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Prepared By Pratiksha Patil



    Academy of Management &
     Professional Development.   1
Sr no.   Chapter                                                      Pg no

1.       Introduction to OD                                           4-7

2.       Historical background of OD                                  8-23

3.       Foundations of OD                                            24-41

4.       Managing OD Process                                          42-72

5.       OD Interventions                                             73-95

6.       Training Experience                                          96-113

7.       Issues in Consultant-Client Relations                        114-128



                               Academy of Management & Professional
                                                     Development.               2
Sr no.   Content

8.       Action Research & OD                                129-135

9.       Power, Politics & OD                                136-162

10.      Future of OD                                        163-185




                                Academy of Management &
                                 Professional Development.             3
O. D. is the act, process or result of
furthering, advancing, or promoting the
        growth of an organization




                     Academy of Management &
                      Professional Development.   4
Definition of O.D.by Edgar Schein

         An organization is the planned coordination of the
activities of a number of people for the achievement of some
common explicit purpose or goals through the division of labour
and function, and through a hierarchy of authority and
responsibility.

       Development is the act, process, result or state of being
developed-which in turn means to advance, to promote the
growth of, to evolve the possibility of, to further, to improve or to
enhance something.

Two elements stand out viz.
(a)Development may be an act, process or an end state
(b)Development means bettering something



                                       Academy of Management &
                                        Professional Development.       5
The O. D. Approach to Change treats the organization as a
   system.
A system is an orderly group of logically related parts, principles
    and beliefs. Alternatively, it is a grouping or arrangement that
    relate or interact with each other in such a way as to form a
    whole.
Thus this approach has the following characteristics:
(a) Total view not a limited view
(b) Relationship between the Orgn. and the environment
and the internal dynamics of the Orgn.
(c) Teams-temporary, semi-permanent and permanent-
    continous improvement
(d) Inter-personal Communication
(e) Individuals- self awareness and self acceptance-developing
    skills, knowledge and ability of individuals

                                    Academy of Management &
                                     Professional Development.         6
The characteristics of O. D. are:

1. It is a planned strategy to bring about
   organizational change
2. OD always involves a collaborative approach
   to change
3. OD programmes include an emphasis an
   ways to improve & enhance performance.
4. OD relies on a set of humanistic values
   about people & organization.
5. OD represents a system approach


                         Academy of Management &
                          Professional Development.   7
Academy of Management &
 Professional Development.   8
History of OD
                         (1)   T-group
                         (2)   Survey Feedback Technology
Four major stems of OD
                         (3)   Action research
                         (4)   Productivity & Quality of work life

 (1) T-Group (Laboratory Training) – participants learn              from
 their own actions and the group‘s evolving dynamics

 (2) Developing reliable questionnaires, collecting data from
 personnel, analyzing it for trends, and feeding the results back
 to everyone for action planning

 (3) Diagnosing, taking action, re-diagnosing and taking new
 action

 (4) Integrate social requirements of employees with technical
 requirements needed to do work in provided environment.
                                       Academy of Management &
                                        Professional Development.       9
Revolutionary Values & Beliefs of OD
 Organic systems (mutual confidence & trust) rather than mechanical
 systems (authority-obedience)                   …. Warren Bennis

 Basic units of change are groups, not individuals …. Richard Beckhard

 Away from resisting and fearing individual differences towards accepting
 and utilizing them                                …. Robert Tannenbaum




                                    Trust and respect for individual
                                    Open communication
 Radical departure from             Decentralized decision making
 accepted values and
 beliefs of 1960‘s                  Collaboration and cooperation
                                    Appropriate use of powers
                                    Authentic interpersonal relationships

                                           Academy of Management &
                                            Professional Development.       10
C
LABORATORY TRAINING                             U
                                                R
                                                R
                                                E
SURVEY RESEARCH FEEDBACK                        N
                                                T

                                                O
      ACTION RESEARCH
                                                D

                                                P
    PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY OF WORK LIFE           R
                                                A
                                                C
                                                T
                                                I
                                                C
                                                E
                   Academy of Management &
                    Professional Development.       11
Laboratory training began in 1946, when Kurt Levin was
 asked for help in research on training community leaders
A workshop was developed and the community leaders were
 brought together
At the end of each session the researchers discussed the
 behaviors they had observed
Thus the first T-group was formed in which people reacted to
 data about their own behavior




                               Academy of Management &
                                Professional Development.       12
The researchers drew two conclusion about this first
    T- group experiment

  Feedback about group interaction was a rich learning
  experience
 The process of “group building” had potential for
  learning that could be transferred to “back home”
  situations
   Applying T-group techniques to organizations
  gradually became known as team building



                               Academy of Management &
                                Professional Development.   13
 The action research contribution began in 1940
 The research needed to be closely linked to the actions
 A collaborative effort was made, to collect the
  organizational data
 To analyze the cause of the problem and then to device
  and implement a solution
 Further data was collected to asses the results




                               Academy of Management &
                                Professional Development.   14
 Participative  management is a means of getting
  employees involved in planning and managing change
Four types of management systems
 Exploitative authoritative system
 Benevolent authoritative systems
 Consultative systems
 Participative group




                            Academy of Management &
                             Professional Development.   15
 Likert
       applied system 4 to organization using a survey
 feedback process

 Which  asked the members about the present and the
 ideal conditions about the organization

 Generatedaction plans to move the organization
 towards system 4 condition




                             Academy of Management &
                              Professional Development.   16
 The  contribution of QWL can be explained in two
  phases
 This phase was developed in Europe in 1950 based on
  the research of Eric Trist.
 This program involved developing a work design
  which aimed at better integrating technology and
  people
 Participation by unions and management in the work
  design
 The distinguishing characteristics of this program was
  developing self managing groups

                               Academy of Management &
                                Professional Development.   17
 Thesecond phase of QWL continues under the banner
 of employee involvement

 Employee  contribution helps in running the
 organization so that it can be more flexible, productive
 and competitive




                              Academy of Management &
                               Professional Development.    18
Second-Generation OD

      Organization Transformation

      Organizational Culture

      Learning Organization

      Total Quality Management

      Visioning and Future Search

      Business Process Reengineering

      Quality of Work Life

                             Academy of Management &
                              Professional Development.   19
A set of values, assumptions, and beliefs constitutes an
integral part of OD, shaping the goals and methods of the
field and distinguishing OD from other improvement
strategies.
Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the
development of the field, and they continue to evolve as the
field itself evolves.
A belief is
- a proposition about how the world works that the individual
accepts as true;
- a cognitive fact for the person.
Values are also beliefs, and are defined as ―Beliefs about what
is a desirable or a good (e.g., free speech) and what is an
undesirable or a bad (e.g., dishonesty) values‖.
Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as
- so valuable and obviously correct,
- that they are taken for granted, and
- rarely examined or questioned.
                                 Academy of Management &
                                  Professional Development.       20
Thus, values, assumptions, and beliefs are all:
- cognitive facts or propositions, with
- values being beliefs about being good and bad, and
- assumptions being strongly held, relatively unexamined beliefs
accepted as the truth.
Values, assumptions, and beliefs provide structure and stability
for people as they attempt to understand the world around them.
OD values and assumptions developed from:
- research and theory by behavioral scientists, and
- from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.
OD values tend to be humanistic, optimistic, and democratic.


                                                  3/23/2012        21
Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual:
  respect the whole person,
  treat people with respect and dignity,
  assume that everyone has intrinsic worth,
  view all people as having the potential for growth and
  development,
- these beliefs flow from humanistic values.
Optimistic values post that:
  people are basically good,
  that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs, and
  that rationality, reason, and goodwill are the tools for making
  progress.


                                                       3/23/2012    22
OD Values and Assumptions – Early Statements:
    OD practitioners share a set of normative goals based on their
    humanitarian/democratic philosophy:

1.   Improvement in interpersonal competence.
2.   A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be
     considered legitimate.
3.   Development of increased understanding between and within
     groups in order to reduce tensions.
4.   Development of more effective ―team management", that is, the
     capacity for functional groups to work more competently.
5.   Development of better methods of conflict resolution. Rather
     than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on
     suppression, compromise, and unprincipled power, and more
     rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought.
6.   Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. This
     is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as
     mechanisms in which managers ―work on‖, like push buttons.

                                                    3/23/2012          23
Academy of Management &
 Professional Development.   24
Models and theories
Kurt Lewin

Change is a three-stage process
Stage 1- Unfreezing the old behavior/ situation
Stage 2- Moving to a new level of behaviors
Stage 3- Refreezing the behavior at the new level




Edgar Schein modified this theory by specifying
psychological mechanisms involved in each stage

Later Ronald Lippitt, Jeanne Watson and Bruce Westley
expanded this model into seven-stage model


                                    Academy of Management &
                                     Professional Development.   25
Models and theories                    Contd..


 Ralph Kilmann                 1. The culture track

Five critical leverage         2. The management skills track
points (tracks) for
organization change            3. The team-building track

                               4. The strategy-structure track

                               5. The reward system track

Track   1   :   Enhances trust, communication, information sharing
Track   2   :   Provide new ways of coping with complex problems
Track   3   :   Infuses new culture and updated management skills
Track   4   :   Develops revised strategy plan for organization
Track   5   :   Establishes performance based reward system

                                       Academy of Management &
                                        Professional Development.    26
Models and theories                        Contd..




                                     Porras & Robertson Model of
                                        Organizational Change

Jerry Porras   Peter Robertson

OD interventions alter features of the work setting
causing changes in individuals‘ behaviors, which in turn
lead to individual and organizational improvements.

                                 1   Organizing arrangements
                                 2   Social factors
Work setting factors
                                 3   Physical setting
                                 4   Technology
                                         Academy of Management &
                                             Professional Development.   27
Models and theories   Contd..


                            Organizing arrangements
                            Goals, strategies, structure,
                            policies, procedures

                            Social Factors
                            Culture, management style,
                            informal networks, individual
                            attributes

                            Physical Settings
                            Space configuration, physical
                            ambiance

                            Technology
                            Machinery, tools, IT, job
                            design

                      Academy of Management &
                       Professional Development.            28
Systems Theory

          Organizations are open systems in active
          exchange with their environment

                                                                     David A. Nadler
The Congruence Model




                                        Academy of Management &
                                         Professional Development.                 29
Systems Theory         Contd..


Sociotechnical Systems Theory (STS)

All organizations comprised of two
interdependent systems:
1. Social system
2. Technical system
                                                              Eric Trist

  To achieve high productivity and employee
  satisfaction, organizations must optimize both
  systems.

  Changes in one system affect the other system.


                                 Academy of Management &
                                  Professional Development.                30
Models and theories               Contd..




               The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change


Warner Burke    First order change (Transactional change)
 Change
                Second order change (Transformational change)
 OD    interventions      directed    towards structure,
 management practices, and systems (policies &
 procedures) result in first order change.
 OD interventions directed towards mission and strategy,
 leadership, and organization culture result in second
 order change.                 Academy of Management &
                                    Professional Development.   31
Models and theories   Contd..




                                                   Transformational
                                                   factors




                                                   Transactional
                                                   factors




                      Academy of Management &
                       Professional Development.                   32
Participation & Empowerment

Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or top people;
it is extended broadly throughout the organization.

Increased participation and empowerment have always been central
goals and fundamental values of OD.

Participation enhances empowerment and empowerment in turn
enhances performance.

Empowerment is the key to getting people to want to participate in
change.




                                     Academy of Management &
                                      Professional Development.      33
Teams & Teamwork
Many tasks are so complex that they                  Characteristics of
cannot be performed by individuals;                  successful teams
people must work together to                         1. clear, elevating goal

accomplish them.                                     2. result driven structure

Putting those empowered individuals                  3. competent members

into teams creates extraordinary                     4. unified commitment
effects on performance.                              5. collaborative climate
Teams create synergy i.e. sum of                     6. standards of
efforts of team is far greater than sum                 excellence

of individual efforts.                               7. external support and
                                                        recognition
A number of OD interventions are
specifically designed to improve team
performance.      Examples     – team
building, quality circles etc.
                              Academy of Management &
                               Professional Development.                        34
   Forming
   Storming
   Norming
   Performing




                 Academy of Management &
                  Professional Development.   35
   Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of
    Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic
    organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic
    design.
   Groups representing various levels and functions work to
    open new channels of communication outside of and parallel
    to the normal, hierarchical structure. Parallel Learning
    Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management.
   Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization's
    collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases, on
    paper, or in people's heads) and distributing it to the people
    who need it in a timely and efficient way.




                                    Academy of Management &
                                     Professional Development.       36
   A parallel learning structure consists of a
    steering committee and a number of working
    groups* that study what changes are needed,
    make recommendations of improvements, and
    monitor the change efforts.
   (* Idea groups, action groups, implementation
    groups etc.)

   One or more top executive should be part of
    steering committee

   Representatives from all parts of the organization

                              Academy of Management &
                               Professional Development.   37
   To develop and implement organization-wide
    innovations.
   To foster innovation and creativity within a
    bureaucratic system.
   To support the exchange of knowledge and
    expertise among performers.
   To capture the organization's collective
    expertise



                           Academy of Management &
                            Professional Development.   38
Normative-Reductive Strategy of Change

 Norms form the basis for behavior, and change comes through
 reeducation in which old norms are discarded and replaced by
 new ones.

 Changes in normative orientations involve changes in:
 • Attitudes
 • Values
 • Skills
 • Relationships

 Norms can be best changed by focusing on the group, not the
 individual.




                                    Academy of Management &
                                     Professional Development.   39
Applied Behavioral Science
 OD is an application of behavioral science
   Pure/ Basic Science                       Applied Science
   Generating knowledge                      Knowledge to Solve
                                             practical problems
 Practice Theory : Diagnosing the situation, then selecting and
 implementing treatments based on diagnosis, and finally
 evaluating the effects of the treatments.




                                                                      Applied Science
      Practice Research                             Practice Theory

                 What helps me solve this problem?

                     Applied Behavioral Science




                                                                                        Pure/ basic science
                What helps me solve real problems?

  Behavioral Science Research              Behavioral Science Theory

                                       Academy of Management &
                                        Professional Development.                                         40
Action Research
              Data Collection
Feedback of data to client system members                Diagnostic

     Action planning based on the data                   Participant
                                              Types
               Taking action                             Empirical

        Evaluating results of actions                    Experimental


Diagnostic    Researcher enters a problem situation, diagnoses it and make
              recommendations for remedial treatment (recommendations may
              not be put into effect by client group)
Participant   People who are to take action are involved in the entire process
              from the beginning (involvement increases the likelihood of
              carrying out the actions once decided upon)
Empirical     Researcher keeps the systematic, extensive record of what he/
              she did and what effects it had (may encounter situations too
              divergent from one another, which may not permit
              generalizations)
Experimental It is controlled research on the relative effectiveness of various
             techniques (is difficult to do when client wants immediate
             answers)                      Academy of Management &
                                            Professional Development.        41
Academy of Management &
 Professional Development.   42
Managing the OD Process
Three basic components of OD programs:

Diagnosis  Continuous collection of data
           about total system, its
           subunits, its processes, and
           its culture
Action     All activities and interventions
           designed to improve the
           organization’s functioning
Program    All activities designed to
management ensure success of the
           program




                                Academy of Management &
                                 Professional Development.   43
   The purpose of a diagnosis is to identify
    problems facing the organization and to
    determine their causes so that management can
    plan solutions.
   Aimed at providing rigorous analysis & data on
    structure, administration, instruction,
    procedures, interfaces & other essential elements
    of the client system.
   Diagnosis then provides a basis for structural,
    behavioral, technical interventions to improve
    organizational performance.
   To make sound diagnosis it is important to have
    valid information about the situation.


                             Academy of Management &
                              Professional Development.   44
   Reliance on valid information about current
    problems & possible opportunities of
    improvement.
   Organizational Diagnosis is an effective ways
    of looking at an organization to determine
    gaps between current and desired
    performance and how it can achieve its goals.




                           Academy of Management &
                            Professional Development.   45
Academy of Management &
 Professional Development.   46
Academy of Management &
 Professional Development.   47
   One of these strategies, organizational diagnosis,
    involves ―diagnosing,‖ or assessing, an organization‘s
    current level of functioning in order to design
    appropriate change interventions.
   The concept of diagnosis in organization
    development is used in a manner similar to the
    medical model.
   For example, the physician conducts tests, collects
    vital information on the human system, and evaluates
    this information to prescribe a course of treatment.
    Likewise, the organizational diagnostician uses
    specialized procedures to collect vital information
    about the organization, to analyze this information,
    and to design appropriate organizational
    interventions

                                Academy of Management &
                                 Professional Development.   48
   An organizational model is a representation of an
    organization that helps us to understand more clearly
    and quickly what we are observing in organizations.
    Burke explains the many ways in which organizational
    models are useful (in Howard and Associates, 1994):
   1. Models help to enhance our understanding of
    organizational behavior.
   2. Models help to categorize data about an
    organization.
   3. Models help to interpret data about an
    organization.
   4. Models help to provide a common, short-hand
    language.

                               Academy of Management &
                                Professional Development.   49
   The model provides a systematic way to
    collect data on the organization and to
    understand and categorize the data.




                           Academy of Management &
                            Professional Development.   50
Of OD practitioners, 70% reported using a
 model to assist in identifying problems.
Models may be used to analyze structure,
 culture, and behavior of organization.




                                                      Ch
                                                      ap
                                                      ter
                                                        5
                                                       Sli
                         Academy of Management &      de
                          Professional Development.   51
   Analytical          Sociotechnical
   Emergent-group       systems
    behavior            Force-field analysis
   Management
    practitioner




                     Academy of Management &
                      Professional Development.   52
   Differentiation-integration model
   Developed by Paul Lawrence & Jay Lorsch in
    1969.
   Used for interdepartmental issues by
    conducting a careful diagnosis
   Examines characteristics of departments.
   Objective to help departments achieve
    integration.



                           Academy of Management &
                            Professional Development.   53
Academy of Management &
 Professional Development.   54
Helps in understanding how group operates
Used to analyze interdependence of groups.
Collects data on activities, interactions,
 sentiments and norms.




                        Academy of Management &
                         Professional Development.   55
Two interrelated systems in organization:
 1.Social system.        2.Technical system.
The 2 systems are interrelated.
Diagnosis determines interrelationships and
 type of feedback required.




                        Academy of Management &
                         Professional Development.   56
Behavior balance between forces working in
 opposite directions.
Restraining forces - act to keep organization
 stable.
Driving forces - act to change organization.
When forces equal, organization in quasi-
 stationary state of equilibrium.
Analysis determines forces to increase or
 decrease.


                         Academy of Management &
                          Professional Development.   57
Academy of Management &
 Professional Development.   58
Diagnosis – The Six-Box Model


                                          Purposes

Marvin Weisbord
                  Relationships                                  Structure


                                        Leadership


                      Helpful
                                                               Rewards
                    Mechanisms




                                  Academy of Management &
                                   Professional Development.                 59
   Weisbord identifies six critical areas where
    things must go right if organisation is to be
    successful. According to him, the consultant
    must attend to both formal and informal
    aspects of each box.
   This model is still widely used by OD
    practitioners




                            Academy of Management &
                             Professional Development.   60
The six-box model is comprised of the following components
  (boxes):

   Purposes: What 'businesses' are we in?
   Structure: How do we divide up the work?
   Relationships: How do we manage conflict (coordinate)
    among people? With our technologies?
   Rewards: Is there an incentive for doing all that needs doing?
   Leadership: Is someone keeping the boxes in balance?
   Helpful mechanisms: Have we adequate coordinating
    technologies?




                                     Academy of Management &
                                      Professional Development.      61
   Try to maintain language of the organization
   Keep it simple
   Keep it short




                           Academy of Management &
                            Professional Development.   62
   Is to obtain valid information
   Interviewer should be neutral, non-evaluative,
    accepting.
   Should be able to develop a trust relationship
   Frank relation ship




                            Academy of Management &
                             Professional Development.   63
 Goals are
1. To achieve increased understanding of the
   issue
2. To accomplish a common diagnosis
3. To discover alternatives for resolving the
   conflict
4. The focus on the common or metagoals.
-  Attempt to make interventions aimed at
   opening communication, leveling power &
   confronting problems.

                         Academy of Management &
                          Professional Development.   64
Actions
Interventions are the actions taken to produce desired
   changes.
Four conditions that give rise to the need for OD interventions:
   1. The organization has a problem
      (corrective action – to fix it)
   2. Organization sees an unrealized opportunity
      (enabling action – to seize the opportunity)
   3. Features of organization are out of alignment
      (alignment action – to get things back ‗in sync‘)
   4. Yesterday‘s vision is no longer good enough
      (action for new vision – actions to build necessary
      structures, processes and culture to make new vision a
      reality)


                                  Academy of Management &
                                   Professional Development.   65
Academy of Management &
 Professional Development.   66
   Analyzing & planning the change
   Communicating about the change
   Gaining acceptance of the required changes
    in behavior
   Making the initial transition
   Consolidation & follow-up




                           Academy of Management &
                            Professional Development.   67
   What are the objectives of the change ?
   What is to be accomplished
   To what extent are these goals desirable?
   What is the proposed methods?
   How is to be introduced & implemented?
   Can other method be used?




                            Academy of Management &
                             Professional Development.   68
   Communication must be done before
    introduction of actual change.




                         Academy of Management &
                          Professional Development.   69
Parallel Learning Structures
 A parallel learning structure consists of a steering committee and
 a number of working groups* that study what changes are needed,
 make recommendations of improvements, and monitor the change
 efforts.
 (* Idea groups, action groups, implementation groups etc.)

 One or more top executive should be part of steering committee

 Representatives from all parts of the organization




                                         Academy of Management &
                                          Professional Development.   70
   Parallel Learning Structures (also known as
    Communities of Practice) promote innovation and
    change in large bureaucratic organizations while
    retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design.
   Groups representing various levels and functions
    work to open new channels of communication
    outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical
    structure. Parallel Learning Structures may be a
    form of Knowledge Management.
   Knowledge Management involves capturing the
    organization's collective expertise wherever it
    resides (in databases, on paper, or in people's
    heads) and distributing it to the people who need
    it in a timely and efficient way.

                              Academy of Management &
                               Professional Development.   71
   When to use it?
-   To develop and implement organization-wide
    innovations.
-   To foster innovation and creativity within a
    bureaucratic system.
-   To support the exchange of knowledge and
    expertise among performers.
-   To capture the organization's collective
    expertise


                           Academy of Management &
                            Professional Development.   72
Organizational Development interventions are the set
of structured activities where selected organizational
units gets engaged with task or set of tasks that are
either directly or indirectly related to the development
of the organization.




                             Academy of Management &
                              Professional Development.    73
O. D. INTERVENTIONS


OD interventions are sets of structured activities in which selected
    organizational units engage in a series of tasks which will lead to
    organizational improvement.
Interventions are actions taken to produce desired changes.

There are one of four reasons why there is need for OD interventions:
1. The organization has a problem- some thing is ―broken‖, and corrective actions
    need to be taken i.e. it needs to be ―fixed‖.
2. The organization sees an unrealized opportunity: something it wants is beyond
    its reach. Enabling actions- interventions- are developed to seize the
    opportunity.
3. Features of the organization are out of alignment: parts of the organization are
    working at cross-purposes. Alignment activities- interventions- are developed
    to get things back in tune.
4. The vision guiding the organizational changes: yesterday‘s vision is no longer
    good enough. Actions to build the necessary structures, processes, and culture
    to support the new vision- interventions- are developed to make the new
    vision a reality.
OD interventions are planned sets of actions to change situations

                                             Academy of Management &
                                              Professional Development.               74
O. D. INTERVENTIONS

Generally OD interventions follow a well-planned overall OD strategy and get
   revealed as events unfold and are answers to the following questions:
1. What are the change/improvement goals of the program?
2. What parts of the organization are most receptive to the OD program?
3. What are the key leverage points( individual or group) in the organization
4. What are the most pressing problems in the client organization?
5. What resources are available for the program in terms of client time and
   energy and internal and external facilitators?

  With the help of the above questions the OD practitioner would be able to
    formulate his game plan and sequence of interventions etc.
   Furthermore, OD has two goals- one educational and the other
    accomplishing–a-task goal.
Normally learning takes place in one setting e.g. a classroom whereas action
    takes place at the workplace.
Secondly, OD deals with real life problems and uses several learning models.

                                         Academy of Management &
                                          Professional Development.        75
TYPES OF INTERVENTIONS

1.Discrepancy-contradiction in action or attitude
2.Theory-behavioural science used to explain behaviour etc
3.Procedure-whether the best methods are being used
4.Relationship- focuses on interpersonal relationships-negative ones
5.Experimentation-two plans tested before final implementation of one
6.Dilemma- imposed or emergent dilemma and determining choices
7.Organizational structure-evaluation of structural causes of ineffectiveness
8.Cultural-traditions ,precedents and practices-focused approach
9.Perspective-draw away from immediate actions to past and future

     Blake and Mouton-Consulcube-Consultant‘s Interventions
-acceptant-gives client a sense of worth,value acceptance,support
-catalytic-helps client to generate information for clearer perception
-confrontation-clients value discrepancies, beliefs and assumptions
-prescriptions-client told what to do for solving the problem
-theories and principles-teaches behavioural science theory so that the client
can diagnose the problem on his own and solve them as well

                                           Academy of Management &
                                            Professional Development.            76
   Interpersonal interventions
   Team
   Structural
   Comprehensive




                            Academy of Management &
                             Professional Development.   77
   Laboratory training
   Career planning intervention:
-   Deciding where you are now
-   Deciding where you want to be
-   Developing plan for where you want to be.
   Managerial grid(phase I)
   Stress management
-   Stress management programme:(Biofeedback,
    transcendental meditation, career counselling,
    training programme in stress management,
    wellness programmes, seminars in job Burnout)


                             Academy of Management &
                              Professional Development.   78
Academy of Management &
 Professional Development.   79
 Work teams are of 2 types
Team building interventions
 Family group diagnostic meetings
 FG team building meetings
 Role negotiation technique
 Role analysis technique
 Process consultation




                        Academy of Management &
                         Professional Development.   80
   Job design
   Quality of work life (QWL)
   Quality circles
   MBO & Appraisal
   Socio technical systems
   The collateral organization
   Physical setting & OD




                            Academy of Management &
                             Professional Development.   81
   Third party consultation
   Organization mirror
   Inter-group team building




                           Academy of Management &
                            Professional Development.   82
   T-group
-   Objectives
-   Methods
-   Sources of change in groups
-   Role of trainers
-   Possible problems




                           Academy of Management &
                            Professional Development.   83
    Behavioral modeling
-    Current trends
-    Factors influencing behavioral modeling
1.    Model characteristics
2.    Observer characteristics
3.    Behavior/task
4.    Methods of presentation of the model
5.    Method analysis
6.    Personal use of method

                            Academy of Management &
                             Professional Development.   84
   Job search
-   Packaging
-   Responsiveness
   Job retention
-   Performance of job duties
-   Getting along with others
-   Positive attitude about work
-   Personal philosophy



                            Academy of Management &
                             Professional Development.   85
   Career anchors
   Career stages
   Trial stages
   Establishment
   Mid career crisis sub stage
   Maintenance stage
   Late-career stage




                            Academy of Management &
                             Professional Development.   86
Eight Steps to Successful Organizational Transformation

1.    Establishing a sense of urgency
     -Examining market and competitive realities
     -Identifying and discussing crises, potential crises, or major opportunities
2.    Forming a powerful guiding coalition
     -Assembling a group with enough power to lead the change effort
     -Encouraging the group to work together as a team
3.    Creating a vision
     -Creating a vision to help direct the change effort
     -Developing strategies for achieving the vision
4.    Communicating the vision
     -Using every vehicle possible to communicate the new vision and strategies
     -Teaching new behaviours by the example of the new coalition
5.    Empowering others to act on the vision
     -Getting rid of obstacles to change
     -Changing systems or structures that seriously undermine the vision
     -Encouraging risk taking and non-traditional ideas, activities, and actions




                                           Academy of Management &
                                            Professional Development.        87
INTERVENTIONS
OD Practitioners have to consider the following in the planning and
   implementation of OD:
1. Develop an overall game plan or intervention strategy
2. Structure activities to promote learning and change for better as
   under:
   (a) Structure to include the relevant people
   (b) Structure so that it is problem-oriented or opportunity-oriented
   OR oriented to the problems and opportunities generated by the
   client
   (c )Structure so that the goal is clear and the way to reach it is clear
   (d) High probability of success
   (e) Structure so that it contains both experienced-based learning
   and conceptual learning
   (f) Structure so that individuals are ―freed up‖ rather than anxious
   and defensive
   (g) Structure so that participants learn how to solve a particular
   problem and how ―to learn to learn.‖

                                         Academy of Management &
                                          Professional Development.      88
INTERVENTIONS(contd.)

(h) Structure so that individuals learn about both TASK and PROCESS
    task-is what the group is working on
    process-how the group is working and what else is going on ie group
     processes and dynamics, styles and behaviour
(i) Structure so that individuals are engaged as whole persons not segmented
     persons
3. The other set of concerns are:
(1)Maximize diagnostic data
(2)Maximize effectiveness
(3)Maximize efficiency
(4)Maximize speed
(5)Maximize relevance
(6)Minimize psychological and organizational strain




                                          Academy of Management &
                                           Professional Development.      89
INTERVENTIONS-Blake and Mouton(contd.)

Focal Issues: power/authority,morale/cohesion, norms/standards and
    goals/objectives
Target: individual, group, intergroup, organization, community, society
N. B. So Blake and Mouton have 5 kinds of interventions,4 focal issues and 5
    different units of change in the form of the Consulcube to guide the
    Consultant in the use of his interventions
Interventions do different things; they cause different things to happen
Results caused by interventions could be as under:
1. Feedback
2. Awareness of changing sociocultural norms or dysfunctional current norms
3. Increased interaction and communication
4. Confrontation
5. Education
6. Participation
7. Increased Accountability
8. Increased Energy and Optimism


                                         Academy of Management &
                                          Professional Development.       90
CLASSISIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS

1.    DIAGNOSTIC Activities
2.    TEAMBUILDING Activities
3.    INTERGROUP Activities
4.    SURVEY FEEDBACK Activities
5.    EDUCATION and TRAINING Activities
6.    TECHNOSTRUCTURAL or STRUCTURAL Activities
7.    PROCESS CONSULTATION Activities
8.    GRID ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT Activities
9.    THIRD-PARTY PEACEMAKING Activities
10.   COACHING and COUNSELING Activities
11.   LIFE and CAREER-PLANNING Activities
12.   PLANNING and GOAL-SETTING Activities
13.   STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Activities
14.   ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATION Activities



                                        Academy of Management &
                                         Professional Development.   91
TYPES OF INTERVENTIONS

Target Group    Interventions Designed to Improve Effectiveness
                  Life-and career-planning activities
                  Coaching and counseling
                  T-group(sensitivity training)
 Individuals/
interpersonal    Education & training to increase skills,
                   knowledge in the areas of technical task needs,
                  relationship skills, process skills, decision making,
                  problem-solving, planning, goal-setting skills
                 Grid OD phase1
                 Work redesign
                 Gestalt OD
                 Behaviour modeling
                 Process consultation
                 Third- party peacemaking
Dyads/Triads    Role negotiation technique
                 Gestalt OD




                                         Academy of Management &
                                          Professional Development.       92
TYPE OF INTERVENTIONS
   Target Group Interventions Designed to Improve Effectiveness
                     Teambuilding-task directed, process directed
                     Gestalt OD
                     Grid OD phase 2
                     Interdependency exercise
                     Appreciative inquiry
                     Responsibility charting
Teams and Groups Process consultation
                     Role negotiation
                     Role analysis technique
                     ―Startup‖ team-building activities
                     Education in decision making, problem solving
                      planning, goal setting in group settings
                     Team MBO
                     Appreciations and concerns exercise
                     Search conferences
                     Quality of work life(QWL) programs
                     Quality circles
                     Field force analysis
                     Self- managed teams

                                        Academy of Management &
                                         Professional Development.   93
OD INTERVENTIONS


Target Group   Interventions Designed to Improve Effectiveness

                Intergroup activities-Process directed
                                     -Task directed
                Organizational mirroring
Intergroup     Partnering
Relations      Process consultation
                Third- party peacemaking at group level
                Grid OD phase 3
                 Survey feedback




                                     Academy of Management &
                                      Professional Development.   94
Academy of Management &
 Professional Development.   95
A T-group or training group (sometimes also
referred to as sensitivity-training group, human
relations training group or encounter group) is a
form of group psychotherapy where participants
themselves (typically, between eight and 15 people)
learn about themselves (and about small group
processes in general) through their interaction with
each other.
They use feedback, problem solving, and role play
to gain insights into themselves, others, and
groups.


                           Academy of Management &
                            Professional Development.   96
   A T-group meeting does not have an explicit agenda,
    structure, or express goal.
   Under the guidance of a facilitator, the participants are
    encouraged to share emotional reactions (such as, for
    example, anger, fear, warmth, or envy) that arise in
    response to their fellow participants' actions and
    statements.
   The emphasis is on sharing emotions, as opposed to
    judgments or conclusions.
   In this way, T-group participants can learn how their
    words and actions trigger emotional responses in the
    people they communicate with.
   Many varieties of T-groups have existed, from the initial
    T-groups that focused on small group dynamics, to those
    that aim more explicitly to develop self-understanding and
    interpersonal communication.
   Industry also widely used T-groups, particularly in the
    1960s and 1970s, and in many ways these were
    predecessors of current team building and corporate
    culture initiatives.


                                 Academy of Management &
                                  Professional Development.      97
The T-Group is intended to provide you the opportunity to:

   Increase your understanding of group development and dynamics.
   Gaining a better understanding of the underlying social processes at
    work within a group (looking under the tip of the iceberg)
   Increase your skill in facilitating group effectiveness.
   Increase interpersonal skills
   Experiment with changes in your behaviour
   Increase your awareness of your own feelings in the moment; and
    offer you the opportunity to accept responsibility for your feelings.
   Increase your understanding of the impact of your behaviour on
    others.
   Increase your sensitivity to others' feelings.
   Increase your ability to give and receive feedback.
   Increase your ability to learn from your own and a group's
    experience.
   Increase your ability to manage and utilize conflict.
                                           Academy of Management &
                                         Professional Development.          98
One way of describing what may happen for a participant is
 Unfreezing habitual responses to situations: this is
  facilitated by the participant's own desire to explore new
  ways of behaving and the trainer staying non directive
  silent and providing little structure or task agenda

   Self generated and chosen change by the participant:
    Experiment with new behaviors

   Reinforce new behavior by positive feedback, participants
    own assessment of whether what is happening is closer to
    what she/he intents, supportive environment, trust
    development




                                  Academy of Management &
                                   Professional Development.    99
Sources of change in groups
   Self-observation - participants give more attention to their own
    intentions, feelings, etc.
   Feedback - participants receive information on the impact they
    have on others
   Insight - participants expand self-knowledge
   Self-disclosure - participants exposes more of themselves to
    others
   Universality - participants experience that others share their
    difficulties, concerns or hopes
   Group Cohesion - participants experience trust, acceptance &
    understanding)
   Hope - participant see others learn, achieve their goals, improve,
    and cope more effectively
   Vicarious Learning - participants pick up skills and attitudes
    from others
   Catharsis - participants experience a sense of release or
    breakthrough


                                      Academy of Management &            10
                                       Professional Development.          0
   To help the group and individuals analyze and learn from what is
    happening in the group. The trainer may draw attention to events
    and behavior in the group and invite the group to look at its
    experience. At times the trainer may offer tentative interpretations.
   To offer theory, a model or research that seems related to what the
    group is looking at.
   To encourage the group to follow norms that tend to serve the
    learning process, e.g., focusing on "here & now" rather than the
    "then & there".
   To offer training and coaching in skills that tend to help the learning
    process, e.g., feedback skills, EIAG, etc.
   To not offer structure or an agenda.
   To remain silent, allowing the group to experience its anxiety about
    acceptance, influence, etc.
   To be willing to disclose oneself, to be open with the group. On
    occasion being willing to offer feedback and challenge a participant
   To avoid becoming too directive, clinical, or personally involved.
                                          Academy of Management &             10
                                           Professional Development.           1
   Social learning theory, which provides the
    foundation for behaviour modeling, asserts
    that most behaviours are learned by
    observation and modeling.
   The poem ‗Children Learn What They Live‘ is
    based on behaviour modeling in the home.




                           Academy of Management &      10
                            Professional Development.    2
   Model characteristics
   Observer characteristics
   Behavior/task characteristics
   Method of presentation of the model




                          Academy of Management &      10
                           Professional Development.    3
 Personal use of method
- Job search:
 Packaging
 Responsiveness
- Job retention
 Performance of job duties
 Getting along with others
 Positive, motivated attitude about the work
- Personal philosophy

                          Academy of Management &      10
                           Professional Development.    4
   ―Career‖ means how an individual‘s work life
    develops over time and how it is perceived by that
    person.
   CA is designed to help people uncover their real
    values & use them to make better career choices.
   It can help you think though your career options &
    give you a clear understanding of your own
    orientations toward work.




                               Academy of Management &      10
                                Professional Development.    5
Schein‘s career anchors represent aspects of work
   that are specially valued or needed by people for
   their personal fulfillment.
1.   Managerial Competence
2.   Technical/Functional Competence
3.   Autonomy/Independence
4.   Security/Stability
5.   Entrepreneurial Creativity




                             Academy of Management &      10
                              Professional Development.    6
   Would not give up the opportunity to climb level
    high
   Want to be responsible and accountable for the
    total result and they identify their own work with
    the success of the organization for which they work
   Ambition is to obtain generalist job
   A high managerial level in a function does not
    interest them




                              Academy of Management &      10
                               Professional Development.    7
   Would not give up the opportunity to apply his or her
    skill in that area and will continue develop those skills
    to an ever higher level.
   Derive their sense of identity from the exercise of their
    skills
   Most happy when their work permits them to be
    challenged in those areas
   May be willing to manage others in their technical or
    functional area
   Not interested in management for its own sake
   Would avoid general management




                                  Academy of Management &       10
                                   Professional Development.     8
   Would not give up the opportunity to define his or her
    work in his or her way
   Wants to remain in jobs that allow flexibility regarding
    when and how to work
   Do not stand organizational rules and restriction
   Turn down the opportunities for promotion and
    advancement in order to retain autonomy
   May even seek to have business of their own in order to
    achieve a sense of autonomy; however, this motive is
    not the same as the entrepreneurial creativity




                                 Academy of Management &       10
                                  Professional Development.     9
   Employment security/stability, the most important thing
   Main concern is to achieve a sense of having succeeded
    so that they can relax
   May involve trading personal loyalty and willingness to
    do whatever the employer wants for some promise of
    job tenure
   Less concerned with the content of their work and ranks
    they achieve in the organization, although they achieve
    high levels
   Always are concerned with these issues and build their
    entire self-images around the management of security
    and stability



                                 Academy of Management &      11
                                  Professional Development.    0
   Would not give up the opportunity to create an
    organization or enterprise of their own, built on their
    own ability and their willingness to take risk and
    overcome obstacles
   Create an enterprise that is a result of their own efforts
   May be working for others while they are learning and
    assessing future opportunities, but they will go out on
    their own as soon as they can
   Want their enterprise to be financially successful in
    order to prove their abilities.




                                   Academy of Management &       11
                                    Professional Development.     1
   Trial stage
   Establishment
   Mid career crisis sub stage
   Maintenance stage
   Late-career stage




                            Academy of Management &      11
                             Professional Development.    2
Academy of Management &      11
 Professional Development.    3
   A number of Interrelated issues can arise
    in consultant-client relationship in O.D
    activities and they need to be managed
    appropriately if adverse effects are to be
    avoided.
   There are certain issues of O.D in
    consultant-client relationship like entry &
    Contracting, Ethical Standard In O.D etc




                           Academy of Management &      11
                            Professional Development.    4
   O.D consulting Contract can occur in various ways
    through telephone call to face to face meeting. The
    potential client may be present the problem and
    the consultant tries to fix the problem
   The consultants and clients begin to sought out
    what group should do in order to start the logical
    O.D intervention.
   When both the parties agree this becomes part of
    the overall psychological contract between
    consultants and clients. Contracting, in both
    psychological and financial sense, occurs over and
    over in OD consulting.



                               Academy of Management &      11
                                Professional Development.    5
   1st Model: The initial single manager is the client but as the
    trusts and confidence develops between the key clients and
    the consultant both begin to view the manager and his/er
    subordinate team as the client and then mangers total
    organization as the client.

   2nd Model: The top management team comprises the initial
    client group.

   3rd Model: the client might be in a steering committee
    comprising of representatives from different levels and
    functional areas. In this case, if the CEO is not a member,
    the consultant will need to be sensitive.


    Client , actually is more to do with interactions,
    interrelationships and Interfaces than to specific
    persons or units.
                                    Academy of Management &          11
                                     Professional Development.        6
Academy of Management &      11
 Professional Development.    7
   A good deal of interaction between consultant
    and client is implicitly related to developing a
    relationship of mutual trust
   Client‘s Trust on the consultant:
   Key clients may be Fearful that-
    ◦ Things will get out of hands with an outsider intervening
      in the system
    ◦ Organization will be overwhelmed with petty complaints
    ◦ People will be encouraged to criticize there superiors
   Consultants trust of the client may start as
    neutral
    ◦ Understanding clients mitive
    ◦ Trust and resistance problem aslo centers on good guy
      bad guy syndrome
    ◦ Confidentiality must be maintained
                                     Academy of Management &      11
                                      Professional Development.    8
It is possible and desirable for the consultants to be an expert.
Giving substantive advise will tend to neglect the OD Consultants effectiveness
  hence:

   Ad OD Consultant need to resist the temptation of being a
    content expert & need to clarify his/her role
   ―Purchase-of-expertise‖ or ―Doctor-Patient Role‖ – The overriding
    desire to please the client may reduce her/his effectiveness
   Objective of the OD expert to help the client to develop its own
    resources. The expert role creates a kind of dependency that
    does not leads to the internal development
   ―Seduction into selling role‖ is dangerous because such condition
    may lead the consultant to be no longer in exploring the problem
   Trust factor
   Expectation



                                           Academy of Management &                11
                                            Professional Development.              9
   The consultant should practice what he/she
    preaches
    ◦ The consultant may advocate open system but
      suppresses his or her own feelings about what is
      happening in the client system
    ◦ The consultant should give out clear messages




                                Academy of Management &      12
                                 Professional Development.    0
   The team must set an example of an effective
    unit to enhance its credibility
   Practitioner should also focus on continuous
    growth and process renewal
   The team should have effective interpersonal
    relationship
   Team maintenance




                           Academy of Management &      12
                            Professional Development.    1
   Intervention should be appropriate to diagnosis
 DEPTH OF INTERVENTION
  In Roger Harrison‟s terms, depth of intervention can be
   assessed using concepts of :
Accessibility: data is public versus hidden
Individuality: self-perception of deviation
    Consultant‟s dilemma: “to lead and push, or to collaborate
     and follow”
    Performance units
    DOI = STUDY of formal, informal systems and self



                                  Academy of Management &
                                   Professional Development.      122
   Avoid the trap of seeping into
    organizational culture
   Incomplete [mis] communication of
    fears
   Comprehensive feedback then is off
    limits
   Companion vs. collaborator
   Internal change agents more susceptible



                    Academy of Management &
                     Professional Development.   123
   The termination of relationship is directly
    proportional to the dependency relationship
    between client and consultant
   The more dependent the client is on the consultant
    the more difficult it is to terminate the relationship
   If the consultant is in the business of assisting
    client to internalize skills and insights –then it is
    making client less dependent on it and in such case
    terminating the relationship is not an issue
   Thus the consultants role as a facilitator creates
    less dependency and more client growth



                                Academy of Management &
                                 Professional Development.   124
   Consultants role as a part educator-this involves
    consultants intervention on an on-going basis. It
    requires open communication with client about
    objective of interventions and about sequence of
    planned event.
   Relationship between client and consultant depends
    on:
    ◦ Consultant competence : the longer the consultant
      are able to provide innovative and productive
      intervention the more longer the relationship will be
    ◦ Clients resourcefulness and capabilities in OD
    ◦ Organizational factors like:
      Internal power struggle
      Crisis
      Top management support
                                 Academy of Management &
                                  Professional Development.   125
   Be transparent
   Remember to align individual and organizational
    goals: that client‟s goals are in complete alignment
    with your goals- personal growth, career growth,
    creation of personal wealth.
   Under commit- over deliver
   Say when you‟re going to do it-„THEN DO IT!‟
   Don‟t be afraid to tell the client that you have a
    difference of opinion
   Offer knowledge transfer in the form of coaching and
    mentoring
   Socialize
                                  Academy of Management &
                                   Professional Development.   126
   History of Client‘s business
   In-depth knowledge of client‘s products
    and services
   Client‘s critical business issues
   Strategic direction set by the client‘s senior
    executives
   Consultancy‘s own products and services
    aligned with needs of the client

                            Academy of Management &
                             Professional Development.   127
Academy of Management &
 Professional Development.   128
1)   A preliminary diagnosis and action
2)   Data gathering from the client group
3)   Data feedback to client group
4)   Exploration of data by the client group
5)   Action planning by the client group
6)   Action taking by the client group
7)   Evaluation and assessment of the results of the
     actions by the client group




                             Academy of Management &
                              Professional Development.   129
The key aspects of model are diagnosis, data gathering,
feedback to the client group, data discuss and work by the
client group, action planning, and action. The sequence tends
to be cynical, with the focus on new or advanced problems as
the client group learns to work more effectively together.

This process is iterative & cynical

It is a sequence of events and activities within each iteration
(data collection, feedback, and taking action based on the
data); and it is a cycle of iterations of these activities,
sometimes treating the same problem several times and then
moving to different problems.


                                  Academy of Management &
                                   Professional Development.      130
Etc.


  Joint action planning                                                                 Action
                                           Action

   Feedback to key client
                                                                                    Action planning
      or client group
                                      Action planning

   Further data gathering                                                        Discussion and work
                                                                                   on feedback and
                                  Discussion and work on data                       emerging data
                               feedback and data by client group
     Data gathering and
   diagnosis by consultant
                                                                                      Feedback
                                 Feedback to client group
Consultation with behavioral
    scientist consultant
                                                                                    Data gathering
                                     Data gathering
 Key executive perception of                        Academy of Management &
                                                     Professional Development.                   131
         problems
Action step 1
                                                                              ----
Objective




                                                     Fact finding      Planning
            Planning




                       Given by: Herbert A. Shepard Management &
                                          Academy of
                                           Professional Development.              132
   Problem focus
   Action oriented
   Cyclical process
   Collaborative
   Experimental
   Learning & capability building to tackle
    future problems




                           Academy of Management &
                            Professional Development.   133
   Diagnostic
    ◦ The scientist enters in a problem situation,
      diagnose it and makes recommendations
   Participant
    ◦ People affected take part in he entire process of
      research
   Empirical
    ◦ The participant keeps a systemic extensive record
      of what he/she did and what effects it had
   Experimental
    ◦ Controlled research on the relative effectiveness
      of various action techniques


                                Academy of Management &
                                 Professional Development.   134
Academy of Management &      13
 Professional Development.    5
Lord Acton



Academy of Management &      13
 Professional Development.    6
   The intentional influence over beliefs,
    emotions and behaviors of people.
    ◦ Potential power is the capacity to do so
    ◦ Kinetic power is the at of doing so
   One person exerts power over another to the
    degree that he is able to exact compliance as
    desired




                                 Academy of Management &      13
                                  Professional Development.    7
   ―A‖ has power over ―B‖ to the extent that ―A‖
    can get ―B‖ to do something that ―B‖ would
    otherwise not do.
   The ability of those who possess power to
    bring about the outcomes they desire.
   The capacity to effect (or affect)
    organizational outcomes




                            Academy of Management &      13
                             Professional Development.    8
   ―Pouvoir‖ from the French stands for both the
    noun ―power‖ and the verb ―to be able‖




                            Academy of Management &      13
                             Professional Development.    9
   Effectance—getting one‘s way
   Necessity of social interaction among two or
    more parties
   The act or ability to influence others
   Outcomes favoring one part over the other
   Power is the ability to get one‘s way in a
    social situation.




                            Academy of Management &      14
                             Professional Development.    0
   Influence
    ◦ Cooperation
    ◦ Society
   Leadership
    ◦ Technological, medical, political, financial, spiritual,
      organizational  standard of living
    ◦ Warfare, confiscation, repression misery




                                   Academy of Management &       14
                                    Professional Development.     1
 Positive        Negative
 ◦ Leading         ◦ Coercing
 ◦ Influencing     ◦ Forcing
 ◦ Selling         ◦ Hurting
 ◦ Persuading      ◦ Crushing




                 Academy of Management &      14
                  Professional Development.    2
   Negative power            Positive power
    characterized by           characterized by
    primitive,                 socialized needs to
    unsocialized need          initiate, influence
    to dominate others         and lead
    ◦ Seeks to dominate        ◦ Seeks to empower
      and control others         self and others




                           Academy of Management &      14
                            Professional Development.    3
Coercive

                      Reward
The Bases       Legitimate
of Power
                        Expert

                    Referent
            Academy of Management &      14
             Professional Development.    4
   Coercive power depends on fear
   One reacts to this type of power out of fear of
    the negative results that might occur if one
    fails to comply
   It rests on the application (or the threat) of
    physical sanctions




                            Academy of Management &      14
                             Professional Development.    5
   is the opposite of coercive power
   People comply because doing so produces
    benefits
   anyone who can distribute rewards that
    others value will have power over them




                          Academy of Management &      14
                           Professional Development.    6
   represents the power a person receives as a
    result of his or her position in the formal
    hierarchy of an organization
   Legitimate power is broader than the power
    to coerce and reward
   it includes acceptance of a person‘s
    authority by members of the organization




                          Academy of Management &      14
                           Professional Development.    7
   is influence wielded as a result of experience,
    special skill, or knowledge
   Expertise has become a strong source of
    influence as the world has become more
    technologically oriented
   As jobs become more specialized, we become
    more dependent on ―experts‖




                            Academy of Management &      14
                             Professional Development.    8
   is based on identification with a person who
    has desirable resources or admirable
    personal traits.
   It develops out of an admiration for
    someone and a desire to be like that person
   If person A admires person B enough to
    model behavior and attitudes after him or
    her, then person B has power over person A



                           Academy of Management &      14
                            Professional Development.    9
Importance   Scarcity                Number of
  of the      of the                   Viable
 Resource    Resource                Substitutes

                  Academy of Management &          15
                   Professional Development.        0
Locating Power in
             Organizations
    Departmental                   Individual
• Place on committees   • Ability to intercede

• Number of employees   • Approval for spending

• Budget allocation     • Items on the agenda

• Location of offices   • Access to top brass




                         Academy of Management &      15
                          Professional Development.    1
Power Tactics
            Reason        Friendliness


Sanctions                                             Coalition


 Higher
                                                      Bargaining
Authority
                 Assertiveness

                         Academy of Management &                   15
                          Professional Development.                 2
   Level of self monitoring
   Need for power
   Internal locus of control
   Investment in the organization
   Perceived alternatives
   Expectations of success

                             Academy of Management &      15
                              Professional Development.    3
   Low trust                  Role ambiguity
   Democratic decision        Self-serving senior
    making                      managers
   High performance           Unclear evaluation
    pressures                   systems
   Scarcity of resources      Zero-sum allocations


                            Academy of Management &      15
                             Professional Development.    4
Types of
                  Organizational Politics
• Legitimate political behavior                • Illegitimate political
  consists of normal, every-day                  behavior is so extreme
  politics:                                      that it violates the rules of
• forming coalitions                             the game
• bypassing the chain of                       • Sabotage
  command                                      • whistle-blowing
• complaining to your supervisor               • symbolic protests
• developing outside contacts
  through professional activities


                       Academy of Management & Professional
                                                                           155
                                  Development.
Power in Action
                                                      Legitimate
 Political
 Behavior
                                                      Illegitimate


                                            Limited Resources
The Reality
 of Politics
                                          Ambiguous Decisions

               Academy of Management & Professional
                                                                     156
                          Development.
   OD values consistent with positive face of
    power
    ◦ Trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity,
      promoting individual and organizational
      competence
   Emphasis on power equalization
    ◦ Increases power among organizational members
      the whole organization has more power




                                 Academy of Management &      15
                                  Professional Development.    7
1.   Become a desired commodity personally and
     professionally
     •   High interpersonal competence
     •   Listening, communication, problem-solving,
         coaching, counseling skills; appreciating other
2.   Make OD a desired commodity
     •   OD allows individuals and organizations to reach
         their goals




                                 Academy of Management &      15
                                  Professional Development.    8
3.   Make OD a valued commodity for multiple
     powerful people in the organization
     •   Creates value for OD
     •   Increases power base and support
     •   Endorsement, support and protection of OD
         interventions




                               Academy of Management &      15
                                Professional Development.    9
4.   Create win-win situations
     •   Enhance stable, constructive social relationships
     •   Different way to handle conflict
5.   Mind you own business (help others solve
     their major problems)
     •   Help upon request
     •   Help the manager meet her/his goals




                                 Academy of Management &      16
                                  Professional Development.    0
6.   Mind your own business—be a process, not
     content, expert
7.   Mind your own business and don‘t invite
     political trouble
     •   OD practitioner‘s role is that of facilitator,
         catalyst, problem-solver, educator
     •   Role is not power-broker or power activist




                                   Academy of Management &      16
                                    Professional Development.    1
Academy of Management &      16
 Professional Development.    2
TRENDS WITHIN OD AND THEIR IMPACT ON OD‘S
                 FUTURE
TRADITIONAL
•Return to original
humanistic values
•Increasing focus on process              ORGANIZATIONAL
intervention                              DEVELOPMENT
                                          will:
PRAGMATIC
•Emphasize values of                      •Have more conflict
effectiveness
                                          in the short term
•Increasing focus on relevant
practice
                                          •Be more integrated
ACADEMIC                                  in the long term
•Emphasize values of
understanding, prediction,
and control
•Search for variable that
explain change and              Academy of Management &
                                 Professional Development.
                                                                16
                                                                 3
Contextual trends and their effect on OD‘s
                 Future
ECONOMY                                        ORGANIZATIONAL
• More concerned with cultural diversity       DEVELOMENT will be:
•More concentrated wealth
•More concerned ecologically
                                               •More embedded in the
                                               organization‘s operations
WORKFORCE                                      •More technologically
•Increasing diverse
•Increasingly educated
                                               enabled
•Increasingly contingent                       •Shorter OD cycle times
                                               •More interdisciplinary
                                               •More diverse in client
TECHNOLOGY
• More E-commerce                              organization
• Faster organizational process                •More cross –cultural
• More productivity                            •More concerned with
                                               ecological sustainability
ORGANIZATIONS
• More networked
• More Knowledge, learning, and
innovation based                           Academy of Management &         16
                                            Professional Development.       4
Traditional
     The first trend has to do with increasing calls for a
 return to OD‟s traditional and others, traditionalist
 argue that OD should be driven by long –established
 values of human potential, equality, trust, and
 collaboration. It is proposed that OD should do what is
 right by assuring that organizations promote positive
 social change and corporate citizenship.




                               Academy of Management &       16
                                Professional Development.     5
Pragmatic
      related to increasing demands for professionalization of the field
 and an emphasis on relevance. Championed by change management
 practices at large consulting firms and some OD professional
 associations, pragmatists argue that OD practitioners should be
 certified like most other professionals. OD should require
 certification of members, create a common body of knowledge, define
 minimum levels o f competencies, and institute other regulatory
 infrastructure.




                                      Academy of Management &        16
                                       Professional Development.      6
Scholarly
      focuses on understanding, predicting an controlling
 change. Unlike traditionalist and pragmatist, scholars are
 concerned with creating valid knowledge, and with
 generalizing conclusions about how change occurs, how it
 is triggered, under what conditions it works well and so on.




                                 Academy of Management &      16
                                  Professional Development.    7
Implication of OD‟s Future

OD will have more conflicts in the Short term
 Traditionalist fear that OD is becoming too corporate and
  may unwittingly collude with powerful stakeholders to
  promote goals inconsistent with OD‟s social responsibility
  and humanistic values
 Pragmatist on the other hand worry that relying too heavily
  too heavily on traditional values will reinforce OD‟s touchy
  feely orientation.



                                 Academy of Management &      16
                                  Professional Development.    8
Implication of OD‟s Future
OD will have more conflicts in the Short term
   The debate over values demonstrates how difficult it will be to
    gain agreement about standards, competencies, enforcement
    mechanisms, and oversight.




                                     Academy of Management &      16
                                      Professional Development.    9
Implication of OD‟s Future
OD will become more integrated in the long term
 There is a considerable common ground among the
 diverse trends within the OD, and the emergence f a
 more integrated view of the field seems likely in the
 long term.




                             Academy of Management &      17
                              Professional Development.    0
The Economy
Increasing concern over social and ecological consequences

Cultural diversity – Governments face the difficult choice of preserving
  their culture ant the risk of being left out of the global economy.
Income distribution – globalization of the economy is closely related to
  an increasing concentration of wealth in relatively few individuals,
  corporation and nations.
Ecological sustainability – there are increasingly clear warnings that the
  ecosystem no longer can be treated as a factor of production and that
  success cannot be defined as the accumulation of wealth and material
  goods at the expense of the environment.




                                        Academy of Management &         17
                                         Professional Development.       1
The Workforce
The workforce is becoming more:
   Diverse – organizations, whether they operate primarily in their home
    country or abroad, will need to develop policies and operating styles
    that embrace the changing cultural, ethnic, gender and age diversity of
    the workforce.
   Educated – the workforce is becoming more educated. A more
    educated workforce demands higher wages, more involvement in
    decision making and continued investment of knowledge and skills.




                                         Academy of Management &        17
                                          Professional Development.      2
The workforce is becoming more:
 Contingent – the continued high rate of
  downsizings, re-engineering efforts, and mergers
  and acquisitions is forcing the workforce to become
  more contingent and less loyal.




                            Academy of Management &      17
                             Professional Development.    3
Technology
      Internet – the backbone of global economy.
      E-commerce – an economy that knows no boundaries. It
  involves buying and selling products and services over the
  internet.
       Two types of E-commerce relevant to OD‟s Future
 Business-to-consumer – garners much attention and
  awareness because it is how the public participates in E-
  commerce.
 Business-to-business – more complex




                                 Academy of Management &       17
                                  Professional Development.     4
Organization

   It involves increasingly networked and knowledge based
    nature of organizations.
   The interventions help organizations become more
    streamlined and flexible, more capable of improving
    themselves continuously in response to economic and other
    trends and more effective.
   Networks – are highly adaptable and can disband and reform
    along different task or market lines as the circumstances
    demand.




                                   Academy of Management &      17
                                    Professional Development.    5
OD will be more embedded in the organization‟s
 Operations
 This suggest that OD practices will become more
 embedded in the organization‟s normal operating routines.
 OD skills, knowledge, and competencies can and should
 become the daily work of managers and employees.




                               Academy of Management &       17
                                Professional Development.     6
OD process will be more technologically
 Enabled
Information technology is pervasive and will have a
 significant affect on OD practice. First, it will enable OD to
 be synchronous and asynchronous (anytime, anywhere) as
 well as virtual and less face to face.
Second, information technology will provide much more data
 about the organization to a greater number of participants in
 a shorter period of time.




                                  Academy of Management &      17
                                   Professional Development.    7
OD Cycle Times will be Shorter
 New information technologies will expedite certain steps in
    the change process.
   In coming years, new technologies such as groupware and
    video conferencing, will increasingly be used to bring more
    people together faster than ever before.
   There is a real potential to reduce dramatically the time
    required to perform many OD practices.




                                   Academy of Management &      17
                                    Professional Development.    8
OD will be more Interdisciplinary
   OD will continue to become more interdisciplinary and rely
    on different perspectives and approaches to develop and
    change organizations.
   It will balance human fulfillment and economic
    performance, provide a fuller recognition of the systemic
    and dynamic nature of organizations and develop improved
    techniques for managing large scale, and change w/n and
    across natural cultures.




                                  Academy of Management &      17
                                   Professional Development.    9
OD will be Applied to More Diverse
 Organizations
  In the future planned change will be applied to a more
  diverse client base.
Types of organizations that are target of planned change
 Small entrepreneurial start-ups – important underserved
  market for OD.
 Governments – increasingly applying OD interventions
  such as strategic planning, employee involvement, and
  performance management.


                                 Academy of Management &      18
                                  Professional Development.    0
   Global Social Change Organizations – the increasing
    concentration of wealth and globalization of the economy will
    create a plethora of opportunities for OD to assists developing
    countries, disadvantage citizens and ecology.




                                     Academy of Management &      18
                                      Professional Development.    1
OD will become More Cross-Cultural
As organizations and the economy become more global, the
 recent growth of OD practice in international and cross-
 cultural situations will continue. The current trends of OD
 clearly point to the need for OD applications that work
 across cultures.




                                 Academy of Management &       18
                                  Professional Development.     2
Organizational Development
Organizational Development

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Organizational Development

  • 1. Prepared By Pratiksha Patil Academy of Management & Professional Development. 1
  • 2. Sr no. Chapter Pg no 1. Introduction to OD 4-7 2. Historical background of OD 8-23 3. Foundations of OD 24-41 4. Managing OD Process 42-72 5. OD Interventions 73-95 6. Training Experience 96-113 7. Issues in Consultant-Client Relations 114-128 Academy of Management & Professional Development. 2
  • 3. Sr no. Content 8. Action Research & OD 129-135 9. Power, Politics & OD 136-162 10. Future of OD 163-185 Academy of Management & Professional Development. 3
  • 4. O. D. is the act, process or result of furthering, advancing, or promoting the growth of an organization Academy of Management & Professional Development. 4
  • 5. Definition of O.D.by Edgar Schein An organization is the planned coordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common explicit purpose or goals through the division of labour and function, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility. Development is the act, process, result or state of being developed-which in turn means to advance, to promote the growth of, to evolve the possibility of, to further, to improve or to enhance something. Two elements stand out viz. (a)Development may be an act, process or an end state (b)Development means bettering something Academy of Management & Professional Development. 5
  • 6. The O. D. Approach to Change treats the organization as a system. A system is an orderly group of logically related parts, principles and beliefs. Alternatively, it is a grouping or arrangement that relate or interact with each other in such a way as to form a whole. Thus this approach has the following characteristics: (a) Total view not a limited view (b) Relationship between the Orgn. and the environment and the internal dynamics of the Orgn. (c) Teams-temporary, semi-permanent and permanent- continous improvement (d) Inter-personal Communication (e) Individuals- self awareness and self acceptance-developing skills, knowledge and ability of individuals Academy of Management & Professional Development. 6
  • 7. The characteristics of O. D. are: 1. It is a planned strategy to bring about organizational change 2. OD always involves a collaborative approach to change 3. OD programmes include an emphasis an ways to improve & enhance performance. 4. OD relies on a set of humanistic values about people & organization. 5. OD represents a system approach Academy of Management & Professional Development. 7
  • 8. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 8
  • 9. History of OD (1) T-group (2) Survey Feedback Technology Four major stems of OD (3) Action research (4) Productivity & Quality of work life (1) T-Group (Laboratory Training) – participants learn from their own actions and the group‘s evolving dynamics (2) Developing reliable questionnaires, collecting data from personnel, analyzing it for trends, and feeding the results back to everyone for action planning (3) Diagnosing, taking action, re-diagnosing and taking new action (4) Integrate social requirements of employees with technical requirements needed to do work in provided environment. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 9
  • 10. Revolutionary Values & Beliefs of OD Organic systems (mutual confidence & trust) rather than mechanical systems (authority-obedience) …. Warren Bennis Basic units of change are groups, not individuals …. Richard Beckhard Away from resisting and fearing individual differences towards accepting and utilizing them …. Robert Tannenbaum Trust and respect for individual Open communication Radical departure from Decentralized decision making accepted values and beliefs of 1960‘s Collaboration and cooperation Appropriate use of powers Authentic interpersonal relationships Academy of Management & Professional Development. 10
  • 11. C LABORATORY TRAINING U R R E SURVEY RESEARCH FEEDBACK N T O ACTION RESEARCH D P PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY OF WORK LIFE R A C T I C E Academy of Management & Professional Development. 11
  • 12. Laboratory training began in 1946, when Kurt Levin was asked for help in research on training community leaders A workshop was developed and the community leaders were brought together At the end of each session the researchers discussed the behaviors they had observed Thus the first T-group was formed in which people reacted to data about their own behavior Academy of Management & Professional Development. 12
  • 13. The researchers drew two conclusion about this first T- group experiment  Feedback about group interaction was a rich learning experience  The process of “group building” had potential for learning that could be transferred to “back home” situations Applying T-group techniques to organizations gradually became known as team building Academy of Management & Professional Development. 13
  • 14.  The action research contribution began in 1940  The research needed to be closely linked to the actions  A collaborative effort was made, to collect the organizational data  To analyze the cause of the problem and then to device and implement a solution  Further data was collected to asses the results Academy of Management & Professional Development. 14
  • 15.  Participative management is a means of getting employees involved in planning and managing change Four types of management systems  Exploitative authoritative system  Benevolent authoritative systems  Consultative systems  Participative group Academy of Management & Professional Development. 15
  • 16.  Likert applied system 4 to organization using a survey feedback process  Which asked the members about the present and the ideal conditions about the organization  Generatedaction plans to move the organization towards system 4 condition Academy of Management & Professional Development. 16
  • 17.  The contribution of QWL can be explained in two phases  This phase was developed in Europe in 1950 based on the research of Eric Trist.  This program involved developing a work design which aimed at better integrating technology and people  Participation by unions and management in the work design  The distinguishing characteristics of this program was developing self managing groups Academy of Management & Professional Development. 17
  • 18.  Thesecond phase of QWL continues under the banner of employee involvement  Employee contribution helps in running the organization so that it can be more flexible, productive and competitive Academy of Management & Professional Development. 18
  • 19. Second-Generation OD Organization Transformation Organizational Culture Learning Organization Total Quality Management Visioning and Future Search Business Process Reengineering Quality of Work Life Academy of Management & Professional Development. 19
  • 20. A set of values, assumptions, and beliefs constitutes an integral part of OD, shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field, and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. A belief is - a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true; - a cognitive fact for the person. Values are also beliefs, and are defined as ―Beliefs about what is a desirable or a good (e.g., free speech) and what is an undesirable or a bad (e.g., dishonesty) values‖. Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as - so valuable and obviously correct, - that they are taken for granted, and - rarely examined or questioned. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 20
  • 21. Thus, values, assumptions, and beliefs are all: - cognitive facts or propositions, with - values being beliefs about being good and bad, and - assumptions being strongly held, relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. Values, assumptions, and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. OD values and assumptions developed from: - research and theory by behavioral scientists, and - from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. OD values tend to be humanistic, optimistic, and democratic. 3/23/2012 21
  • 22. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person, treat people with respect and dignity, assume that everyone has intrinsic worth, view all people as having the potential for growth and development, - these beliefs flow from humanistic values. Optimistic values post that: people are basically good, that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs, and that rationality, reason, and goodwill are the tools for making progress. 3/23/2012 22
  • 23. OD Values and Assumptions – Early Statements: OD practitioners share a set of normative goals based on their humanitarian/democratic philosophy: 1. Improvement in interpersonal competence. 2. A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. 3. Development of increased understanding between and within groups in order to reduce tensions. 4. Development of more effective ―team management", that is, the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. 5. Development of better methods of conflict resolution. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression, compromise, and unprincipled power, and more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. 6. Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms in which managers ―work on‖, like push buttons. 3/23/2012 23
  • 24. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 24
  • 25. Models and theories Kurt Lewin Change is a three-stage process Stage 1- Unfreezing the old behavior/ situation Stage 2- Moving to a new level of behaviors Stage 3- Refreezing the behavior at the new level Edgar Schein modified this theory by specifying psychological mechanisms involved in each stage Later Ronald Lippitt, Jeanne Watson and Bruce Westley expanded this model into seven-stage model Academy of Management & Professional Development. 25
  • 26. Models and theories Contd.. Ralph Kilmann 1. The culture track Five critical leverage 2. The management skills track points (tracks) for organization change 3. The team-building track 4. The strategy-structure track 5. The reward system track Track 1 : Enhances trust, communication, information sharing Track 2 : Provide new ways of coping with complex problems Track 3 : Infuses new culture and updated management skills Track 4 : Develops revised strategy plan for organization Track 5 : Establishes performance based reward system Academy of Management & Professional Development. 26
  • 27. Models and theories Contd.. Porras & Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras Peter Robertson OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals‘ behaviors, which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. 1 Organizing arrangements 2 Social factors Work setting factors 3 Physical setting 4 Technology Academy of Management & Professional Development. 27
  • 28. Models and theories Contd.. Organizing arrangements Goals, strategies, structure, policies, procedures Social Factors Culture, management style, informal networks, individual attributes Physical Settings Space configuration, physical ambiance Technology Machinery, tools, IT, job design Academy of Management & Professional Development. 28
  • 29. Systems Theory Organizations are open systems in active exchange with their environment David A. Nadler The Congruence Model Academy of Management & Professional Development. 29
  • 30. Systems Theory Contd.. Sociotechnical Systems Theory (STS) All organizations comprised of two interdependent systems: 1. Social system 2. Technical system Eric Trist To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction, organizations must optimize both systems. Changes in one system affect the other system. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 30
  • 31. Models and theories Contd.. The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change Warner Burke First order change (Transactional change) Change Second order change (Transformational change) OD interventions directed towards structure, management practices, and systems (policies & procedures) result in first order change. OD interventions directed towards mission and strategy, leadership, and organization culture result in second order change. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 31
  • 32. Models and theories Contd.. Transformational factors Transactional factors Academy of Management & Professional Development. 32
  • 33. Participation & Empowerment Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or top people; it is extended broadly throughout the organization. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of OD. Participation enhances empowerment and empowerment in turn enhances performance. Empowerment is the key to getting people to want to participate in change. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 33
  • 34. Teams & Teamwork Many tasks are so complex that they Characteristics of cannot be performed by individuals; successful teams people must work together to 1. clear, elevating goal accomplish them. 2. result driven structure Putting those empowered individuals 3. competent members into teams creates extraordinary 4. unified commitment effects on performance. 5. collaborative climate Teams create synergy i.e. sum of 6. standards of efforts of team is far greater than sum excellence of individual efforts. 7. external support and recognition A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. Examples – team building, quality circles etc. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 34
  • 35. Forming  Storming  Norming  Performing Academy of Management & Professional Development. 35
  • 36. Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design.  Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical structure. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management.  Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization's collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases, on paper, or in people's heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 36
  • 37. A parallel learning structure consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups* that study what changes are needed, make recommendations of improvements, and monitor the change efforts.  (* Idea groups, action groups, implementation groups etc.)  One or more top executive should be part of steering committee  Representatives from all parts of the organization Academy of Management & Professional Development. 37
  • 38. To develop and implement organization-wide innovations.  To foster innovation and creativity within a bureaucratic system.  To support the exchange of knowledge and expertise among performers.  To capture the organization's collective expertise Academy of Management & Professional Development. 38
  • 39. Normative-Reductive Strategy of Change Norms form the basis for behavior, and change comes through reeducation in which old norms are discarded and replaced by new ones. Changes in normative orientations involve changes in: • Attitudes • Values • Skills • Relationships Norms can be best changed by focusing on the group, not the individual. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 39
  • 40. Applied Behavioral Science OD is an application of behavioral science Pure/ Basic Science Applied Science Generating knowledge Knowledge to Solve practical problems Practice Theory : Diagnosing the situation, then selecting and implementing treatments based on diagnosis, and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. Applied Science Practice Research Practice Theory What helps me solve this problem? Applied Behavioral Science Pure/ basic science What helps me solve real problems? Behavioral Science Research Behavioral Science Theory Academy of Management & Professional Development. 40
  • 41. Action Research Data Collection Feedback of data to client system members Diagnostic Action planning based on the data Participant Types Taking action Empirical Evaluating results of actions Experimental Diagnostic Researcher enters a problem situation, diagnoses it and make recommendations for remedial treatment (recommendations may not be put into effect by client group) Participant People who are to take action are involved in the entire process from the beginning (involvement increases the likelihood of carrying out the actions once decided upon) Empirical Researcher keeps the systematic, extensive record of what he/ she did and what effects it had (may encounter situations too divergent from one another, which may not permit generalizations) Experimental It is controlled research on the relative effectiveness of various techniques (is difficult to do when client wants immediate answers) Academy of Management & Professional Development. 41
  • 42. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 42
  • 43. Managing the OD Process Three basic components of OD programs: Diagnosis Continuous collection of data about total system, its subunits, its processes, and its culture Action All activities and interventions designed to improve the organization’s functioning Program All activities designed to management ensure success of the program Academy of Management & Professional Development. 43
  • 44. The purpose of a diagnosis is to identify problems facing the organization and to determine their causes so that management can plan solutions.  Aimed at providing rigorous analysis & data on structure, administration, instruction, procedures, interfaces & other essential elements of the client system.  Diagnosis then provides a basis for structural, behavioral, technical interventions to improve organizational performance.  To make sound diagnosis it is important to have valid information about the situation. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 44
  • 45. Reliance on valid information about current problems & possible opportunities of improvement.  Organizational Diagnosis is an effective ways of looking at an organization to determine gaps between current and desired performance and how it can achieve its goals. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 45
  • 46. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 46
  • 47. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 47
  • 48. One of these strategies, organizational diagnosis, involves ―diagnosing,‖ or assessing, an organization‘s current level of functioning in order to design appropriate change interventions.  The concept of diagnosis in organization development is used in a manner similar to the medical model.  For example, the physician conducts tests, collects vital information on the human system, and evaluates this information to prescribe a course of treatment. Likewise, the organizational diagnostician uses specialized procedures to collect vital information about the organization, to analyze this information, and to design appropriate organizational interventions Academy of Management & Professional Development. 48
  • 49. An organizational model is a representation of an organization that helps us to understand more clearly and quickly what we are observing in organizations. Burke explains the many ways in which organizational models are useful (in Howard and Associates, 1994):  1. Models help to enhance our understanding of organizational behavior.  2. Models help to categorize data about an organization.  3. Models help to interpret data about an organization.  4. Models help to provide a common, short-hand language. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 49
  • 50. The model provides a systematic way to collect data on the organization and to understand and categorize the data. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 50
  • 51. Of OD practitioners, 70% reported using a model to assist in identifying problems. Models may be used to analyze structure, culture, and behavior of organization. Ch ap ter 5 Sli Academy of Management & de Professional Development. 51
  • 52. Analytical  Sociotechnical  Emergent-group systems behavior  Force-field analysis  Management practitioner Academy of Management & Professional Development. 52
  • 53. Differentiation-integration model  Developed by Paul Lawrence & Jay Lorsch in 1969.  Used for interdepartmental issues by conducting a careful diagnosis  Examines characteristics of departments.  Objective to help departments achieve integration. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 53
  • 54. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 54
  • 55. Helps in understanding how group operates Used to analyze interdependence of groups. Collects data on activities, interactions, sentiments and norms. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 55
  • 56. Two interrelated systems in organization: 1.Social system. 2.Technical system. The 2 systems are interrelated. Diagnosis determines interrelationships and type of feedback required. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 56
  • 57. Behavior balance between forces working in opposite directions. Restraining forces - act to keep organization stable. Driving forces - act to change organization. When forces equal, organization in quasi- stationary state of equilibrium. Analysis determines forces to increase or decrease. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 57
  • 58. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 58
  • 59. Diagnosis – The Six-Box Model Purposes Marvin Weisbord Relationships Structure Leadership Helpful Rewards Mechanisms Academy of Management & Professional Development. 59
  • 60. Weisbord identifies six critical areas where things must go right if organisation is to be successful. According to him, the consultant must attend to both formal and informal aspects of each box.  This model is still widely used by OD practitioners Academy of Management & Professional Development. 60
  • 61. The six-box model is comprised of the following components (boxes):  Purposes: What 'businesses' are we in?  Structure: How do we divide up the work?  Relationships: How do we manage conflict (coordinate) among people? With our technologies?  Rewards: Is there an incentive for doing all that needs doing?  Leadership: Is someone keeping the boxes in balance?  Helpful mechanisms: Have we adequate coordinating technologies? Academy of Management & Professional Development. 61
  • 62. Try to maintain language of the organization  Keep it simple  Keep it short Academy of Management & Professional Development. 62
  • 63. Is to obtain valid information  Interviewer should be neutral, non-evaluative, accepting.  Should be able to develop a trust relationship  Frank relation ship Academy of Management & Professional Development. 63
  • 64.  Goals are 1. To achieve increased understanding of the issue 2. To accomplish a common diagnosis 3. To discover alternatives for resolving the conflict 4. The focus on the common or metagoals. - Attempt to make interventions aimed at opening communication, leveling power & confronting problems. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 64
  • 65. Actions Interventions are the actions taken to produce desired changes. Four conditions that give rise to the need for OD interventions: 1. The organization has a problem (corrective action – to fix it) 2. Organization sees an unrealized opportunity (enabling action – to seize the opportunity) 3. Features of organization are out of alignment (alignment action – to get things back ‗in sync‘) 4. Yesterday‘s vision is no longer good enough (action for new vision – actions to build necessary structures, processes and culture to make new vision a reality) Academy of Management & Professional Development. 65
  • 66. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 66
  • 67. Analyzing & planning the change  Communicating about the change  Gaining acceptance of the required changes in behavior  Making the initial transition  Consolidation & follow-up Academy of Management & Professional Development. 67
  • 68. What are the objectives of the change ?  What is to be accomplished  To what extent are these goals desirable?  What is the proposed methods?  How is to be introduced & implemented?  Can other method be used? Academy of Management & Professional Development. 68
  • 69. Communication must be done before introduction of actual change. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 69
  • 70. Parallel Learning Structures A parallel learning structure consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups* that study what changes are needed, make recommendations of improvements, and monitor the change efforts. (* Idea groups, action groups, implementation groups etc.) One or more top executive should be part of steering committee Representatives from all parts of the organization Academy of Management & Professional Development. 70
  • 71. Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design.  Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical structure. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management.  Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization's collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases, on paper, or in people's heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 71
  • 72. When to use it? - To develop and implement organization-wide innovations. - To foster innovation and creativity within a bureaucratic system. - To support the exchange of knowledge and expertise among performers. - To capture the organization's collective expertise Academy of Management & Professional Development. 72
  • 73. Organizational Development interventions are the set of structured activities where selected organizational units gets engaged with task or set of tasks that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of the organization. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 73
  • 74. O. D. INTERVENTIONS OD interventions are sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units engage in a series of tasks which will lead to organizational improvement. Interventions are actions taken to produce desired changes. There are one of four reasons why there is need for OD interventions: 1. The organization has a problem- some thing is ―broken‖, and corrective actions need to be taken i.e. it needs to be ―fixed‖. 2. The organization sees an unrealized opportunity: something it wants is beyond its reach. Enabling actions- interventions- are developed to seize the opportunity. 3. Features of the organization are out of alignment: parts of the organization are working at cross-purposes. Alignment activities- interventions- are developed to get things back in tune. 4. The vision guiding the organizational changes: yesterday‘s vision is no longer good enough. Actions to build the necessary structures, processes, and culture to support the new vision- interventions- are developed to make the new vision a reality. OD interventions are planned sets of actions to change situations Academy of Management & Professional Development. 74
  • 75. O. D. INTERVENTIONS Generally OD interventions follow a well-planned overall OD strategy and get revealed as events unfold and are answers to the following questions: 1. What are the change/improvement goals of the program? 2. What parts of the organization are most receptive to the OD program? 3. What are the key leverage points( individual or group) in the organization 4. What are the most pressing problems in the client organization? 5. What resources are available for the program in terms of client time and energy and internal and external facilitators? With the help of the above questions the OD practitioner would be able to formulate his game plan and sequence of interventions etc. Furthermore, OD has two goals- one educational and the other accomplishing–a-task goal. Normally learning takes place in one setting e.g. a classroom whereas action takes place at the workplace. Secondly, OD deals with real life problems and uses several learning models. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 75
  • 76. TYPES OF INTERVENTIONS 1.Discrepancy-contradiction in action or attitude 2.Theory-behavioural science used to explain behaviour etc 3.Procedure-whether the best methods are being used 4.Relationship- focuses on interpersonal relationships-negative ones 5.Experimentation-two plans tested before final implementation of one 6.Dilemma- imposed or emergent dilemma and determining choices 7.Organizational structure-evaluation of structural causes of ineffectiveness 8.Cultural-traditions ,precedents and practices-focused approach 9.Perspective-draw away from immediate actions to past and future Blake and Mouton-Consulcube-Consultant‘s Interventions -acceptant-gives client a sense of worth,value acceptance,support -catalytic-helps client to generate information for clearer perception -confrontation-clients value discrepancies, beliefs and assumptions -prescriptions-client told what to do for solving the problem -theories and principles-teaches behavioural science theory so that the client can diagnose the problem on his own and solve them as well Academy of Management & Professional Development. 76
  • 77. Interpersonal interventions  Team  Structural  Comprehensive Academy of Management & Professional Development. 77
  • 78. Laboratory training  Career planning intervention: - Deciding where you are now - Deciding where you want to be - Developing plan for where you want to be.  Managerial grid(phase I)  Stress management - Stress management programme:(Biofeedback, transcendental meditation, career counselling, training programme in stress management, wellness programmes, seminars in job Burnout) Academy of Management & Professional Development. 78
  • 79. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 79
  • 80.  Work teams are of 2 types Team building interventions  Family group diagnostic meetings  FG team building meetings  Role negotiation technique  Role analysis technique  Process consultation Academy of Management & Professional Development. 80
  • 81. Job design  Quality of work life (QWL)  Quality circles  MBO & Appraisal  Socio technical systems  The collateral organization  Physical setting & OD Academy of Management & Professional Development. 81
  • 82. Third party consultation  Organization mirror  Inter-group team building Academy of Management & Professional Development. 82
  • 83. T-group - Objectives - Methods - Sources of change in groups - Role of trainers - Possible problems Academy of Management & Professional Development. 83
  • 84. Behavioral modeling - Current trends - Factors influencing behavioral modeling 1. Model characteristics 2. Observer characteristics 3. Behavior/task 4. Methods of presentation of the model 5. Method analysis 6. Personal use of method Academy of Management & Professional Development. 84
  • 85. Job search - Packaging - Responsiveness  Job retention - Performance of job duties - Getting along with others - Positive attitude about work - Personal philosophy Academy of Management & Professional Development. 85
  • 86. Career anchors  Career stages  Trial stages  Establishment  Mid career crisis sub stage  Maintenance stage  Late-career stage Academy of Management & Professional Development. 86
  • 87. Eight Steps to Successful Organizational Transformation 1. Establishing a sense of urgency -Examining market and competitive realities -Identifying and discussing crises, potential crises, or major opportunities 2. Forming a powerful guiding coalition -Assembling a group with enough power to lead the change effort -Encouraging the group to work together as a team 3. Creating a vision -Creating a vision to help direct the change effort -Developing strategies for achieving the vision 4. Communicating the vision -Using every vehicle possible to communicate the new vision and strategies -Teaching new behaviours by the example of the new coalition 5. Empowering others to act on the vision -Getting rid of obstacles to change -Changing systems or structures that seriously undermine the vision -Encouraging risk taking and non-traditional ideas, activities, and actions Academy of Management & Professional Development. 87
  • 88. INTERVENTIONS OD Practitioners have to consider the following in the planning and implementation of OD: 1. Develop an overall game plan or intervention strategy 2. Structure activities to promote learning and change for better as under: (a) Structure to include the relevant people (b) Structure so that it is problem-oriented or opportunity-oriented OR oriented to the problems and opportunities generated by the client (c )Structure so that the goal is clear and the way to reach it is clear (d) High probability of success (e) Structure so that it contains both experienced-based learning and conceptual learning (f) Structure so that individuals are ―freed up‖ rather than anxious and defensive (g) Structure so that participants learn how to solve a particular problem and how ―to learn to learn.‖ Academy of Management & Professional Development. 88
  • 89. INTERVENTIONS(contd.) (h) Structure so that individuals learn about both TASK and PROCESS task-is what the group is working on process-how the group is working and what else is going on ie group processes and dynamics, styles and behaviour (i) Structure so that individuals are engaged as whole persons not segmented persons 3. The other set of concerns are: (1)Maximize diagnostic data (2)Maximize effectiveness (3)Maximize efficiency (4)Maximize speed (5)Maximize relevance (6)Minimize psychological and organizational strain Academy of Management & Professional Development. 89
  • 90. INTERVENTIONS-Blake and Mouton(contd.) Focal Issues: power/authority,morale/cohesion, norms/standards and goals/objectives Target: individual, group, intergroup, organization, community, society N. B. So Blake and Mouton have 5 kinds of interventions,4 focal issues and 5 different units of change in the form of the Consulcube to guide the Consultant in the use of his interventions Interventions do different things; they cause different things to happen Results caused by interventions could be as under: 1. Feedback 2. Awareness of changing sociocultural norms or dysfunctional current norms 3. Increased interaction and communication 4. Confrontation 5. Education 6. Participation 7. Increased Accountability 8. Increased Energy and Optimism Academy of Management & Professional Development. 90
  • 91. CLASSISIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS 1. DIAGNOSTIC Activities 2. TEAMBUILDING Activities 3. INTERGROUP Activities 4. SURVEY FEEDBACK Activities 5. EDUCATION and TRAINING Activities 6. TECHNOSTRUCTURAL or STRUCTURAL Activities 7. PROCESS CONSULTATION Activities 8. GRID ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT Activities 9. THIRD-PARTY PEACEMAKING Activities 10. COACHING and COUNSELING Activities 11. LIFE and CAREER-PLANNING Activities 12. PLANNING and GOAL-SETTING Activities 13. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Activities 14. ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATION Activities Academy of Management & Professional Development. 91
  • 92. TYPES OF INTERVENTIONS Target Group Interventions Designed to Improve Effectiveness Life-and career-planning activities Coaching and counseling T-group(sensitivity training) Individuals/ interpersonal Education & training to increase skills, knowledge in the areas of technical task needs, relationship skills, process skills, decision making, problem-solving, planning, goal-setting skills Grid OD phase1 Work redesign Gestalt OD Behaviour modeling Process consultation Third- party peacemaking Dyads/Triads Role negotiation technique Gestalt OD Academy of Management & Professional Development. 92
  • 93. TYPE OF INTERVENTIONS Target Group Interventions Designed to Improve Effectiveness Teambuilding-task directed, process directed Gestalt OD Grid OD phase 2 Interdependency exercise Appreciative inquiry Responsibility charting Teams and Groups Process consultation Role negotiation Role analysis technique ―Startup‖ team-building activities Education in decision making, problem solving planning, goal setting in group settings Team MBO Appreciations and concerns exercise Search conferences Quality of work life(QWL) programs Quality circles Field force analysis Self- managed teams Academy of Management & Professional Development. 93
  • 94. OD INTERVENTIONS Target Group Interventions Designed to Improve Effectiveness Intergroup activities-Process directed -Task directed Organizational mirroring Intergroup Partnering Relations Process consultation Third- party peacemaking at group level Grid OD phase 3 Survey feedback Academy of Management & Professional Development. 94
  • 95. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 95
  • 96. A T-group or training group (sometimes also referred to as sensitivity-training group, human relations training group or encounter group) is a form of group psychotherapy where participants themselves (typically, between eight and 15 people) learn about themselves (and about small group processes in general) through their interaction with each other. They use feedback, problem solving, and role play to gain insights into themselves, others, and groups. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 96
  • 97. A T-group meeting does not have an explicit agenda, structure, or express goal.  Under the guidance of a facilitator, the participants are encouraged to share emotional reactions (such as, for example, anger, fear, warmth, or envy) that arise in response to their fellow participants' actions and statements.  The emphasis is on sharing emotions, as opposed to judgments or conclusions.  In this way, T-group participants can learn how their words and actions trigger emotional responses in the people they communicate with.  Many varieties of T-groups have existed, from the initial T-groups that focused on small group dynamics, to those that aim more explicitly to develop self-understanding and interpersonal communication.  Industry also widely used T-groups, particularly in the 1960s and 1970s, and in many ways these were predecessors of current team building and corporate culture initiatives. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 97
  • 98. The T-Group is intended to provide you the opportunity to:  Increase your understanding of group development and dynamics.  Gaining a better understanding of the underlying social processes at work within a group (looking under the tip of the iceberg)  Increase your skill in facilitating group effectiveness.  Increase interpersonal skills  Experiment with changes in your behaviour  Increase your awareness of your own feelings in the moment; and offer you the opportunity to accept responsibility for your feelings.  Increase your understanding of the impact of your behaviour on others.  Increase your sensitivity to others' feelings.  Increase your ability to give and receive feedback.  Increase your ability to learn from your own and a group's experience.  Increase your ability to manage and utilize conflict. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 98
  • 99. One way of describing what may happen for a participant is  Unfreezing habitual responses to situations: this is facilitated by the participant's own desire to explore new ways of behaving and the trainer staying non directive silent and providing little structure or task agenda  Self generated and chosen change by the participant: Experiment with new behaviors  Reinforce new behavior by positive feedback, participants own assessment of whether what is happening is closer to what she/he intents, supportive environment, trust development Academy of Management & Professional Development. 99
  • 100. Sources of change in groups  Self-observation - participants give more attention to their own intentions, feelings, etc.  Feedback - participants receive information on the impact they have on others  Insight - participants expand self-knowledge  Self-disclosure - participants exposes more of themselves to others  Universality - participants experience that others share their difficulties, concerns or hopes  Group Cohesion - participants experience trust, acceptance & understanding)  Hope - participant see others learn, achieve their goals, improve, and cope more effectively  Vicarious Learning - participants pick up skills and attitudes from others  Catharsis - participants experience a sense of release or breakthrough Academy of Management & 10 Professional Development. 0
  • 101. To help the group and individuals analyze and learn from what is happening in the group. The trainer may draw attention to events and behavior in the group and invite the group to look at its experience. At times the trainer may offer tentative interpretations.  To offer theory, a model or research that seems related to what the group is looking at.  To encourage the group to follow norms that tend to serve the learning process, e.g., focusing on "here & now" rather than the "then & there".  To offer training and coaching in skills that tend to help the learning process, e.g., feedback skills, EIAG, etc.  To not offer structure or an agenda.  To remain silent, allowing the group to experience its anxiety about acceptance, influence, etc.  To be willing to disclose oneself, to be open with the group. On occasion being willing to offer feedback and challenge a participant  To avoid becoming too directive, clinical, or personally involved. Academy of Management & 10 Professional Development. 1
  • 102. Social learning theory, which provides the foundation for behaviour modeling, asserts that most behaviours are learned by observation and modeling.  The poem ‗Children Learn What They Live‘ is based on behaviour modeling in the home. Academy of Management & 10 Professional Development. 2
  • 103. Model characteristics  Observer characteristics  Behavior/task characteristics  Method of presentation of the model Academy of Management & 10 Professional Development. 3
  • 104.  Personal use of method - Job search:  Packaging  Responsiveness - Job retention  Performance of job duties  Getting along with others  Positive, motivated attitude about the work - Personal philosophy Academy of Management & 10 Professional Development. 4
  • 105. ―Career‖ means how an individual‘s work life develops over time and how it is perceived by that person.  CA is designed to help people uncover their real values & use them to make better career choices.  It can help you think though your career options & give you a clear understanding of your own orientations toward work. Academy of Management & 10 Professional Development. 5
  • 106. Schein‘s career anchors represent aspects of work that are specially valued or needed by people for their personal fulfillment. 1. Managerial Competence 2. Technical/Functional Competence 3. Autonomy/Independence 4. Security/Stability 5. Entrepreneurial Creativity Academy of Management & 10 Professional Development. 6
  • 107. Would not give up the opportunity to climb level high  Want to be responsible and accountable for the total result and they identify their own work with the success of the organization for which they work  Ambition is to obtain generalist job  A high managerial level in a function does not interest them Academy of Management & 10 Professional Development. 7
  • 108. Would not give up the opportunity to apply his or her skill in that area and will continue develop those skills to an ever higher level.  Derive their sense of identity from the exercise of their skills  Most happy when their work permits them to be challenged in those areas  May be willing to manage others in their technical or functional area  Not interested in management for its own sake  Would avoid general management Academy of Management & 10 Professional Development. 8
  • 109. Would not give up the opportunity to define his or her work in his or her way  Wants to remain in jobs that allow flexibility regarding when and how to work  Do not stand organizational rules and restriction  Turn down the opportunities for promotion and advancement in order to retain autonomy  May even seek to have business of their own in order to achieve a sense of autonomy; however, this motive is not the same as the entrepreneurial creativity Academy of Management & 10 Professional Development. 9
  • 110. Employment security/stability, the most important thing  Main concern is to achieve a sense of having succeeded so that they can relax  May involve trading personal loyalty and willingness to do whatever the employer wants for some promise of job tenure  Less concerned with the content of their work and ranks they achieve in the organization, although they achieve high levels  Always are concerned with these issues and build their entire self-images around the management of security and stability Academy of Management & 11 Professional Development. 0
  • 111. Would not give up the opportunity to create an organization or enterprise of their own, built on their own ability and their willingness to take risk and overcome obstacles  Create an enterprise that is a result of their own efforts  May be working for others while they are learning and assessing future opportunities, but they will go out on their own as soon as they can  Want their enterprise to be financially successful in order to prove their abilities. Academy of Management & 11 Professional Development. 1
  • 112. Trial stage  Establishment  Mid career crisis sub stage  Maintenance stage  Late-career stage Academy of Management & 11 Professional Development. 2
  • 113. Academy of Management & 11 Professional Development. 3
  • 114. A number of Interrelated issues can arise in consultant-client relationship in O.D activities and they need to be managed appropriately if adverse effects are to be avoided.  There are certain issues of O.D in consultant-client relationship like entry & Contracting, Ethical Standard In O.D etc Academy of Management & 11 Professional Development. 4
  • 115. O.D consulting Contract can occur in various ways through telephone call to face to face meeting. The potential client may be present the problem and the consultant tries to fix the problem  The consultants and clients begin to sought out what group should do in order to start the logical O.D intervention.  When both the parties agree this becomes part of the overall psychological contract between consultants and clients. Contracting, in both psychological and financial sense, occurs over and over in OD consulting. Academy of Management & 11 Professional Development. 5
  • 116. 1st Model: The initial single manager is the client but as the trusts and confidence develops between the key clients and the consultant both begin to view the manager and his/er subordinate team as the client and then mangers total organization as the client.  2nd Model: The top management team comprises the initial client group.  3rd Model: the client might be in a steering committee comprising of representatives from different levels and functional areas. In this case, if the CEO is not a member, the consultant will need to be sensitive. Client , actually is more to do with interactions, interrelationships and Interfaces than to specific persons or units. Academy of Management & 11 Professional Development. 6
  • 117. Academy of Management & 11 Professional Development. 7
  • 118. A good deal of interaction between consultant and client is implicitly related to developing a relationship of mutual trust  Client‘s Trust on the consultant:  Key clients may be Fearful that- ◦ Things will get out of hands with an outsider intervening in the system ◦ Organization will be overwhelmed with petty complaints ◦ People will be encouraged to criticize there superiors  Consultants trust of the client may start as neutral ◦ Understanding clients mitive ◦ Trust and resistance problem aslo centers on good guy bad guy syndrome ◦ Confidentiality must be maintained Academy of Management & 11 Professional Development. 8
  • 119. It is possible and desirable for the consultants to be an expert. Giving substantive advise will tend to neglect the OD Consultants effectiveness hence:  Ad OD Consultant need to resist the temptation of being a content expert & need to clarify his/her role  ―Purchase-of-expertise‖ or ―Doctor-Patient Role‖ – The overriding desire to please the client may reduce her/his effectiveness  Objective of the OD expert to help the client to develop its own resources. The expert role creates a kind of dependency that does not leads to the internal development  ―Seduction into selling role‖ is dangerous because such condition may lead the consultant to be no longer in exploring the problem  Trust factor  Expectation Academy of Management & 11 Professional Development. 9
  • 120. The consultant should practice what he/she preaches ◦ The consultant may advocate open system but suppresses his or her own feelings about what is happening in the client system ◦ The consultant should give out clear messages Academy of Management & 12 Professional Development. 0
  • 121. The team must set an example of an effective unit to enhance its credibility  Practitioner should also focus on continuous growth and process renewal  The team should have effective interpersonal relationship  Team maintenance Academy of Management & 12 Professional Development. 1
  • 122. Intervention should be appropriate to diagnosis  DEPTH OF INTERVENTION In Roger Harrison‟s terms, depth of intervention can be assessed using concepts of : Accessibility: data is public versus hidden Individuality: self-perception of deviation Consultant‟s dilemma: “to lead and push, or to collaborate and follow” Performance units DOI = STUDY of formal, informal systems and self Academy of Management & Professional Development. 122
  • 123. Avoid the trap of seeping into organizational culture  Incomplete [mis] communication of fears  Comprehensive feedback then is off limits  Companion vs. collaborator  Internal change agents more susceptible Academy of Management & Professional Development. 123
  • 124. The termination of relationship is directly proportional to the dependency relationship between client and consultant  The more dependent the client is on the consultant the more difficult it is to terminate the relationship  If the consultant is in the business of assisting client to internalize skills and insights –then it is making client less dependent on it and in such case terminating the relationship is not an issue  Thus the consultants role as a facilitator creates less dependency and more client growth Academy of Management & Professional Development. 124
  • 125. Consultants role as a part educator-this involves consultants intervention on an on-going basis. It requires open communication with client about objective of interventions and about sequence of planned event.  Relationship between client and consultant depends on: ◦ Consultant competence : the longer the consultant are able to provide innovative and productive intervention the more longer the relationship will be ◦ Clients resourcefulness and capabilities in OD ◦ Organizational factors like:  Internal power struggle  Crisis  Top management support Academy of Management & Professional Development. 125
  • 126. Be transparent  Remember to align individual and organizational goals: that client‟s goals are in complete alignment with your goals- personal growth, career growth, creation of personal wealth.  Under commit- over deliver  Say when you‟re going to do it-„THEN DO IT!‟  Don‟t be afraid to tell the client that you have a difference of opinion  Offer knowledge transfer in the form of coaching and mentoring  Socialize Academy of Management & Professional Development. 126
  • 127. History of Client‘s business  In-depth knowledge of client‘s products and services  Client‘s critical business issues  Strategic direction set by the client‘s senior executives  Consultancy‘s own products and services aligned with needs of the client Academy of Management & Professional Development. 127
  • 128. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 128
  • 129. 1) A preliminary diagnosis and action 2) Data gathering from the client group 3) Data feedback to client group 4) Exploration of data by the client group 5) Action planning by the client group 6) Action taking by the client group 7) Evaluation and assessment of the results of the actions by the client group Academy of Management & Professional Development. 129
  • 130. The key aspects of model are diagnosis, data gathering, feedback to the client group, data discuss and work by the client group, action planning, and action. The sequence tends to be cynical, with the focus on new or advanced problems as the client group learns to work more effectively together. This process is iterative & cynical It is a sequence of events and activities within each iteration (data collection, feedback, and taking action based on the data); and it is a cycle of iterations of these activities, sometimes treating the same problem several times and then moving to different problems. Academy of Management & Professional Development. 130
  • 131. Etc. Joint action planning Action Action Feedback to key client Action planning or client group Action planning Further data gathering Discussion and work on feedback and Discussion and work on data emerging data feedback and data by client group Data gathering and diagnosis by consultant Feedback Feedback to client group Consultation with behavioral scientist consultant Data gathering Data gathering Key executive perception of Academy of Management & Professional Development. 131 problems
  • 132. Action step 1 ---- Objective Fact finding Planning Planning Given by: Herbert A. Shepard Management & Academy of Professional Development. 132
  • 133. Problem focus  Action oriented  Cyclical process  Collaborative  Experimental  Learning & capability building to tackle future problems Academy of Management & Professional Development. 133
  • 134. Diagnostic ◦ The scientist enters in a problem situation, diagnose it and makes recommendations  Participant ◦ People affected take part in he entire process of research  Empirical ◦ The participant keeps a systemic extensive record of what he/she did and what effects it had  Experimental ◦ Controlled research on the relative effectiveness of various action techniques Academy of Management & Professional Development. 134
  • 135. Academy of Management & 13 Professional Development. 5
  • 136. Lord Acton Academy of Management & 13 Professional Development. 6
  • 137. The intentional influence over beliefs, emotions and behaviors of people. ◦ Potential power is the capacity to do so ◦ Kinetic power is the at of doing so  One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired Academy of Management & 13 Professional Development. 7
  • 138. ―A‖ has power over ―B‖ to the extent that ―A‖ can get ―B‖ to do something that ―B‖ would otherwise not do.  The ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire.  The capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes Academy of Management & 13 Professional Development. 8
  • 139. ―Pouvoir‖ from the French stands for both the noun ―power‖ and the verb ―to be able‖ Academy of Management & 13 Professional Development. 9
  • 140. Effectance—getting one‘s way  Necessity of social interaction among two or more parties  The act or ability to influence others  Outcomes favoring one part over the other  Power is the ability to get one‘s way in a social situation. Academy of Management & 14 Professional Development. 0
  • 141. Influence ◦ Cooperation ◦ Society  Leadership ◦ Technological, medical, political, financial, spiritual, organizational  standard of living ◦ Warfare, confiscation, repression misery Academy of Management & 14 Professional Development. 1
  • 142.  Positive  Negative ◦ Leading ◦ Coercing ◦ Influencing ◦ Forcing ◦ Selling ◦ Hurting ◦ Persuading ◦ Crushing Academy of Management & 14 Professional Development. 2
  • 143. Negative power  Positive power characterized by characterized by primitive, socialized needs to unsocialized need initiate, influence to dominate others and lead ◦ Seeks to dominate ◦ Seeks to empower and control others self and others Academy of Management & 14 Professional Development. 3
  • 144. Coercive Reward The Bases Legitimate of Power Expert Referent Academy of Management & 14 Professional Development. 4
  • 145. Coercive power depends on fear  One reacts to this type of power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if one fails to comply  It rests on the application (or the threat) of physical sanctions Academy of Management & 14 Professional Development. 5
  • 146. is the opposite of coercive power  People comply because doing so produces benefits  anyone who can distribute rewards that others value will have power over them Academy of Management & 14 Professional Development. 6
  • 147. represents the power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization  Legitimate power is broader than the power to coerce and reward  it includes acceptance of a person‘s authority by members of the organization Academy of Management & 14 Professional Development. 7
  • 148. is influence wielded as a result of experience, special skill, or knowledge  Expertise has become a strong source of influence as the world has become more technologically oriented  As jobs become more specialized, we become more dependent on ―experts‖ Academy of Management & 14 Professional Development. 8
  • 149. is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or admirable personal traits.  It develops out of an admiration for someone and a desire to be like that person  If person A admires person B enough to model behavior and attitudes after him or her, then person B has power over person A Academy of Management & 14 Professional Development. 9
  • 150. Importance Scarcity Number of of the of the Viable Resource Resource Substitutes Academy of Management & 15 Professional Development. 0
  • 151. Locating Power in Organizations Departmental Individual • Place on committees • Ability to intercede • Number of employees • Approval for spending • Budget allocation • Items on the agenda • Location of offices • Access to top brass Academy of Management & 15 Professional Development. 1
  • 152. Power Tactics Reason Friendliness Sanctions Coalition Higher Bargaining Authority Assertiveness Academy of Management & 15 Professional Development. 2
  • 153. Level of self monitoring  Need for power  Internal locus of control  Investment in the organization  Perceived alternatives  Expectations of success Academy of Management & 15 Professional Development. 3
  • 154. Low trust  Role ambiguity  Democratic decision  Self-serving senior making managers  High performance  Unclear evaluation pressures systems  Scarcity of resources  Zero-sum allocations Academy of Management & 15 Professional Development. 4
  • 155. Types of Organizational Politics • Legitimate political behavior • Illegitimate political consists of normal, every-day behavior is so extreme politics: that it violates the rules of • forming coalitions the game • bypassing the chain of • Sabotage command • whistle-blowing • complaining to your supervisor • symbolic protests • developing outside contacts through professional activities Academy of Management & Professional 155 Development.
  • 156. Power in Action Legitimate Political Behavior Illegitimate Limited Resources The Reality of Politics Ambiguous Decisions Academy of Management & Professional 156 Development.
  • 157. OD values consistent with positive face of power ◦ Trust, openness, collaboration, individual dignity, promoting individual and organizational competence  Emphasis on power equalization ◦ Increases power among organizational members the whole organization has more power Academy of Management & 15 Professional Development. 7
  • 158. 1. Become a desired commodity personally and professionally • High interpersonal competence • Listening, communication, problem-solving, coaching, counseling skills; appreciating other 2. Make OD a desired commodity • OD allows individuals and organizations to reach their goals Academy of Management & 15 Professional Development. 8
  • 159. 3. Make OD a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization • Creates value for OD • Increases power base and support • Endorsement, support and protection of OD interventions Academy of Management & 15 Professional Development. 9
  • 160. 4. Create win-win situations • Enhance stable, constructive social relationships • Different way to handle conflict 5. Mind you own business (help others solve their major problems) • Help upon request • Help the manager meet her/his goals Academy of Management & 16 Professional Development. 0
  • 161. 6. Mind your own business—be a process, not content, expert 7. Mind your own business and don‘t invite political trouble • OD practitioner‘s role is that of facilitator, catalyst, problem-solver, educator • Role is not power-broker or power activist Academy of Management & 16 Professional Development. 1
  • 162. Academy of Management & 16 Professional Development. 2
  • 163. TRENDS WITHIN OD AND THEIR IMPACT ON OD‘S FUTURE TRADITIONAL •Return to original humanistic values •Increasing focus on process ORGANIZATIONAL intervention DEVELOPMENT will: PRAGMATIC •Emphasize values of •Have more conflict effectiveness in the short term •Increasing focus on relevant practice •Be more integrated ACADEMIC in the long term •Emphasize values of understanding, prediction, and control •Search for variable that explain change and Academy of Management & Professional Development. 16 3
  • 164. Contextual trends and their effect on OD‘s Future ECONOMY ORGANIZATIONAL • More concerned with cultural diversity DEVELOMENT will be: •More concentrated wealth •More concerned ecologically •More embedded in the organization‘s operations WORKFORCE •More technologically •Increasing diverse •Increasingly educated enabled •Increasingly contingent •Shorter OD cycle times •More interdisciplinary •More diverse in client TECHNOLOGY • More E-commerce organization • Faster organizational process •More cross –cultural • More productivity •More concerned with ecological sustainability ORGANIZATIONS • More networked • More Knowledge, learning, and innovation based Academy of Management & 16 Professional Development. 4
  • 165. Traditional The first trend has to do with increasing calls for a return to OD‟s traditional and others, traditionalist argue that OD should be driven by long –established values of human potential, equality, trust, and collaboration. It is proposed that OD should do what is right by assuring that organizations promote positive social change and corporate citizenship. Academy of Management & 16 Professional Development. 5
  • 166. Pragmatic related to increasing demands for professionalization of the field and an emphasis on relevance. Championed by change management practices at large consulting firms and some OD professional associations, pragmatists argue that OD practitioners should be certified like most other professionals. OD should require certification of members, create a common body of knowledge, define minimum levels o f competencies, and institute other regulatory infrastructure. Academy of Management & 16 Professional Development. 6
  • 167. Scholarly focuses on understanding, predicting an controlling change. Unlike traditionalist and pragmatist, scholars are concerned with creating valid knowledge, and with generalizing conclusions about how change occurs, how it is triggered, under what conditions it works well and so on. Academy of Management & 16 Professional Development. 7
  • 168. Implication of OD‟s Future OD will have more conflicts in the Short term  Traditionalist fear that OD is becoming too corporate and may unwittingly collude with powerful stakeholders to promote goals inconsistent with OD‟s social responsibility and humanistic values  Pragmatist on the other hand worry that relying too heavily too heavily on traditional values will reinforce OD‟s touchy feely orientation. Academy of Management & 16 Professional Development. 8
  • 169. Implication of OD‟s Future OD will have more conflicts in the Short term  The debate over values demonstrates how difficult it will be to gain agreement about standards, competencies, enforcement mechanisms, and oversight. Academy of Management & 16 Professional Development. 9
  • 170. Implication of OD‟s Future OD will become more integrated in the long term There is a considerable common ground among the diverse trends within the OD, and the emergence f a more integrated view of the field seems likely in the long term. Academy of Management & 17 Professional Development. 0
  • 171. The Economy Increasing concern over social and ecological consequences Cultural diversity – Governments face the difficult choice of preserving their culture ant the risk of being left out of the global economy. Income distribution – globalization of the economy is closely related to an increasing concentration of wealth in relatively few individuals, corporation and nations. Ecological sustainability – there are increasingly clear warnings that the ecosystem no longer can be treated as a factor of production and that success cannot be defined as the accumulation of wealth and material goods at the expense of the environment. Academy of Management & 17 Professional Development. 1
  • 172. The Workforce The workforce is becoming more:  Diverse – organizations, whether they operate primarily in their home country or abroad, will need to develop policies and operating styles that embrace the changing cultural, ethnic, gender and age diversity of the workforce.  Educated – the workforce is becoming more educated. A more educated workforce demands higher wages, more involvement in decision making and continued investment of knowledge and skills. Academy of Management & 17 Professional Development. 2
  • 173. The workforce is becoming more:  Contingent – the continued high rate of downsizings, re-engineering efforts, and mergers and acquisitions is forcing the workforce to become more contingent and less loyal. Academy of Management & 17 Professional Development. 3
  • 174. Technology Internet – the backbone of global economy. E-commerce – an economy that knows no boundaries. It involves buying and selling products and services over the internet. Two types of E-commerce relevant to OD‟s Future  Business-to-consumer – garners much attention and awareness because it is how the public participates in E- commerce.  Business-to-business – more complex Academy of Management & 17 Professional Development. 4
  • 175. Organization  It involves increasingly networked and knowledge based nature of organizations.  The interventions help organizations become more streamlined and flexible, more capable of improving themselves continuously in response to economic and other trends and more effective.  Networks – are highly adaptable and can disband and reform along different task or market lines as the circumstances demand. Academy of Management & 17 Professional Development. 5
  • 176. OD will be more embedded in the organization‟s Operations This suggest that OD practices will become more embedded in the organization‟s normal operating routines. OD skills, knowledge, and competencies can and should become the daily work of managers and employees. Academy of Management & 17 Professional Development. 6
  • 177. OD process will be more technologically Enabled Information technology is pervasive and will have a significant affect on OD practice. First, it will enable OD to be synchronous and asynchronous (anytime, anywhere) as well as virtual and less face to face. Second, information technology will provide much more data about the organization to a greater number of participants in a shorter period of time. Academy of Management & 17 Professional Development. 7
  • 178. OD Cycle Times will be Shorter  New information technologies will expedite certain steps in the change process.  In coming years, new technologies such as groupware and video conferencing, will increasingly be used to bring more people together faster than ever before.  There is a real potential to reduce dramatically the time required to perform many OD practices. Academy of Management & 17 Professional Development. 8
  • 179. OD will be more Interdisciplinary  OD will continue to become more interdisciplinary and rely on different perspectives and approaches to develop and change organizations.  It will balance human fulfillment and economic performance, provide a fuller recognition of the systemic and dynamic nature of organizations and develop improved techniques for managing large scale, and change w/n and across natural cultures. Academy of Management & 17 Professional Development. 9
  • 180. OD will be Applied to More Diverse Organizations In the future planned change will be applied to a more diverse client base. Types of organizations that are target of planned change  Small entrepreneurial start-ups – important underserved market for OD.  Governments – increasingly applying OD interventions such as strategic planning, employee involvement, and performance management. Academy of Management & 18 Professional Development. 0
  • 181. Global Social Change Organizations – the increasing concentration of wealth and globalization of the economy will create a plethora of opportunities for OD to assists developing countries, disadvantage citizens and ecology. Academy of Management & 18 Professional Development. 1
  • 182. OD will become More Cross-Cultural As organizations and the economy become more global, the recent growth of OD practice in international and cross- cultural situations will continue. The current trends of OD clearly point to the need for OD applications that work across cultures. Academy of Management & 18 Professional Development. 2