Gameful Design for Learning

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How game design can inspire the re-design of learning in higher education at the Coventry Remix Play event, February 15, 2017.

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Gameful Design for Learning

  1. 1. gameful design for learningSebastian Deterding / @dingstweets Digital Creativity Labs, University of York February 15, 2017 c b
  2. 2. <1> introduction
  3. 3. we are all game designers
  4. 4. old idea: learn enjoyment design from games Malone 1981, Carroll & Thomas 1983, Blythe et al. 2004
  5. 5. recent surge of interest gamification serious games persuasive tech
  6. 6. gaMification The use of game design elements in non-game contexts Deterding et al. 2011
  7. 7. health & wellbeing
  8. 8. sustainability
  9. 9. the pursuit of happiness
  10. 10. education
  11. 11. in the public mind
  12. 12. moocs!
  13. 13. with badges!
  14. 14. = Khan academy!
  15. 15. delicious scalability and analytics!
  16. 16. very, very old wine …
  17. 17. Gold Stars The single worst way of motivating learning + frontal teaching The single worst instructional method
  18. 18. peter f. drucker »There is surely nothing quite so useless as doing with great efficiency what should not be done at all.« what executives should remember (2006)
  19. 19. gamification’s unwitting figureheard
  20. 20. two conflicting theories of fun
  21. 21. <2> what is fun? (baby don’t hurt me)
  22. 22. (a)
  23. 23. “just a spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down” aka fun as additive substance
  24. 24. some things are inherently fun
  25. 25. and some things are not
  26. 26. so: add funstuff™ to nonfunstuff™ for more fun
  27. 27. aka 1990’s edutainment
  28. 28. a resounding failure … Squire 2006, Egenfeldt-Nielsen 2007
  29. 29. Bruckman 1999
  30. 30. gaMification The use of game design elements in non-game contexts Deterding et al. 2011 … which doesn’t bode well for this
  31. 31. (b)
  32. 32. “in every job that must be done, there is an element of fun” aka fun as emergent systemic quality
  33. 33. Every activity can become fun, interesting
  34. 34. so how do you design that?* Deterding et al. 2013 * obligatory visualisation of ephemeral design work with people pointing at post-its
  35. 35. <3> gameful design for learning
  36. 36. gaMification The use of game design elements in non-game contexts Deterding et al. 2011
  37. 37. gameful design Re-structuring activity to afford intrinsic motivation, using game design as a lens Deterding et al. 2011
  38. 38. (if you want to know more) • Conceptual development of requirements from literature • Review of existing methods against requirements • Iterative design-based development and evaluation of method through 19 projects & workshops with teams of 2-6 (n=335)
  39. 39. guiding questions 1. What are the motivating experiences characteristic for gameplay? 2. What game structures afford these experiences? 3. How can we integrate this into design methods for learning?
  40. 40. raph koster »Fun is just another word for learning.« a theory of fun for game design (2004) #1
  41. 41. raph koster »Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun.« a theory of fun for game design (2004)
  42. 42. edward deci, richard ryan »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  43. 43. chief source of game enjoyment: overcoming challenges Malone 1981, Csikszentmihalyi 1990, Koster 2005, Przybylski, Rigby, & Ryan, 2010, Klimmt & Blake 2012
  44. 44. intrinsic integration: restructure inherent learnable challenge For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth Ticket identify a relevant inherent challenge How?
  45. 45. Level 2 For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth Ticket
  46. 46. intrinsic integration: core challenge = to be learned skill Habgood & Ainsworth 2011, Echeverría et al. 2012
  47. 47. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi »Mowing the lawn or waiting in a dentist’s office can become enjoyable provided one restructures the activity by providing goals, rules, and the other elements of enjoyment to be reviewed below.« flow (1990: 51) #2
  48. 48. Not fun Fun http://www.flickr.com/photos/sulamith/1342528771/sizes/o/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/photonquantique/3364593945/sizes/l/
  49. 49. raph koster »Fun is just another word for learning.« a theory of fun for game design (2004) through interesting challenges
  50. 50. goals …
  51. 51. + rules …
  52. 52. constraining actions …
  53. 53. = interesting challenges
  54. 54. + feedback …
  55. 55. = experiences of competence
  56. 56. formal structure of games: skill atoms/loops Cook 2007, cf. Dormans 2012
  57. 57. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mike52ad/4675696269 How? look at your activity system as a game atom
  58. 58. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mike52ad/4675696269 Goals: Intransparent; lack of small steps Challenge: Not adjusted to individual skill Feedback: Slow, demotivating decay instead of building and perceiving progress competence?
  59. 59. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mike52ad/4675696269 Goals: Little choice in what to do when and how, little connection to personal needs Challenge: Demonstrating proficiency, not inviting exploratory trial and error Feedback: Often controlling, highly serious consequences autonomy?
  60. 60. challenge-based learning
  61. 61. self-paced flow of structured mastery goals
  62. 62. progress feedback/grading
  63. 63. meaningful choice
  64. 64. safe failure & unlimited redoing
  65. 65. Margaret robertson »Gamification is an inadvertent con. It tricks people into believing that there’s a simple way to imbue their thing ... with the psychological, emotional and social power of a great game.« can’t play, won’t play (2010) #3
  66. 66. theodore sturgeon »Ninety percent of everything is crud.« sturgeon’s revelation (1958)
  67. 67. Games are not fun because they are games, but when they are well-designed.
  68. 68. Rainer Knizia »The life blood of game design is testing. ... Why are we playing games? Because it‘s fun. You cannot calculate this. You cannot test this out in an abstract manner. You have to play it.« shift run stop, episode 40 (2010) How?
  69. 69. iterative experiential prototyping & testing
  70. 70. <4> summary
  71. 71. Deterding et al. 2011 TO DESIGN FOR GAMEFUL EXPERIENCES … gameful design Re-structuring activity to afford intrinsic motivation, using game design as a lens
  72. 72. Bruckman 1999 don’t sugarcoat nonfunstuff™
  73. 73. FIND AN INTERESTING CHALLENGE
  74. 74. STRUCTURE IT WELL
  75. 75. AND playtest and iterate ’TIL YOU GET IT RIGHT
  76. 76. sebastian@codingconduct.cc @dingstweets codingconduct.cc thank you

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