usability to Motivation
  • Robert Fabricant »Behavior is our medium.« interaction’09 (2009)
  • Fitness
  • Sustainability
  • Education
  • How it works 3 4 How to do it 1 What it is Why care 2
  • From utility to psychology shift #1
  • utility usability the great beyond New market differentiators Meaning Emotion Transformation Experience Pleasure Identity
  • Buy! new value chains Upload! Comment! Tag! Digg! Forward! Invite! Bookmark! Retweet! Share! Add friend! Design! Mark as Spam! Like! Answer! Vote! Register Now! Subscribe!
  • New markets health self- improvement eco/green
  • From rational actor to social animal Shift #2
  • + Then: The Rational Actor
  • Now: The Social Animal
  • Poor choices/actions are due to ... rational actor social animal Lack of information Misaligned incentives Motivation Emotion Cognitive biases Habit Social influence Material environment
  • shift #3 From extrinsic rewards to intrinsic needs
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210 Extrinsic motivation
  • Loyalty programs!
  • raffles!
  • gamificatioN!
  • Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)
  • Intrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
  • What intrinsic motivation drives passionate users?
  • Pop Quiz! The product is awesome! The company is awesome! The experience is awesome! A B C
  • Pop Quiz! I am awesome! D
  • Better X Better user of X* * aka »competence«
  • »The more you learn, the better you are at something. The better you are, the more engaging it is. If you can help people have more of that feeling, they won’t talk about how good you are – they'll talk about how much they kick ass.« Kathy Sierra upgrade your users, not your product (2005)
  • Teresa M.Amabile »This pattern is what we call the progress principle: of all the positive events that influence inner work life, the single most powerful is progress in meaningful work.« the progress principle (2012: 76)
  • Teresa M.Amabile »Truly effective video game designers know how to create a sense of progress for players within all stages of the game. Truly effective managers know how to do the same for their subordinates.« the progress principle (2012: 88)
  • Raph Koster »Fun is just another word for learning.« a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  • »Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  • Edward Deci,Richard Ryan »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  • inside <> outside of you “want to” <> “have to”
  • Edward Deci & Richard Ryan: The »What« and »Why« of Gaol Pursuits (2002) 150 more pages, and I get my 10$. external I must not disappoint my parents! introjected Pfff … I‘m bored. amotivated I‘m good at this – this is actually fun! intrinsic It‘s important for me in school to read this now. identified I totally see how this helps me become a chef! integrated http://www.flickr.com/photos/pensiero/95412049Edward Deci & Richard Ryan (2002), The »What« and »Why« of Goal Pursuits
  • 2 Why care 4 How to do it 1 What it is 3 How it works
  • Not fun Fun http://www.flickr.com/photos/sulamith/1342528771/sizes/o/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/photonquantique/3364593945/sizes/l/
  • Raph Koster »Fun is just another word for learning.« through interesting challenges a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  • Goals ...
  • + Rules ...
  • Constrain actions & resources ...
  • = Interesting challenges
  • + Feedback ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/bodgerbrooks/1315419080
  • = Experiences of competence
  • Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!) Feedback without challenge
  • AestheticsMechanics Dynamics Hunicke,LeBlanc & Zubek mda: a formal approach to game design (2004) The engagement loop
  • Monopoly aesthetic Frustrating end game mechanic dynamic Slow poverty gap +$ + -$ -
  • AestheticsMechanics Dynamics How the user experiences it
  • AestheticsMechanics Dynamics How the designer creates it
  • Action Goal: Understand the MDA structure of a game 1. Find a partner next to you, introduce yourself :) 2. Pick a game you both like (Poker, Scrabble, Twister, Sim City, Settlers of Catan: everything goes). 3. Pick one specific fun moment you experience playing the game. 4. Discuss: What mechanics (goals, rules, actions, feedback) and dynamics enable this dynamic?
  • what did you observe?
  • Experiential prototyping* * aka “Iterate until fun”
  • it’s loops all the way down
  • engagement loop motivation rule system goal/cta success! / failure! action/resource feedback challenge + Motivation: I want to do more! + Ability (Resource, skill): I can do more! + Goal/CTA: There’s more to do!
  • tight positive feedback loops + + action feedback
  • World of Warcraft + + beat monster collect loot
  • FarmVille + + plant field get harvest
  • every racing game + + win race pimp car
  • loops can be multi-step feedback action action action
  • get money buy fish feed fish sell fish
  • loops are interlinked
  • Online at Slides: j.mp/1hEVOfI Video: j.mp/1hEVT38
  • and now ... beyond games
  • Goal/CTA + Motivation Goal/CTA+Motivation+Feedback Goal/CTA + M otivation Goal/CTA
  • Also works virally ... action feedback feedback action
  • FarmVille Gifting
  • Foursquare Mayorships
  • Yelp! compliments
  • quora
  • goal/cta Follow user goal/cta Give thanks motivation Feeling helped feedback Get answers action Write question goal/cta Answer question motivation Competence feedback Get thanks action Write answer goal/cta Follow user goal/cta Answer question motivation Recognition feedback Content, backfollow action Follow user
  • 2 Why care How it works 31 What it is How to do it 4
  • coding conduct Persuasive Design for digital media 95 Engagement Loop goals action & resource motivation challenge progress feedback immediate feedback business goal user goals player journey
  • stack overflow
  • actions: Writing questions
  • actions: voting up/down
  • Feedback: Reputation
  • progress feedback: levels
  • Goals & progress feedback: Badges
  • Goals/CTAs: Lists,subscriptions
  • motivation: Recognition
  • motivation: competence
  • Action/ resource Feedback MotivationGoal/CTA Player Journey Business goals User needs challenge
  • Action/ resource Feedback MotivationGoal/CTA Player Journey Business goals User needs challenge
  • »Linking the Elephants«
  • »Linking the Elephants« Success metrics 1-nBusiness goal x User behaviour Behaviour metrics 1-n = Result
  • Aaron Patzer »What we have learned from our users is that any game aspect has to be, at least for finance, more oriented toward some specific thing that you are working toward: I want to buy a house or a car, take a vacation, get out of debt ...« founder, mint.com (2010) http://www.thestreet.com/story/10944765/3/business-looks-to-win-at-gamification.html
  • business goals & user needs 1. Define organisational goals 2.Identify matching user needs 3. Translate goals/needs into activities 4.Translate activities into measurable concrete behaviours & qualities: What do users do how?
  • good starting points customer journey maps mental models concept models
  • activity chain: Eating healthy eat healthy food avoid mindless snacking cook healthy food shop healthy food plan healthy meals
  • activity chain: Eating healthy eat healthy food avoid mindless snacking cook healthy food shop healthy food plan healthy meals actor a actor b
  • Our Business Goal & User Need Help people save money by defining and sticking to financial budgets.
  • Action Goal: Identify behaviour chains that satisfy the user’s needs. 1. Form teams of two at your table. 2. As your team, draw the behaviour chains for setting and achieving a financial budget. 2. Pick one step/behaviour that you consider crucial and note it under “Actions/Resources”.
  • Action/ resource Feedback MotivationGoal/CTA Player Journey Business goals User needs challenge
  • Is it all just competence?
  • farmville
  • Fallout 3
  • physical psycholo gical social Hunger Thirst SexRelatedness Power RecognitionAutonomy Competence Belonging
  • Competence
  • …vs.Quality andVarietyAutonomy
  • Relatedness
  • Recognition
  • Belonging
  • Power
  • sense pleasure
  • Arousal & engrossment
  • meaning
  • curiosity & surprise
  • Missing your user Danger
  • Just ask!
  • A nagging problem http://people.virginia.edu/~tdw/nisbett&wilson.pdf
  • Eric Schwitzgebel »Nisbett and Wilson are not skeptics about introspective report of conscious experiences. They are skeptics about introspective knowledge of the causes of those experiences.« the nisbett-wilson myth (2006) http://schwitzsplinters.blogspot.com/2006/10/nisbett-wilson-myth.html
  • The limits of self-report We can report recent experiences, general beliefs, attitudes, values Stick to actual, current/recent experiences We fail at detailed memory, future action, irrelevant things, unconscious processes Ask for connected attitudes, values, needs, but don‘t jump to conclusions
  • The Mao Model research for behavior change Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) Interaction’12 February 3, 2012, Dublin c b Online at http://j.mp/ maomodel
  • Laddering Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? Laddering http://madpow.com/Insights/WhitePapers/Laddering--A-Research-Interview-Technique.aspx
  • Action Goal: Identify motivations underlying the target need/activity. 1. In your team, find one interviewee who recently did/wanted to do your target need/activity. The other is the interviewer. 2. The interviewers ask: Remember the last time you (wanted to) do X. Why was it important? Why was that important? Etc. 3. Share your findings at your table. Pick the most frequently mentioned/promising motivation and note it down under “Motivation”.
  • Action/ resource Feedback MotivationGoal/CTA Player Journey Business goals User needs challenge
  • Danger Stand in the user’s way
  • Ticket For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth
  • Level 2 Ticket For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth
  • Core challenge of E-Mail? • Maximum output? • Correct, polite, actionable? • Prioritized? • Fast answers? • Check less often? • Inbox Zero?
  • Prioritization
  • Procrastination
  • Action Goal: Identify a promising challenge. 1. In your teams of two, identify challenges inherent in the activity you targeted – things that (a) are not due to poor usability etc., (b) the user can learn to get better at. 2. Pick a promising challenge and note it under “Challenge”.
  • Action/ resource Feedback MotivationGoal/CTA Player Journey Business goals User needs challenge a first try
  • coding conduct Persuasive Design for digital media Storyboard title elements Motivation What motivation fuels the user? How is that motivation satisfied? Goal/call to action What goal does the user pursue? How is it suggested to the user? Action & resource What does the user do with what to achieve that goal? Challenge What’s the learnable challenge? What are rules & constraints? Immediate feedback How does the user learn about the success of her action? Progress feedback How does the user learn about her progress toward her motive over time? core idea 154
  • coding conduct Persuasive Design for digital media id., ,:c,r H, (-f.'::: v) F :['. ,/.f: lFi' I,t,;11 r-iI trfS, iii1ei1 i=ls|:: I,l,,l r-FS IN ?ri s$ l:r FjS I's: II(.s:rt l;:: ,pA. ,.F.s + ;3js-{ :Zniil '3:o;- '.*t rS, :$, .S'i_n:: ]S f, r!i|, H rL $ t-:i fl: s..(l 6 FiiErgE ,f HfF$$' iri+E[{l{[li:1;F+&ds' r 'SF.t
  • Action Goal: Fleshing out your ideas into storyboards 1. Individually, look at the action, motivation, and challenge you noted in your engagement loop diagram. 2. Either just fleshing out or taking a fresh start, in your group or individually, draw a storyboard that illustrates how your engagement loop works. (We will present some designs from those who want.)
  • Action/ resource Feedback MotivationGoals Player Journey Platform Business goals User needs challenge
  • Immediate http://www.flickr.com/photos/wongjunhao/2852994074
  • “Juicy”
  • Glanceable
  • Appealing to motivations
  • Appealing to motivations
  • Surprising
  • Always Be Closing
  • Rewards?
  • Danger gaming the system
  • the undermining effect Danger
  • Edward Deci,RichardRyan »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  • avoid controlling feedback
  • Effective,but not sustainable
  • Reward intrinsically* * With more utility, mastery, autonomy, meaning, relatedness
  • Action Goal: Identify ideas for improving your system. 1. Pick one principle and apply it to your design. Note your result under “Immediate Feedback”. häppchengrösse To foster the experience of competence, good feedback is juicy. •How might you provide an excessive maximum of output on a minimum of input while still being functional? •How might your feedback speak to all senses? juicy unterbestimmtheit Good feedback elicits the emotions and motivations that drive the activity. •What motivations and emotions driver your users to engage in your target activity? •How can you appeal to them in image, sound, text? appealing to motives
  • progress feedback
  • Counter & progress bars
  • Levels
  • Check lists
  • Collections
  • Action Goal: Identify ideas for improving your system. 1. Think about how to improve progress feedback in your design. Note the results under “Progress Feedback.” unterbestimmtheit Good feedback makes the current status and progress of the user graspable. •How might you make sensual, tactile what the user has already achieved? •How might you use progress indicators to suggest next goals to the user? graspable progress
  • Action/ resource Feedback MotivationGoals Player Journey Platform Business goals User needs challenge
  • remember?
  • S.M.A.R.T.goals • Specific • Measurable • Achievable • Relevant • Time-based
  • Clear,visually present goals
  • Structured flow of goals
  • Scaffolded challenge
  • »flow« Challenge Skill/Time frustration boredom flow: the psychology of optimal experience Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  • Not just more of the same ...
  • …but more complex
  • Analyse skill loops/chains Online at bit.ly/8enk2P
  • Map level structure
  • Action/ resource Feedback MotivationGoals Player Journey Platform Business goals User needs challenge
  • Bite-sized
  • Kars Alfrink »So when designing tools for play, underspecify!« a playful stance (2008)
  • underspecified
  • “small pieces,loosely joined”
  • Action Goal: Identify ideas for improving your system. 1. Pick one principle and apply it to your design. Note the result under “Action/resource”. häppchengrösse Well-designed actions are split into an immediately doable size that gives the good feeling of having accomplished something. •How might you split activities into immediately doable chunks? •How might you reduce actions into single clicks/ swipes? bite sized unterbestimmtheit To invite exploration and creativity, good resources have no clearly prescribed space of possible uses and configurations. •How might you leave blanks to fill out for your users? •How might you design resources so that you cannot fully predict what users will do with them? under- specification
  • Action/ resource Feedback MotivationGoals Player Journey Platform Business goals User needs challenge
  • Onboarding
  • Online at http://j.mp/1j6RYep
  • Action Goal: Improve the design of your goals. 1. Identify a S.M.A.R.T. low-level goal for the concrete action your loop contains. Note down your ideas under “Goal/CTA”. 2. Identify 3 high-level goals for your idea that are successively more complex in the skills they require. 3. For the way to your first high-level goal, identify 3-5 in- between goals, starting with the basest necessary skill/ability and working your way to the complexity of the high-level goal. Note the results under “Player Journey”.
  • In summary • To motivate user engagement sustainably, design for intrinsic motivation • Games show you how to design for competence • Find the user’s needs behind using your service • Identify the activities and their learnable challenge she has to master on that way • Devise and prototype interlinked engagement loops that path the user’s way
  • sebastian@codingconduct.cc @dingstweets codingconduct.cc Thank you.