Triggers of Change


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Triggers of Change

  1. 1. Triggers Of Change..!! What Is Change? Change Is..... Change is something that presses us out of our comfort zone. It is destiny- filtered, heart grown, faith built. Change is inequitable; not a respecter of persons. Change is for the better or for the worst, depending on where you view it. Change has an adjustment period, which varies on the individual. It is uncomfortable, for changing from one state to the next upsets our control over outcomes. Change has a ripping effect on those who won’t let go. Flex is the key. Even a roller coaster ride can be fun if you know when to lean and create new balance within the change. Change is needed when all the props and practices of the past no longer work. The statement ‘just hang in there’ does not comfort change but with the statement ‘you can make it’. We don’t grow in retreat, but through endurance. Change isn’t fixed by crying, worrying, or mental tread milling. Victors not victims win change; and that choice is ours. Change is awkward -- at first. Change is a muscle that develops to abundantly enjoy the dynamics of the life set before us. Change calls own strength beyond anyone of us. Change pushes you to do your personal best. Change draws out those poised for a new way. Change isn’t for chickens. Change does have casualties of those defeated. Change will cause us to churn or to learn. Change changes the speed of time. Time is so slow for the reluctant, and yet it is a whirlwind for those who embrace it. Change is more fun to do than to be done to. Change seeks a better place at the end and is complete when you realize you are different. Change is measured by its impact on all who are connected to it. Change is charged when you are dissatisfied with where you are. Change doesn’t look for a resting-place; just the next launching point. Change is only a waste to those who don’t learn from it. Change happens in the heart before our works proclaims it. Change chaps those moving slower than the change itself. If you can change before you have to change, there will be less pain. Change can flow or jerk, depending on our resistance to it. Change uses the power invested in the unseen to reinvent what is seen. Change is like driving in a fog – you can’t see very far, but you can make the whole trip that way. 1
  2. 2. Triggers Of Change..!! Change Is.....  The human experience consists of matching our capabilities against the challenges we face. A sense of balance, is maintained in our lives when: = Ability/willingness Danger/Opportunity We seek this kind of balance because it makes us feel that things are predictable and thus easier to manage.  Change occurs when this balance is disrupted. There are two ways the status quo can be disrupted; positive change or negative change: < Positive Change or  When people believe their capabilities exceed a challenge, they generally feel positive because the outcome is not only desirable but expected (for example the birth of a child.) When the reverse is true, people feel negative not only because the outcome is undesirable, but also because such situations lack predictability. < Negative Change  Most people find it is extremely uncomfortable to face situations filled with the unknown because of the loss of predictability. We are attracted to situations that are familiar because they allow us the feeling of being in control. 2
  3. 3. Triggers Of Change..!! FORCES FOR CHANGE: Two opposing forces influence change in an organization: One that drives for change and one that resist. Which of the following forces affect your organization? Check the ones, which apply to your group. Driving forces initiate change and Resisting forces act against the driving keep it going. They may be forces for change. They are usually external or internal. internal. 3
  4. 4. Triggers Of Change..!! • • Your source of funding is being Your group fears new ideas and reduced or increased. prefers to do things the way they have always been done. • • The interests and needs of the Your group functions the same way people in your community are it did 20 years ago, out of habit. changing. • • Government support is increased Your group performs activities just or diminished. for the sake of keeping busy. • • There is pressure to use modern Your group's executive has very few technology. changes or low turnover. • Membership is increasing or dropping. • Members have different views of the group's purpose. • When projects or programs are evaluated, a need to change is identified. THE CHANGE PROCESS: 4
  5. 5. Triggers Of Change..!! The following model for change can be used to understand and plan for change. It uses the analogy of an ice cube to explain the change process of an organization. The ice cube in its original shape represents the current state of the organization. In order to change, the ice cube must be unfrozen, moulded to its new shape, and then, refrozen. Similarly the organization, in order to change positively, must melt any forces, which resist change and create a climate of acceptance and trust that will reinforce or refreeze the new state of the organization. UNFREEZING/REFREEZING MODEL FOR CHANGE Recognize the need for Change is implemented Reinforce new behavior and be change by identifying driving through a strategy, which open to feedback and resisting forces. decreases resisting forces. 5
  6. 6. Triggers Of Change..!! The following example of a fee increase in an organization builds on this concept: CHANGE MODEL FOR ORGANIZATION FEE INCREASE Proposal for fee increase Fee increase accepted - Identify driving and resisting - Communicate need for fee - Keep communication lines forces increase to membership open - Get small group of - Reinforce the change by individuals committed to communicating positive increased fees to help results of the change - Increased - Cannot - Devote extra energy to those - Celebrate success in the expenses afford it who have difficulty accepting organization - thank members the fee increase for commitment - Decreased - Increase not - Negotiate better services for external funding justifiable increased fees - Dropping membership Once a change has been accepted and implemented by a group, the initiators of the change must keep working with the members and emphasize the positive effects of the change. If this is not done, the group may slowly lapse into its old habits. The whole process of unfreezing-change-refreezing may take a long period of time. 6
  7. 7. Triggers Of Change..!! Characteristics of the Transition State: Low stability.  High, often undirected energy.  Past patterns of behavior become highly valued.  High emotional stress.  Control becomes a major issue.  Conflict increases.  Organizational Change Management: It is a structured approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. Organizational Change Management is characterized by a shift in behaviors and attitudes in people to adopt and embrace the future state. Organizational Change Management must be differentiated from Change Management as the previous term is used in project management, while the latter term is used to mean the practice of managing changes to technical or project specifications in a rigorous way in order to prevent scope creep. Organizational change management includes processes and tools for managing the people side of the change at an organizational level. These tools include a structured approach that can be used to effectively transition groups or organizations through change. When combined with an understanding of individual change management, these tools provide a framework for managing the people side of change. People who are confronted by change will experience a form of culture-shock as established patterns of corporate life are altered, or viewed by people as being threatened. Employees will typically experience a form of quot;griefquot; or loss (Stuart, 1995) Dynamic conservatism This model by Donald Schön explores the inherent nature of organisations to be conservative and protect themselves from constant change. Schön recognises the increasing need, due to the increasing pace of change for this process to become far more flexible. This process being one of 'learning'. Very early on Schön recognised the need for what is now termed the 'learning organization'. These ideas are further expanded on within his frame work of 'reflection-in-action' the mapping of a process by which this constant change could be coped with. 7
  8. 8. Triggers Of Change..!! The role of the management: Management's responsibility (and that of administration in case of political changes) is to detect trends in the macroenvironment as well as in the microenvironment so as to be able to identify changes and initiate programs. It is also important to estimate what impact a change will likely have on employee behaviour patterns, work processes, technological requirements, and motivation. Management must assess what employee reactions will be and craft a change program that will provide support as workers go through the process of accepting change. The program must then be implemented, disseminated throughout the organization, monitored for effectiveness, and adjusted where necessary. Organisations exist within a dynamic environment that is subject to change due to the impact of various change quot;triggersquot;, such as evolving technologies. To continue to operate effectively within this environmental turbulence, organisations must be able to change themselves in response to internally and externally initiated change. However, change will also impact upon the individuals within the organisation. Effective change management requires an understanding of the possible effects of change upon people, and how to manage potential sources of resistance to that change. Change can be said to occur where there is an imbalance between the current state and the environment. How does Change Management work? Change management is a procedural based process. It starts with the detections of a change trigger and ends with the implementation of a new strategy within the organization. Below is the complete lifecycle of change management. 8
  9. 9. Triggers Of Change..!! Value of Change Management: Motivational, incentive, and environmental barriers can be reduced by managing change within an organization. The key to implementation is recognizing a need for change and applying appropriate measures to turn the problem into a solvable opportunity. Table 1 below illustrates some examples in which change management is an appropriate intervention for motivational, incentive and environmental problems. Barriers/Drivers Example Motivation - lack of value Problem/Opportunity: Grandparents resist using email to or confidence; don't care or communication with family and friends. understand the benefits Solutions: Change your strategy from begging them to get a Motivation = Value x computer and just learn to use it to explaining the benefits Confidence of email. Such benefits may include immediate delivery of messages, quicker response time, more frequent communication and instant access to family pictures. Demonstrating the value of something is a motivating factor. Incentives - performance Problem: quot;Supervisors who rate employees as other than goes unrecognized, doing it stellar expected to fill out forms and attend meetings to is painful and not doing it is justify these ratingsquot; (Rossett & Sheldon, 2001, p. 41). ignored Solution: Mange change by creating an incentive program in which supervisors want to honestly rate their employees. It's important that the appropriate performance or actions are rewarded. Environment - processes or Problem: Documents and tools are placed randomly jobs are poorly designed, throughout the office. Employees waste time searching for necessary tools are documents and office supplies. unavailable, a continuously changing world Solution: Create a work environment, which minimize the amount of time waste looking for supplies and maximizes the amount of productive work. Change management could develop a strategy for accomplishing such a task. Managing Change in an Organization: The following are real-world examples of change management in action. (Cases were adapted from The Change Management Handbook) 9
  10. 10. Triggers Of Change..!! Case 1: Shake-up at the GTE Corporation A deregulation in the telephone industry that was capped by the antitrust settlement broke up the Bell system and triggered the great shake-up at Situation the GTE Corporation. External environmental change triggered by government laws. Trigger Driver/Barrier Environmental The company was forced to refocus its telecommunications business and Actions Taken discontinue its other unrelated industrial businesses. GTE is attempting to integrate local phone service with cellular business to create a streamline network. This would allow customers to easily call Results almost anywhere. Case 2: Need for quicker product deliveries at Black Box 10
  11. 11. Triggers Of Change..!! Black box wants to improve the efficiency of the organization by Situation delivering their products quicker to the customers. Internal organization problem in which slow employees triggered the Trigger change. Driver/Barrier Incentive A change agent at Black Box used action in the form of a reward system Actions Taken to incentives employees. He dramatized the need for faster deliveries by implementing a new bonus plan for the employees. Warehouse fulfillment teams worked overtime taking extra orders and sending out same-day shipments. Employees earned 140% of their Results bonuses and nothing else suffered. 11
  12. 12. Triggers Of Change..!! Introduction 12
  13. 13. Triggers Of Change..!! In order for organizations to learn, people must learn. Individuals within an organization learn as they carry out what is expected of them, both written and unwritten expectations. Written expectations are often delivered through job descriptions, memos, e-mails, and official documents. What is less clear for individuals within an organizational structure are the unwritten expectations. According to Maira and Scott-Morgan (1997), there are three groupings within organizations that best support an understanding of unwritten expectations: (1) motivators, (2) enablers and (3) triggers, delineated below. Triggers, or triggering events, can be defined as circumstances which act as catalysts to organizational learning. As with human beings, organizations do not learn proactively (Watkins and Marsick, 1993). Given the tremendous pressures to perform and produce results, organizations tend to over-invest in exploiting existing knowledge and under-invest in learning or developing new knowledge (Levinthal, 1991). Motivators are items that are important to individuals within an organization. quot;Motivators correspond to what is actually important to people, what they valuequot;. Maira and Scott-Morgan (1997) state that Enablers are those who are important to individuals within an organization. This may or may not be in line with an organizational chart, but involves those who are the actual quot;power brokersquot; within a firm. quot;Triggers are how people get what is important to them: the conditions that lead an enabler to grant a reward or impose a penaltyquot; (Maira & Scott-Morgan, 1997). As motivators are items that stimulate individuals to learn, triggers (as explained above)serve as a kind of motivator to stimulate organizations to learn. Motivator tends to elicit the learning desire from individuals; however, trigger tends to force organizations to respond the changes of the environment such as socioeconomic changes. The learning motion motivated by motivators is more vountary; rahter, the learning motions motivated by triggers is more involuntary. Do organizations learn specifically through operational learning, or is conceptual learning another facet of learning potential? Are these different levels of learning? Lane (2001) speaks to this saying “another preoccupation of organizational learning theory is the elaboration of a distinction between different levels of learning: between operational and conceptual learning” These two levels are referring to routine and imitation that comes from learning versus conceptual thought which assumes people will question processes they are learning. These are different forms of triggers within individuals and groups as 13
  14. 14. Triggers Of Change..!! they learn. Understanding these and other triggers will help a person, group, or company evolve into learning organizations. According to Brookfield (1987, 1994), “triggers” are life events “that prompts a sense of inner discomfort and perplexity.quot; A life event such as a birth of a new child, divorce or corporate downsizing can trigger the adult learner to critique their existing knowledge through reflection and determine what additional education is needed for improvement and job security. Knowing and understanding the triggers that motivate adult learners can aid educators in the development and design of learning modules, whether they be educators in the academic sense or leaders and educators within operating organizations. According to Mohanan (2006), the characteristics of the teacher who is likely to trigger learning include: quot;a) has a deep knowledge and understanding of the subject matter, b) is committed to teaching and is hard working, c) continually seeks ways to improve, innovate, and be up to date, d) has a strong passion for subject, e) has a high enthusiasm for teaching, f) is an inspirational role model to students, g) has a high emotional intelligence to empathize with students, and h) is eminently approachablequot;. Again, this need not be in the academic arena alone. The organizational leader is in a sense the teacher and must demonstrate these same characteristics to trigger organizational learning. Hence, “Any disorganizing pressure, arising outside or inside the organization, indicating that current arrangements, systems, procedures, rules and other aspects of organization structure and process are no longer appropriate or effective is known as a trigger causing change.” 14
  15. 15. Triggers Of Change..!! It is useful to identify both external and internal trigger in your own organization. Subsequently it can be helpful to consider reactions to change so that change management strategies can from the outset take account of the human and organizational experience, and seek to overcome resistances and to support people through change. It is also helpful to consider what it is that change impacts upon. Reference is made below to systems thinking, and to the interdependencies, systems and sub-systems that make up organizations. How triggers are Analyzed: Various managerial tools are available in order to gain an essential understanding of the environment, both external and internal. A PESTEL analysis: Here, one can consider devices like a PESTEL (political, economic, social, technological, environmental, legal) analysis to pick up factors in the local or micro, and national or macro contexts that managers need to take account of. A STAKEHOLDER analysis: Similarly a stakeholder analysis, and a cultural or values audit will provide an understanding of some of the people factors over and beyond a resource audit. A SWOT analysis: A simple approach like a SWOT (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats) can provide a structure in which to lay out the need and the readiness of the organization for change. Change can be triggered by the desire to alter the knowledge, skills, attitudes, behavior and relationships of people in the organization in order to improve, for example: 15
  16. 16. Triggers Of Change..!! Skills and skill levels  Job design  Responsibilities  Product design  Technology  Physical environment  Innovation  To allow the organization to improve or maintain its position, in the face of competition or declining fortunes from whatever source. . Frequent causes of change: Wille and Hodgson’s (1991) survey on the reasons for change found the following: Financial losses and profit reductions  Increased competition) almost 50%  Technological development  New chief executive  Industry in recession  Grundy (1993) states that major changes can be triggered by “ a multitude of factors”, the main ones being: External Changes in competitive forces o Regulation/deregulation o Changes in customer expectation o Changes in standards o Technology changes o 16
  17. 17. Triggers Of Change..!! Internal Performance dips o Changes in the management team (particularly the chief executive) o Grundy (1993) further suggests that when a number of factors converge major change can crystallize. For example, internal performance may be flagging; external competitive pressures may be increasing; and at the same time a new CEO wants to put his/her stamp on the organization. Where these influences coincide “a wave of change” can be produced which managers find difficult to cope with. Trigger Events: Trigger events can be characterized as internal or external triggers. Internal triggers are events arising from within an organization. Major internal triggers include (1) Human resource issues of executive succession, expatriation, personnel turnover; (2) Project implementation issues such as IT, TQM or innovations; and (3) Creating new inter-organizational interdependencies and collaborations in the form of joint ventures, franchise agreements, strategic alliances, etc. External triggers are environmental jolts that occur external of the organizations. They refer to changes in various dimensions in the environment that require organizations to change existing routines and rules. These external triggers include: (1) Rapid changes in business environment such as demographic changes, and changes in consumer tastes and market demands; (2) Rapid changes in technological environment such as pace of change in IT; (3) Redefinition of economic environment such as new trade zones, and switch from planned to market economies; and (4) Changes in legislation resulting from changes in ecological environments or political regimes. 17
  18. 18. Triggers Of Change..!! Internal Triggers Human Resource Issues Organizational learning requires humans as agents. Accordingly, changes in human resources within any organization pose major impetus for OL. In Virany, Tushman, and Romanelli (1992), the researchers examine how changes in the chief executive officer triggered off necessary organizational learning among members in the top management team. In a study on expatriation, Vink and Schapink (1994) argued that organizations must learn to work beyond Western ethnocentric theories of behavior. Effective intercultural managers are those who have acquired and shared their collective experiences on unfamiliar and different cultures. On the relationship between personnel turnover and organizational learning, Carley (1992) showed that hierarchies were less affected by high turnover rates than teams, particularly when the task is nondecomposable. Implementation Issues The introduction of a new technology, innovation, or R&D often triggers need for organizational learning (see George 1983; Bessant and Buckingham 1993; Carlsson and Kean1976). Implementing a new innovation often alters existing work routines, reward structures, or communication patterns to the extent that organizations must ensure sufficient slack resources to support learning activities to incorporate the innovations successfully and to obtain full benefits of the innovation. Inter-organizational Relations Organizational learning is an emerging paradigm for the study of strategy making when firms diversify into new practices, products or services and collaborate with other firms in creating new interorganizational relationships or IOR (Alaharkonen and Rutenberg 1990) (Kazanjian and Drazin 1987). The need for close collaboration and cooperation with others in IOR such as strategic alliances imposes an unprecedented emphasis on organizational learning as parties to the relationship need to institutionalize and amalgamate distinct organizational practices, new job definitions, new ways of managing and even redefining the nature of the firm (Lewis 1991). 18
  19. 19. Triggers Of Change..!! External Triggers Business Environment Issues Business turbulence comprises one of the most significant environmental jolts faced by firms. Rapidly changing dynamics of industries and competitive forces require firms to learn faster than competitors to order to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. To survive, organizations must learn to shift from managing and producing in the world of stable markets to one with short product lifecycles, continual innovation, and rapid changes in customer demands. Organizations must build a capacity to learn: to conduct quick studies and tackle novel problems (Maccoby 1993; Hosley, Lau, Levy, and Tan, 1994) Technological Environment Issues The greatest jolt from the environment is the unprecedented pace of change in technologies. Because of the high rate of technological change, formal education in schools will never be able to totally prepare workers for their lifetime’s technological work demands. It is thus paramount that firms create a learning environment within their organizations to promote on-the-job learning and growth. Continual learning and investing in the full spectrum of employee talents with teamwork are cornerstones for coping with relentless pace of change in technology (Benett and O’Brien 1994; Atkinson 1994). Economic Environment Issues Economic environment issues take on many forms. With globalization of markets, organizations must learn to break the limited mindsets of national markets to compete on a worldwide basis (Ghoshal and Butler 1992). Firms in economic recessionary regimes must learn new survival skills to re-vitalize the organization, steering the organization from danger to opportunity (Hollingworth 1992). Organizations in East European economies and other communist regimes face great challenges when reforms coverted centrally planned markets to free, open markets (Swiderski and Seiderski 1986). Firms had to erase old organizational memories and routines of a socialist economy and generate new rules, standard operating procedures to compete in a new open market economy. 19
  20. 20. Triggers Of Change..!! Ecological & Political Environment Issues Occasionally, organizations learned from natural disasters (e.g., Bhopal disaster). Disasters make explicit organizational policies on safety measures (Bowman and Kunreuther 1988). As nations become more concerned with the ecological environment, and as new laws and statutes are enacted to protect the natural environment, organizations need to develop new rules, behaviors and business practices to abide by the “green” laws (Mylonadis 1994). Organizations also need to learn to cope with new regulation following changes in political leadership and regimes (Godkin and Montano 1991). Changes in socioeconomic values as triggers Jurgen Kadtler discusses how ‘social movements’ and ‘interest groups’ act as Triggers for organizational learning. Some organizations are forced to adapt to surrounding social, environmental, or regulational factors (Dierkes, Antal, Child, & Nonaka, 2003). Often these factors are outside their control and they must react to them. “Whether the organization acquires the capacity to manage the crisis and deal with the concern of social movements or interest groups is determined by organizational learning. This refers to the tension between and analytical and a normative perspective on organizational learning” . One such trigger is the change of socioeconomic values of society as a whole and within an organization. Von Rosenstiel and Koch (2003) contend that for the past several decades there has been a shift in socioeconomic values that have played a role in how organizations learn and adapt within a greater societal context. In other words, as values change, so must the organization change to be able to effectively interface internally (within the organization) and externally (with stakeholders outside of the organization, such as customers, vendors, etc). The changes that an organization must go through to operate effectively are facilitated by necessary learning. Put bluntly, the organizational learning would not occur were it not for the values shift, which acts as a trigger in this instance. Akin to the concepts presented by Von Rosenstiel and Koch (2003), Kädtler (2003) suggests that, quot;organizational learning that is triggered by social movements or interest groups is a form of involuntary learningquot;. The broad spectrum of social movements and the clear identification of such is not easy to define. Kädtler (2003) contends that neither the academic community nor the general public can easily define a social movement. Perhaps Kädtler (2003)attempts to bring some clarity by suggesting, quot;Social movements are public activities...(who) strive to integrate their general aspirations into the system of values and norms that constitute legitimacy in a societyquot;. Essentially, as the social culture changes, predicated by social movements, the values of an organization may change to coincide with societal change. 20
  21. 21. Triggers Of Change..!! Unlike the learning that trickles through an organization as necessitated by (usually slow) socioeconomic changes, transformation processes typically require rapid learning that is neither forgiving or without anxiety for those going through the process. Merkens, Geppert, and Antel (2003) delineate the types of triggers for organizational learning both in the context of ‘structuralist learning’ and ‘constructionist learning.’ Structuralist learning can be thought of as learning that is the result of one way communication and fixed content; whereas, constructionist learning is the result of interaction between the learner and the environment. Listed below are some examples of these two types of triggers. Triggers of structuralist learning during organization transformational (adapted from Merkens, Geppert, and Antel, 2003) Privitization and opening of markets  Mergers and acquisitions  Implementation of new technologies  Influx of capital  Triggers of Constructionist Learning During Transformational (adapted from Merkens, Geppert, and Antel, 2003) Need for legitimacy  Culture Clash  Social embeddedness of values and ideals  Inquisitive and well-educated workforce  Implementation of new technologies  The above lists are not intended to be exhaustive. They are merely  examples of triggers that can encountered during times of organizational transformation. Technological Visions as Triggers Microsoft Encarta College Dictionary (2001) defines vision as a “mental picture – an image or concept in the imagination [and as] far-sightedness – the ability to anticipate possible future events and developments”. Although visions have been heralded as an all important component of organizational leadership, there has been – up till now, little research conducted to better understand the concept of visions. New insight, however, confirms that visions facilitate vicarious learning and serve as “points of orientation…based on core values and shared perceptions….[and that they] do more than just appeal to the logical and rational 21
  22. 22. Triggers Of Change..!! mind; they touch upon the internalized norms, values, and preconceived notions underlying people’s perceptions, thinking, and decisions” (Dierkes, et al., 2004,). Metaphorically, overarching visions may be thought of as stars in the night’s sky used as points of orientation for navigating the organization. It is important to note, however, that visions – even overarching visions, are not necessarily fixated. This is especially true of technological visions because of the inherent unpredictable nature of technological advancements. It is within this context that Dierkes, et al., support Collins and Porras’ (1994) “argu[ment] that organizational visions must transcend existing products and practices or they can easily become obsolete”. Cognitive and Experiential Triggers Clark and Mirabile (2004) put forth the concept of “knowledge mapping”, a process of quickly and consistently organizing the mountain of information that faces an organization. After devising a framework of categories into which organizational information can be logically placed, a mapping strategy is essential to identify and classify the information. Clear and accurate mapping would require triggers – words, topical labels, or key indicators in order to differentiate the knowledge sharing into appropriate categories. Clark and Mirabile would suggest a listing of triggers that in turn would create a dictionary of categories. Clark and Mirabile (2004) use the term triggers to emphasize the cognitive content of established knowledge as the basis for adding or “mapping” additional information to the current body of shared knowledge. This is in contrast to Brookfield who stresses the context of experience and the impact of certain events, often painful and negative, in the adult learning process (Merrian & Caffarella, 1999). These events serve as triggers that motivate adults toward change, evaluation, and renovation of the personal fabric of life. It is advisable that when any discussion or research done in reference to triggers, care should be taken to define the term in order for all to understand the context and framework of the concept. Creativity as a Trigger Cunha, Cunha and Kamoche (2002) suggest that an open minded and, indeed, creative approach to errors may serve as the trigger for organizational improvisation and learning. Rather than simply rewarding employees and managers for fixing problems, we should encourage their use as stimuli for further learning. Consider, they say, “an example from Nordstrom's department store where employees are encouraged to quot;respond to unreasonable customer requests.quot; Stories circulate about an employee paying a customer's parking ticket when the store's gift wrapping took too long”.This type of accommodation should be rewarded and viewed as a departure point for a learning journey aimed at discovering what caused the process to fail to produce the desired result. 22
  23. 23. Triggers Of Change..!! Anxiety as a Trigger Edgar Schein, as cited in Coutu, (2002), provides a useful and realistic view of the essential triggers of organizational learning. He maintains that anxiety is necessary as a trigger for learning. In this interview, he maintains that little is actually known about organizational learning and that true organizational learning is more than the sum of individual learning. Adopting a distinctly unpopular stance, Schein maintains that learning is coercive. He believes that anxiety, or more correctly, “learning anxiety” occurs when we are afraid of trying something new out of fear of failure, embarrassment, or the desire not to give up old paradigms. Conversely, “survival anxiety” is the realization that survival of the individual or the organization depends on change. Schein tells us that “the evidence is mounting that real change does not begin to occur until the organization experiences some real threat of pain that in some way dashes its expectations or hopes” . Case studies & workplace examples A“trigger event” occurred four years ago. A high school was accused of recruiting international students for our athletic program. The only truth in the allegations involved some inaccurate information shared on I-20 requests for the students to spend time at the school. There was also some misunderstanding concerning the guardianship requirements for international students staying with host families. Nonetheless, the accusations were picked up by the media and the state High School Athletic Association. They were placed on a 3-year probation and issued a substantial fine. The “appraisal” stage for a student involved a great deal of guilt. They were discouraged because the student was not better aware of documents being signed and the overall process of enrolling international students (both responsibilities were given to other administrators). The student was embarrassed for the school and his position. The third stage “exploration” involved an internal investigation into the process, the recognition of their responsibilities, seeking the forgiveness of their student body and athletic teams, and the absorbing of the falsehood and untruth printed in the media. The school chose not to challenge the ruling of the state, but to submit to their decision. The “developing of alternative perspectives” took some time as the consequences of the ruling produced many ripples into the integrity of the school. After some further personal investigation the student began to regain his confidence in the school’s motive and purpose for enrolling international students. Their missionary outreach program and our desire to offer a Christian education to international students allowed the student to recommit his 23
  24. 24. Triggers Of Change..!! confidence in the global interests of his school. The revamping and revisiting of various policies involving foreign exchange student has renewed a positive perspective in this part of their educational program. The “integration” of these new ways of thinking into the fabric of the student’s educational ministry took place with an increase of sensitivity to athletic eligibility issues and an awareness of the microscope under which Christian schools are viewed. The student was amazed at the vindictive, aggressive, and destructive position that the media took on this issue. This experience brought into our thinking the need for extreme care in dealing with student enrollment and the acceptance of student athletes into the school system. They successfully completed the probationary period and have been reinstated with no restrictions. Ford Motor Company Two specific factors facing organizations today include social movements and special interest groups. For example, Ford Motor Company has been advertising in gay and lesbian magazines, recently. Some in the special interest evangelical movement has strongly objected to Ford’s advertising practices and see it as a promotion of a lifestyle to which they object. They have sought to use boycotts to convince Ford to change it advertising policies. How Ford responds can have negative financial implications on either side. However Ford reacts in the above situation will be a learning organization challenge. In whatever direction it goes, “new organizational competencies have to be acquired if critical issues are to be addressed successfully” U.S. auto industry Schein states that “survival anxiety” is the realization that survival of the individual or the organization depends on change (Coutu, 2002). This is demonstrated very clearly when one studies the U.S. auto industry and changes made for the sole purpose of quot;survivalquot;. All domestic competitors have undergone significant changes as a means of surviving the attack of foreign competition within our own market. U.S.-based manufacturers have had to work collaboratively with the unions that represent their workforces to make changes in wages, benefits, operating practices, and work rules. They have also had to make significant changes in product development, styling, value, and quality, in efforts to maintain a presence in the market. When there were only few competitors in the market, just 20 years ago, the quot;needquot; for change was not as great. Now, with well over 300 nameplates competing in the U.S. market, dramatic changes have had to been made just as the quot;price of admissionquot; -- for example without excellence in product quality and safety, a manufacturer cannot even hope to get in the market. The threat to survival of individuals and organizations has become a reality, and has driven changes that are ultimately 24
  25. 25. Triggers Of Change..!! good for the customer. One wonders if, without this threat to survival, would the changes have occurred at all. Leavitt's Model Of Organizational Change: Leavitt’s (1965) model of organizational change can provide insight. Leavitt suggests that the effectiveness of any change program –– can only be achieved through a balance of four organizational subsystems: technology, structure, tasks and people. The model shown in Figure illustrates how all four of these items are interrelated. Leavitt’s model suggests that all four subsystems must be coordinated and balanced to create an effective KM culture. T Task Knowledge Management T P Technology People C Culture C S Structure Leavitt's Model of Change: Task, Technology, Structure, and People T 25
  26. 26. Triggers Of Change..!! STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESSFUL CHANGE There may be one or many driving forces: STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESSFUL CHANGE There may be one or many driving forces initiating change in your organization. Groups will usually respond to a driving force by showing resistance. If you push, people push back. Resistance to change is normal and can be expected. Change is more easily accepted by decreasing resisting forces rather than by increasing the driving forces. An adult may attempt to force a child to eat vegetables by threatening the child. The driving force is the fear of punishment. Force-feeding is likely to result in increased resistance, or the food being spit out. Success will only come by removing the resisting force. The child may not eat vegetables because they taste bad. The change strategy might be to coat the vegetables with good tasting cheese or chocolate. The following strategies can be used to decrease the resisting forces to change in any organization. Strategies Communication Provide adequate information to your members on the need for - change in order to gain their support. Make the purpose of the change clear. Fear of change can be as disturbing as the change itself. Participation - Involve everyone in planning and making the change. It is much easier to support something you have a stake in. If possible, committees using small groups of people should be set up to review and make recommendations for change. Surveys and newsletters are also tools that can be used. Support - Be prepared to spend extra time with members who have difficulty accepting the change. Ensure that you, as the person initiating the change, are seen as trustworthy and credible. Negotiation - Work out a win-win situation for all parties involved. Match the personal goals of the members to the objectives of the change. The change will be resisted if it blocks personal goals 26
  27. 27. Triggers Of Change..!! BREAKING THROUGH BARRIERS Thus far this fact sheet has discussed what change is, how control enters into it, and change as a process. With this background information, it is time to understand how to break through the real-world barriers that get in the way of cooperation and change. The five most common ones are: Your reaction: The first barrier lies within you. Human beings are reaction machines. When you're under stress, or when you encounter a NO, or feel you are being attacked, you naturally feel like striking back. Usually this just perpetuates the action- reaction cycle that leaves both sides losers. Or, you may react by impulsively giving in just to end the negotiation and preserve the relationship. You lose and, having demonstrated your weakness, you expose yourself to be bullied by others. The problem you thus face in negotiation is not only the other side's difficult behavior but also your own reaction, which can easily perpetuate that behavior. Their emotion: The next barrier is the other side's negative emotions. Behind their attacks may lie anger and hostility. Behind their rigid positions may lie fear and distrust. Convinced they are right and you are wrong, they may refuse to listen. Seeing the world as eat-or-be-eaten, they may feel justified in using nasty tactics. Their position: In joint problem solving, you face the problem and attack it together. The barrier in the way is the other side's positional behavior: their habit of digging into a position and trying to get you to give in. Often they know no other way to negotiate. They are merely using the conventional negotiating tactics they first learned in the sandbox. In their eyes, the only alternative is for them to give in - and they certainly don't want to do that. Their dissatisfaction: Your goal may be to reach a mutually satisfactory agreement, but you may find the other side not at all interested in such an outcome. They may not see how it will benefit them. Even if you can satisfy their interests, they may fear losing face if they have to back down. And if it is your idea, they may reject it for that reason alone. 27
  28. 28. Triggers Of Change..!! Their power: Finally, if the other side sees the negotiation as a win-lose proposition, they will be determined to beat you. They may be guided by the precept quot;What's mine is mine. What's yours is negotiable.quot; If they can get what they want by power plays, why should they cooperate with you? Getting past no requires breaking through each of these five barriers to cooperation: your reaction, their emotion, their position, their dissatisfaction, and their power. It is easy to believe that stonewalling, attacks, and tricks are just part of the other side's basic nature, and that there is little you can do to change such difficult behavior. But you can affect this behavior if you can deal successfully with its underlying motivations. Think of a person of whom you want to convince/change. What is their emotion, their position, their dissatisfaction, and their power play? What barriers are holding you back? 28
  29. 29. Triggers Of Change..!! The Breakthrough Strategy: This fact sheet lays out a five-step strategy for breaking through each of these five barriers - the strategy of breakthrough negotiations. The essence of the breakthrough strategy is indirect action. It requires you to do the opposite of what you naturally feel like doing in difficult situations. When the other side stonewalls or attacks, you may feel like responding in kind. Confronted with hostility, you may argue. Confronted with unreasonable positions, you may reject. Confronted with a pusher you may push. Confronted with aggression, you may escalate. But this just leaves you frustrated, playing the other side's game by their rules. Your single greatest opportunity as a negotiator is to change the game. Instead of playing their way, let them have your way - the way of joint problem solving. Breakthrough negotiation is the opposite of imposing your position on the other side. Rather than pounding in a new idea from the outside, you encourage them to reach for it from within. Rather than telling them what to do, you let them figure it out. Rather than pressuring them to change their mind, you create an environment in which they can learn. Only they can break through their own resistance; your job is to help them. Their resistance to joint problem solving stems from the five barriers described above. Your job as a break-through negotiator is to clear away the barriers that lie between their NO and the YES of a mutually satisfactory agreement. For each of the five barriers, there is a corresponding step in the strategy: Step One: Since the first barrier is your natural reaction, the first step involves stopping that reaction. To engage in joint problem solving, you need to regain your mental balance and stay focused on achieving what you want. Step Two: The next barrier for you to overcome is the other side's negative emotions - their defensiveness, fear, suspicion, and hostility. It is all too easy to get drawn into an argument, but you need to resist this temptation. To create the right climate for joint problem solving, you need to defuse their negative emotions. You should take their side by listening to them, acknowledging their points and their feelings, agreeing with them, and showing them respect. 29
  30. 30. Triggers Of Change..!! Step Three: Accept whatever they say and re-frame it as an attempt to deal with the problem. For example, take their position and probe behind it: quot;Tell me more. Help me understand why you want that.quot; (Reword their opposition so that it is not so much a quot;brick wallquot; but a quot;screen doorquot;). Step Four: While you may now have engaged the other side in joint problem solving, you may still be far from reaching a mutually satisfactory agreement. The other side may be dissatisfied, unconvinced of the benefits of agreement. You may feel like pushing them, but this will only make them more resistant. So do the opposite. You need to bridge the gap between their interests and yours. You need to help them save face and make the outcome look like a victory for them. Step Five: Despite your best efforts, the other side may still refuse to cooperate, believing they can beat you at the power game. You may be tempted at this point to escalate. Threats and coercion often backfire, however, and lead to costly and futile battles. The alternative is to use power not to escalate, but to educate. The sequence of the steps is important. You cannot defuse the other side's negative emotions unless you have controlled your own. It is hard to quot;build a bridgequot; unless you have changed the game to joint problem solving. This does not mean that once you have taken one step, you have completed it. On the contrary, you need to keep focused throughout the negotiation. As the other side's anger and frustration resurface, you need to keep stepping to their side. Breakthrough negotiation can be used with anyone - an irrational father, a temperamental teenager, a hostile co-worker, or an impossible customer. A family trying to discuss the farm transfer, lawyers trying to avoid a costly court battle, or spouses trying to keep a marriage together, can use it. Because every person and every situation is different, you will need to marry the five breakthrough principles with your own knowledge of the particulars in order to create a strategy that works for you. There is no magic recipe that will guarantee your success in every negotiation. But with patience, persistence and the breakthrough strategy, you can maximize your chances of getting what you want in even the most difficult negotiations. 30