players journey: 5-step design framework for longterm engagement

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  • A less obvious - but even more interesting - social rating system is Flickr’s measure of “interestingness” -- this is a cumulative measure of people’s viewing and tagging and commenting behavior within the site. This is an “emergent” form of social points - and it allows Flickr to identity and reward photographers who create art that Flickr users collectively find interesting. What’s exciting about this rating system is that it INFERS points, based on existing behavior. So ask yourself - is there something similar in the applications that I’m currently working on?
  • Back when I studied Psychology, the most memorable and useful thing I learned was the “one-armed bandit” schedule of reinforcement. Which you can see here, in red. The essence is this: if you give random, sizeable rewards for user actions (e.g. how a slot machine works), you will get an addictive behavior pattern - in mice, in pigeons, or in humans.
  • Back when I studied Psychology, the most memorable and useful thing I learned was the “one-armed bandit” schedule of reinforcement. Which you can see here, in red. The essence is this: if you give random, sizeable rewards for user actions (e.g. how a slot machine works), you will get an addictive behavior pattern - in mice, in pigeons, or in humans.
  • Back when I studied Psychology, the most memorable and useful thing I learned was the “one-armed bandit” schedule of reinforcement. Which you can see here, in red. The essence is this: if you give random, sizeable rewards for user actions (e.g. how a slot machine works), you will get an addictive behavior pattern - in mice, in pigeons, or in humans.
  • players journey: 5-step design framework for longterm engagement

    1. 1. The Player’s Journey A 5-Step Framework for Designing Engaging Experiences Amy Jo Kim, Ph.D. © 2013 All Rights Reserved
    2. 2. 1. Insight: Understand Your Players
    3. 3. Who are your (early-adopter) players? How do they like to interact?
    4. 4. Bartles 4 Player Types (1996) Killers Achievers Socializers Explorers
    5. 5. Points, Badges, Levels, Leaderboards… appeal primarily to Achievers Jane McGonigal Richard Bartle
    6. 6. Kim’s Social Actions: Focus on Motivation Acting Compete Express Content People Explore Collaborate Interacting
    7. 7. Express
    8. 8. Explore
    9. 9. Compete
    10. 10. Collaborate
    11. 11. If you’re building a social app, instead of asking “who are my player types?” ask “what social actions motivate my players?” Jane McGonigal Richard Bartle
    12. 12. 2. Motivation: Unmet Needs & Pain Points Which activities are intrinsically motivating?
    13. 13. Extrinsic Rewards often Backfire can impair creative thinking and intrinsic motivation
    14. 14. Extrinsic Rewards Sometimes Work Effective for completing simple tasks and guiding players towards system mastery
    15. 15. Tap into Intrinsic Motivation FIRST address a NEED/PAIN POINT for your micro-vertical CONNECT via shared glimpses of everyday life, EVESDROP on other people’s lives
    16. 16. Autonomy ––the desire to direct our own lives. Autonomy the desire to direct our own lives. Mastery — the urge to get better at something that matters. Mastery — the urge to get better at something that matters. Purpose — AKA belonging, desire to be part of something bigger than ourselves Purpose — AKA belonging, desire to be part of something bigger than ourselves
    17. 17. Autonomy & Choice
    18. 18. Competence, Mastery & Learning
    19. 19. Purpose, Relatedness & Belonging
    20. 20. Motivation & Game Elements Autonomy Mastery & Learning & Belonging Choose Your Role Progress Markers BackStory & Mission Customize Your Character Skill Systems Real-world Impact Reputation Systems Group Quests Mission Trees Group Stats Real-time Feedback Connect w/Friends Collections Join a Teams, Guilds or Faction & Choice Customize Your Background Explore a World, Map or Taxonomy Purchase Items Unlocks Purpose
    21. 21. 3. Lifecycle: Unfolding the Experience How does the player’s experience change over time?
    22. 22. To drive sustained engagement, design for 3 stages 1) Onboarding 2) Habit-building 3) Mastery Enthusiast Mastery Regular Habit-Building Newbie Onboarding
    23. 23. Regulars need fresh content/activities/challenges Newbies need to learn the ropes welcome + goals + progress + achievable rewards
    24. 24. Regulars need fresh content/activities/challenges
    25. 25. Experts need exclusivity, recognition, impact
    26. 26. Understanding Flow increasing challenge  ongoing engagement Increasing Challenge  Ongoing Engagement
    27. 27. 4. Progress: The Path to Mastery What markers & feedback guide skill development?
    28. 28. Keeping Score: 4 Types of Points Systems 1. Skill Points (AKA Score, Rank) earned via interacting with the system – reflects mastery of the activity or game PersonalSkill: skill rating/ranking of an individual Group Skill: skill rating/ranking of a group
    29. 29. Redeemable Points Personal Skill Points
    30. 30. Redeemable Points Collective Skill Points
    31. 31. Keeping Score: 4 Types of Points Systems 1. Skill Points (Score, Rank) earned via interacting with the system – reflects mastery of the activity or game PersonalSkill: skill rating/ranking of an individual Group Skill: skill rating/ranking of a group 2. Experience Points (XP) uni-directional metric – only goes UP (reflects persistence + skill) earned directly via customers’ actions - used to track & reward certain activities Personal XP: reflects a customer’s actions & accomplishments Group XP: reflects the actions & accomplishments of a group
    32. 32. Personal XP (World of Warcraft)
    33. 33. Group XP (Nike+) it feels good to be part of something larger than yourself
    34. 34. Keeping Score: 4 Types of Points Systems 1. Skill Points (Score, Rank) earned via interacting with the system – reflects mastery of the activity or game PersonalSkill: skill rating/ranking of an individual Group Skill: skill rating/ranking of a group 2. Experience Points (XP) uni-directional metric – only goes UP (reflects persistence + skill) earned directly via customers’ actions - used to track & reward certain activities Personal XP: reflects a customer’s actions & accomplishments Group XP: reflects the actions & accomplishments of a group 3. Currency (credits, coins, chips, tokens, bucks) bi-directional metric – goes up and down earned or bought within the system – can be redeemed within the system for goods or services Earned Currency: earned via customer actions – used to track & reward certain activities Purchased Currency: purchased with $$ to acquire exclusive goods and services
    35. 35. XP Premium Currency Basic Currency XP
    36. 36. Basic Currency XP Earned $$ Purchased $$ XP Premium Currency
    37. 37. Keeping Score: 4 Types of Points Systems 1. Skill Points (Score, Rank) earned via interacting with the system – reflects mastery of the activity or game PersonalSkill: skill rating/ranking of an individual Group Skill: skill rating/ranking of a group 2. Experience Points (XP) uni-directional metric – only goes UP (reflects persistence + skill) earned directly via customers’ actions - used to track & reward certain activities Personal XP: reflects a customer’s actions & accomplishments Group XP: reflects the actions & accomplishments of a group 3. Currency (credits, coins, chips, tokens, bucks) bi-directional metric – goes up and down earned or bought within the system – can be redeemed within the system for goods or services Earned Currency: earned via customer actions – used to track & reward certain activities Purchased Currency: purchased with $$ to acquire exclusive goods and services 4. Social Points (AKA Reputation, Ratings, Likes) earned via the actions of OTHER players – can be a proxy for quality/reputation/influence lets you track & reward socially valuable contributions & actions
    38. 38. Social Points Usefulness (Amazon) Social Points for(Amazon reviews)
    39. 39. Social Points for sentiment (Reddit) Social Points (Flickr “interestingness”)
    40. 40. Social Points (Flickr “interestingness”) Social Points for Reputation (Stack Overflow)
    41. 41. Social Points (Flickr “interestingness”) Social Points for Sportsmanship (League of Legends)
    42. 42. Feedback, Levels, Rewards & Unlocks give context & meaning to your points system
    43. 43. Leaderboards showcase your most skilled and devoted players PRO TIP: velvet-rope leaderboards for experts & enthusiasts
    44. 44. Pro Tip: If you’re gonna use Leaderboards, let players Slice-n-Dice the rankings & groupings
    45. 45. Social Leaderboards enable Social Actions Visible Social Actions Set the Tone
    46. 46. Missions Guide & Motivate the Player
    47. 47. Unlocks reveal functionality & complexity over time
    48. 48. Pro Tip: Use Group Unlocks to promote & reward teamwork
    49. 49. 5. Loops: Building Sustained Engagement Trigger Engaging Activity Task / Mission / Game / Quiz / Gift CTA Customize / Share / Help / Compete Feedback & Progress Stats / Challenges / Awards / Messages Motivating Emotions Fun / Delight / Curiousity / Belonging / Purpose trigger activity + goal outcome When _________ I want to ________________ so I can _____________
    50. 50. Start with a (triggered) engaging activity Trigger Engaging Activity Task / Mission / Game / Quiz / Gift
    51. 51. Followup with Feedback & Progress Trigger Engaging Activity Task / Mission / Game / Quiz / Gift Feedback & Progress Stats / Challenges / Awards / Messages
    52. 52. … designed to elicit Motivating Emotions Trigger Engaging Activity Task / Mission / Game / Quiz / Gift Feedback & Progress Stats / Challenges / Awards / Messages Motivating Emotions Fun / Delight / Curiousity / Belonging / Purpose
    53. 53. Then direct the action with a compelling CTA Trigger Engaging Activity Task / Mission / Game / Quiz / Gift CTA Customize / Share / Help / Compete Feedback & Progress Stats / Challenges / Awards / Messages Motivating Emotions Fun / Delight / Curiousity / Belonging / Purpose
    54. 54. Engagement changes throughout a player’s lifecycle Become skilled at ???? Mastery Checkin Daily to ????? Habit-Building Learn to ??? Onboarding
    55. 55. First Engagement: Onboarding Email from Friend Email from Friend FB/Twitter Post FB/Twitter Post View View Content Content Call to Action Call to Action Interact with Interact with Content Content Feedack & Progress Feedack & Progress
    56. 56. Re-engagement: Habit-Building With Social Feedback New Messages New Messages Read/Respond to Messages Read/Respond to Messages Without Social Feedback Browse New Content Browse New Content New Content New Content CTA CTA What to do next What to do next View View Content Content Activity Feedback Activity Feedback Tips, Progress, Unlocks, Rewards Tips, Progress, Unlocks, Rewards View View Profile Profile Post Post Msg Msg
    57. 57. Deep Engagement: System Mastery Re-engagement Triggers New Messages/Content New Messages/Content Personalized Page Personalized Page Social Activity Social Activity Respond/Post/Vote/Donate Respond/Post/Vote/Donate CTA CTA What to Do Next What to Do Next Activity Feedback Activity Feedback Tips, Progress, Unlocks, Tips, Progress, Unlocks, Rewards Rewards
    58. 58. Summary Tools for Engagement Design
    59. 59. Player’s Journey: 5-Step Design Framework 1. Insight Who are our early-adopter Players? How do they like to interact? 2. Motivation What are their unmet needs? What activities are intrinsically rewarding? 3. Lifecycle how does the game unfold over time? How is the player changed by playing? 4. Progress how do players make progress? What markers light the way towards mastery? 5. Loops how do we engage players during Onboarding, Habit-Building & Mastery?
    60. 60. Product-Defining Social Actions Build Create Design Purchase Express Decorate Customize Choose Content Compete Showoff Compare Taunt Players View Vote Win Challenge Collect Rate Explore Curate Review Comment Like Greet Collaborate Help Share Contribute
    61. 61. Habit-Building Engagement Loops Trigger Engaging Activity Task / Mission / Game / Quiz / Gift CTA Customize / Share / Help / Compete Feedback & Progress Stats / Challenges / Awards / Messages Motivating Emotions Fun / Delight / Curiousity / Belonging / Purpose
    62. 62. Game Terminology: Content Infrastructure Engagement Funnel DISCOVERY LIGHT ENGAGEMENT DEEPER ENGAGEMENT MASTERY
    63. 63. Contact @amyjokim on Twitter http://amyjokim.com Resources Achievements Considered Harmful by Chris Hecker amyjokim@gmail.com Drive by Dan Pink Punished by Rewards by Alfie Cohen A Game Designer’s View of Gamification by Richard Bartle
    64. 64. BONUS Sample of Team Exercises for Engagement Design
    65. 65. DESIGN EXERCISE Which type of Social Actions DEFINE your experience? How does that matchup with your micro-vertical? Express Content Compete Players Explore Collaborate
    66. 66. DESIGN EXERCISE What are 5 compelling ways you’re delivering Intrinsic value? Autonomy & Choice Mastery & Learning Purpose & Belonging
    67. 67. DESIGN EXERCISE Create 3 quests or tasks to give players at each stage Enthusiast Mastery Regular Habit-Building Newbie Onboarding
    68. 68. DESIGN EXERCISE Create an Habit Loop for your project that people would use daily Trigger Engaging Activity Task / Mission / Game / Quiz / Gift CTA Customize / Share / Help / Compete Feedback & Progress Stats / Challenges / Awards / Messages Motivating Emotions Fun / Delight / Curiousity / Belonging / Purpose

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