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Gameful Design: Creating Engaging Experiences

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Slides from my talk at the Gamification 2 conference at the University of Bergen, May 19, 2015

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Gameful Design: Creating Engaging Experiences

  1. gameful design creating engaging experiences Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) Northeastern University May 19, 2015 c b
  2. <1> what?
  3. we are all game designers
  4. Story Rules, Challenge Safe space Shared toys Goals Feedback
  5. Gamification The use of game design elements in non-game contexts
  6. Appeared in 2010 Gamification Serious Games
  7. … In business books …
  8. … and business media …
  9. health
  10. Sustainability
  11. Education
  12. work
  13. Life
  14. The blueprint (still) points Tracking, Feedback badges Goals, surprise leaderboards Competition incentives Rewards
  15. <2> why?
  16. A B from utility and usability …
  17. … to motivation
  18. Buy! new value chains Upload! Comment! Tag! Digg! Forward! Invite! Bookmark! Retweet! Share! Add friend! Design! Mark as Spam! Like! Answer! Vote! Register Now! Subscribe!
  19. new markets health self-improvement green tech
  20. new productivity factors Towers Perrin Global Workforce Study (2011)
  21. loyalty programs!
  22. http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210 extrinsic motivation
  23. Win 1,000,000,000,000 points Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)
  24. intrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
  25. what intrinsic motivation drives the most passionate customers?
  26. Pop Quiz! The product is awesome! The company is awesome! The experience is awesome! A B C
  27. Pop Quiz! I am awesome! D
  28. Better X Better user of X* * aka »competence«
  29. »Learning is one of the fundamental reasons games are so engaging. The more you learn, the better you are at something. The better you are, the more engaging it is. If you can help people have more of that feeling, they won't talk about how good you are – they'll talk about how much they kick ass. And that's a powerful formula for creating passionate users.« Kathy Sierra upgrade your users, not your product (2005)
  30. Raph Koster »Fun is just another word for learning.« a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  31. »Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. With games, learning is the drug.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  32. Edward Deci, Richard Ryan »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  33. »This pattern is what we call the progress principle: of all the positive events that influence inner work life, the single most powerful is progress in meaningful work.« Teresa M. Amabile the progress principle (2012: 76)
  34. Teresa M. Amabile »Truly effective video game designers know how to create a sense of progress for players within all stages of the game. Truly effective managers know how to do the same for their subordinates.« the progress principle (2012: 88)
  35. <3> how?
  36. 1 competence
  37. Autonomy2
  38. relatedness3
  39. https://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203 design4
  40. 1 competence
  41. Not fun Fun http://www.flickr.com/photos/sulamith/1342528771/sizes/o/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/photonquantique/3364593945/sizes/l/
  42. Raph Koster »Fun is just another word for learning.« through interesting challenges a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  43. Goals ...
  44. + Rules ...
  45. = Interesting challenges
  46. + Feedback ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/bodgerbrooks/1315419080
  47. = Experiences of competence
  48. Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!) feedback without challenge
  49. Danger Stand in the user’s way
  50. Ticket For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth
  51. Level 2 Ticket For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth
  52. Core challenge of E-Mail? • Maximum output? • Correct, polite, actionable? • Prioritized? • Fast answers? • Check less often? • Inbox Zero?
  53. Prioritization
  54. Procrastination
  55. find the inherent challenge Principle #1
  56. “juicy” feedback Principle #2
  57. Autonomy2
  58. Danger
  59. Johan Huizinga »First and foremost, all play is a voluntary activity.« homo ludens (1938/1950: 7)
  60. Edward Deci, Richard Ryan »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  61. Fun Voluntary Voluntary Fun
  62. the undermining effect
  63. feedback perceived as controlling thwarts autonomy motivation perceived as informing supports competence + – Deci & Ryan 2012
  64. … vs. Quality and Variety Principle #1 safe from consequence
  65. meaningful choice http://ascottallison.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/p1030286.jpg Principle #2
  66. relatedness3
  67. »You look especially lovely tonight.« http://www.flickr.com/photos/beigeinside/50122570/ »Now I feel like you’re just doing it for the points.« Danger
  68. Donald T. Campbell »The more a quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor.« assessing the impact of planned social change (1976)
  69. http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg reframing as strategic action
  70. creates myopic focus
  71. So you also played EcoChallengeTM?
  72. … vs. Quality and Varietycreates side effects
  73. what values underlie play?
  74. http://www.flickr.com/photos/docentjoyce/3138887652 exploration ...
  75. … mastery, ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulgorman/1392988135
  76. http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593 … and mutual care.
  77. http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593
  78. »It is the nature of a fun community to care more about the players than about the game. ... We are having fun. We are caring. We are safe with each other. This is what we want.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978: 19-20)
  79. Edward Deci, Richard Ryan »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  80. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrlerone/405730185/sizes/o/ What we usually design
  81. Who decides how this is used
  82. model the values you wish to see Principle #1
  83. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2047684/Dangerous-drivers-silent-treatment-Venezuela-employs-mimes-traffic-police.html “the spirit of the rules”
  84. work play Other-determined Self-determined Means to an end End in itself Consequential Inconsequential Regulated Open Care for results Care for each other Motivation serves function Function serves motivation work play playful work Other-determined Self-determined Autonomy-supporting Means to an end End in itself Learning and quality-oriented Consequential Inconsequential Inviting risk-taking and failure Regulated Open Open, trust-based Care for results Care for each other Socially oriented Motivation serves function Function serves motivation Value-oriented Principle #2
  85. https://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203 design4
  86. the inherent-additive model of experience
  87. http://www.flickr.com/photos/8147452@N05/2913356030/sizes/o/ experience is emergent
  88. AestheticsMechanics Dynamics Hunicke, LeBlanc & Zubek mda: a formal approach to game design (2004)
  89. Monopoly aesthetic Frustrating end game mechanic dynamic Slow poverty gap +$ !+ -$ !-
  90. the systemic-emergent model of experience https://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203
  91. easily exportable surface features ...
  92. … instead of systemic architectures
  93. easily exportable surface features ... points Tracking, Feedback badges Goals, surprise leaderboards Competition incentives Rewards
  94. instead of …?
  95. your mission, should you choose to accept it https://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203
  96. A possible joint agenda • Government, enterprise, end users: explore game design for well-being, productivity, learning, engagement, … • Industry and university researchers: Identify and validate systemic architectures for motivation, methods for designing them • Design agencies, software houses: Develop and deploy methods and tools
  97. in summary
  98. in an age of motivation ...
  99. http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210 … move from extrinsic ...
  100. … to Intrinsic motivations ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
  101. to create truly engaging experiences. I am awesome!
  102. Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!) Instead of shallow progress wars...
  103. build systems to master,
  104. … and a free space to play ...
  105. … that are truly meaningful.
  106. … vs. Quality and Varietydon’t just set up point systems:
  107. to model the values you wish to see.
  108. and this cake does need many bakers. https://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203
  109. sebastian@codingconduct.cc @dingstweets codingconduct.cc Thank you.

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