Core 2 Factors affecting performance psychology


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Term 1 part 1 How can psychology affect performance

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Core 2 Factors affecting performance psychology

  1. 1. Factors Affecting Performance <ul><li>How can psychology affect performance? </li></ul>
  2. 2. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Research states that to improve performance = mental preparation must occur and the mind must stimulated and controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>As a coach it is vital that the concepts of, motivation, arousal, and the management of anxiety are understood to maximise the ability and performance of their athletes. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore training should prepare not only the body physically but also address the mental side of performance. </li></ul><ul><li>A program that plans for and accommodates the physical and mental sides of performance therefore is a more balanced training program. </li></ul>
  3. 3. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation can be described as an internal state, that activates, directs and sustains behaviour towards achieving a set goal. </li></ul><ul><li>In elite sport; motivation can easily be studies and observed through watching athletes that go beyond the realm of pain and discomfort to achieve a goal. E.G (A marathon runner in the last two kilometres) </li></ul><ul><li>What drives the athlete to keep pushing? </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is the principle / driving force behind an athlete pushing on through pain and or completing an activity which may require extreme mental strength. </li></ul>
  4. 4. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>If we can harness our mental side of performance; Motivation, then we can influence our performance consistency. </li></ul><ul><li>This consistency is directly influenced by: </li></ul>Self esteem = how we feel about our self (confidence) Expectation = how high we set our personal goals The standard of competition = high or low level (eg golf)
  5. 5. How can psychology affect performance? The impact of environmental factors = wind, rain and heat Spectator Support = our reaction to friends, peers and others that we respect such as a home crowd The impact of environmental factors = wind, rain and heat The state of the event = where you stand and others stand In the competition (semi finals vs first game) The ability of the coach to motivate = individual players and a teams to perform
  6. 6. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Positive Motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when an individual’s performance is driven by previous reinforcing behaviours. Such as a previous win against an upcoming opponent. </li></ul><ul><li>All athletes from all different levels of competition experience positive motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount and type of positive motivation varies from individual to individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive motivation occurs when an athlete receives a type of reward for their performance. </li></ul><ul><li>If they continue the behaviour that scored them the reward then they will strive or be motivated to constantly reproduce the activity to continue the rewards. </li></ul><ul><li>As the level of competition increases athletes can become “conditioned” to produce performances that will produce rewards. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Positive motivation relies on continual reinforcement by the athlete (internal) and by the coach, family, friends, spectators, and the media (external) </li></ul><ul><li>So in theory; if the athlete is continually provided with positive motivation to succeed by (external sources- above). Then the positive motivation diminishes the athletes motivation / performance will decrease. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore if the athlete is to continually perform well and be positively motivated the coach must find a variety of ways to reinforce positive behaviours of the athlete. </li></ul><ul><li>This may require: </li></ul>Incentives Progress charts with rewards Finding other professionals to reinforce
  8. 8. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Positive Motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>Can be further enhanced (externally) by recognising a quality performance </li></ul><ul><li>Giving constructive feedback when mistakes are made </li></ul><ul><li>And developing respect for athletes and listening when they speak </li></ul>
  9. 9. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Negative motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>An improvement in performance out of fear of consequences or not reaching (external) expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent or continued negative motivation may damage an athlete’s self esteem / self confidence especially if they feel that the negative motivation, was unwarranted.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Negative motivation may work at times but overall it will have a larger negative effect than a positive effect on an athlete’s performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Threats or negative consequences can distract athletes from the task because they are more worried about the fear of failure or of punishment </li></ul>
  10. 10. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Intrinsic motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation = motivation that comes from within. E.G (wants to break their own world record, not for money or fame but as a personal goal) </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation comes from having a passion about an activity and wanting to succeed in that task for enjoyment. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation can be broken down into scales small = (task orientated; skills such as improving your accuracy at basketball free throws) or (large multi task orientated; competing in your first world champs or Olympics) </li></ul><ul><li>For most successful athletes (the sport or activity provides enough enjoyment (intrinsic motivation) to sustain effort and quality results. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Extrinsic Motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>This is when the internal motivation is effected by an external source (such as a crowd or family member) </li></ul><ul><li>External motivation allows an athlete to lift themselves to different levels not achieved before. </li></ul><ul><li>External sources exist in the form of monetary reward, a trophy or simply just praise from a coach. </li></ul><ul><li>The athletes that work well under the influence of external motivation are usually the type of athlete that like challenges and like to be (externally) rewarded for their efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>External sources of motivation are not as successful long term as internal sources of motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>An athlete that is mentally prepared (balance of motivation) will usually like to challenge themselves but an athlete that is not mentally prepared will only take on someone who is easy to beat. (no challenge) </li></ul>
  12. 12. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Social, material and internal reinforcement: </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is a certain type of reward, threat, punishment that influences the possibility that an action may reoccur. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is a absolute necessity if we want to entrench a skill or action into our repertoire. </li></ul><ul><li>Once a player has made a progression or change and then they notice the change, this provides reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement can also come from a verbal comment by a coach or support staff. Reinforcing the skill just completed if it was successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Great coaches are very good at deciding what should or shouldn’t be reinforced. (for example if a tennis player hits the ball out. Should this skill be reinforced. </li></ul><ul><li>For this reason a coach needs to have a strong understanding of the players abilities. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Social, material and internal reinforcement: </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of reinforcement: Positive and Negative </li></ul><ul><li>A coaches job, then is to only reinforce the positive performances. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement works really well with individuals but not as well with teams. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Social, material and internal reinforcement: <ul><li>Social: </li></ul>Comes from coaches, other players, peers, parents and any person who Influences the athlete. It comes from an interaction with other team mates and coaches. People who are well respected obviously impact the athlete better than Strangers or non respected people. This type of reinforcement can be both positive and negative (a respected Opponent = positive or a negative coach comnent = negative)
  15. 15. Social, material and internal reinforcement: <ul><li>Material: </li></ul>Reinforcement that is material in nature = trophies, badges, and medallions. It is given for a extra effort. Material reinforcement is really important in the early stages of development But not so important once the athlete becomes elite.
  16. 16. Social, material and internal reinforcement: <ul><li>Internal: </li></ul>Internal = not visible like the first two (social and material) It can include being proud of a performance (which can motivate further results) It can also come from observing others performances and using it for their own motivation. (Every year after the Australian Open tennis competition, tennis coaching participation rates Rise by 56% the next month)
  17. 17. Social, material and internal reinforcement: <ul><li>Anxiety: </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>managing anxiety </li></ul>
  19. 19. Factors Affecting Performance <ul><li>How can nutrition affect performance? </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>balanced diet </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>supplementation </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>guidelines for fluid replacement. </li></ul>