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Slide 7.1
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Chapter 7
Sales responsibilities
and preparation
Slide 7.2
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Sales Responsibilities
The primary responsibility of a salesperson is to
conclude a sale successfully.
• identification of customer needs
• presentation
• demonstration
• negotiation
• handling objections
• closing the sale
Slide 7.3
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Sales Responsibilities
The secondary responsibility of salespersons are
vital to long-term sales success.
• prospecting
• database and knowledge management
• self-management
• handling complaints
• providing service
• relationship management
Slide 7.4
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Figure 7.1 Key responsibilities of salespeople
is the searching for and
calling upon customers who
have not purchased from the
company.
Slide 7.5
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
5
A) Sources of Prospects
1. Getting information from the existing customers:
- A highly effective method of generating prospects. Information can be
obtained simply by asking the existing customers if they know anyone is in
needs. After obtaining the name of potential customers, sales person can
ask if they can use the name of the existing customers as reference.
e.g Insurance by referral, industrial selling
2. Trade directories:
- Can be obtained in trade shows/exhibitions/publication company. A
reliable directory could be very useful in identifying potential customers by
providing name, size and nature of company, type of products etc.
e.g. Industrial products/retail directory.
3. Inquiries:
- Many companies stimulate inquiries by advertising, direct mail and
exhibitions. It is important that the salesperson responds quickly, by call,
mail… Advantages of screening the potential customers.
Slide 7.6
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
6
A) Sources of Prospects (Con’d)
4. The press:
- Salespersons can get the hits from the advertisements and articles
of potential customers. Articles may reveal diversification plans of
an organizations, advertisement for personnel may mean the
potential company is expanding and can be a new business to the
salespersons.
5. Cold canvassing
- Cold calling/visiting. Depends on the nature of the industry the
salespersons are in, sometimes a scanning of a certain company by
size and nature is needed, e.g. stationery salesperson calls to every
company, medical sales representative only calls to doctors or
pharmacy. Cold call on big company is not very useful, rather, by
letter expressing purpose then make appointment is better.
Slide 7.7
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Cold canvassing
• approaching customers who at the
extreme have never heard of the
company, have never heard of its
products, have never met or spoken to
the salesperson before and may have
no conceivable interest in, or need for,
the product or service in question.
Imagine the difficulties of trying to sell in
this situation.
Slide 7.8
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
More Effective
Cold calling can be made more effective include
the following:
1. Try to make cold calling as unintrusive as possible for the customer.
2. For domestic customers try to avoid cold calling very early or very late
in the day.
3. respect the privacy of the customer and always respect their wish not
to be bothered.
4. Do not ever try to bully a customer into speaking to or seeing you.
5. secure a future appointment, or to gain an agreement to send further
information, rather than immediately trying to secure an order.
6. Find out as much as possible about the prospective customer and use
this to plan the cold call approach and content.
Slide 7.9
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Database and knowledge management
An industrial salesperson should record the
following information:
1.name and address of company
2.name and position of contact(s)
3.nature of business
4.date and time of interview
5.assessment of potential
6.buyer needs, problems and buying habits
7.past sales with dates
8.problems/opportunities encountered
9.future actions on the part of salesperson (and buyer).
Slide 7.10
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Self-management
salesperson often works alone with the minimum of
personal supervision
• organize their own call plan
• divide a territory into segments radiating outwards
• driving out to the furthest customer and then zigzagging
back to home base
• survey
• deciding on call frequency
Slide 7.11
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
1
1
C) Self-management
- Sales job is usually independent with very limit
personal supervision. Therefore a salesperson
should organize own call plan:
- How frequent you call a certain customer
- How much time needs to be spent with each customer
/the whole selling process
- Some companies ask the salesperson to produce
worksheets showing who is to be called on and in
what order every day.
Slide 7.12
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Handling complaints
• Handling complaints may seem at first to be a
time-consuming activity that diverts a
salesperson from the primary task of generating
sales.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 13 of 34
Customer Complaints
25%
Dissatisfied
5%
Complain
95%
Stop buying
54% - 70%
Buy again if resolved
95%
If resolved quickly
Tell 5
people
Tell 11
people
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 14 of 34
Customer Complaints
 Following procedures can help to recover customer
goodwill:
 1. Set up a 7-day, 24-hour toll-free hotline (by phone, fax, or
e-mail) to receive and act on customer complaints.
 2. Contact the complaining customer as quickly as possible.
The slower the company is to respond, the more
dissatisfaction may grow and lead to negative word of
mouth
 3. Accept responsibility for the customer’s disappointment;
don’t blame the customer.
 4. Use customer service people who are empathic.
 5. Resolve the complaint swiftly and to the customer’s
satisfaction. Some complaining customers are not looking
for compensation so much as a sign that the company
Slide 7.15
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
1
5
E) Handling complaints
- Dealing with complains may be time consuming, but a
market/customer-oriented company may require sales force to priory
meet customer satisfaction in order to generate profit.
- No matter how trivial the complaint is, the complainant should be
treated with respect and the matter should be dealt with seriously.
- If the salesperson can react synthetically can create goodwill and
help foster long-term relationship.
- Some companies may offer customer certain benefit as
compensation if it does not involve high cost, e.g. free replacement,
discount coupon on next purchase, EVEN THOUGH the fault is due
to inappropriate usage by customer.
- Sometimes salesperson does not have the authority to deal with
complaint immediately, he/she should inform the direct management
as soon as possible to avoid further seriousness.
Slide 7.16
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Providing service
Salespeople are in an excellent position to provide
a ‘consultancy’ service to their customers.
Because they have direct contact, they are able to
advise customers on improving productivity or
cutting costs
Slide 7.17
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Relationship management
Slide 7.18
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Implementing sales and
marketing strategies
• Misunderstandings regarding strategy can have grave
implications.
• Successful implementation can mean the difference
between winning or losing new accounts.
• An effective method of
gaining an account in the
face of entrenched
competition is the diversion.
The aim is to distract a rival
into concentrating its efforts
on defending one account
Slide 7.19
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Preparation for pure selling
• Product knowledge and benefits
• Knowledge of competitors’ products and their
benefits
• Sales presentation planning
• Setting sales objectives
• Sales Cycle
• Understanding buyer behavior
Slide 7.20
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
2
0
Preparation---selling
1. Product knowledge and consumer benefits
 Knowledge of product feature is insufficient for sales success.
Salespeople should be able to relate the product features to
customer benefits. This becomes meaningful to buyers thus
more convincing.
2. Knowledge of competitors’ products and their
benefits
 Salesperson can offset the strengths of competitor’s products,
which may be mentioned by buyers, against their weakness.
E.g Competitor X’s price is lower but it’s maintenance cost is
high.
 Salesperson can get information from the magazines, price
lists, catalogues or direct observation
Slide 7.21
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
2
1
Preparation --- selling (con’d)
3. Selling presentation planning
 Demonstrations can be help to memorize product’s benefits, build up
confidence and get prepare to the anticipated counter-argument
customers.
1. The salesperson is less likely to forget important consumer
benefits associated with each product within the range they are
selling.
2. The use of visual aids and demonstrations can be planned into
the presentation at the most appropriate time to reinforce the
benefit the salesperson is communicating.
3. It builds confidence in the salesperson, particularly the newer,
less experienced, that they are well equipped to do the job
efficiently and professionally.
4. Possible objections and questions can be anticipated and
persuasive counterarguments prepared.
Slide 7.22
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
2
2
Preparation --- selling (con’d)
4. Setting sales objectives
 Salesperson should be clear of the sales objective-what the
salesperson wants the customer do rather than what the
salesperson will do: visiting a customer is what the
salesperson will do, getting the customer sign the contract
is the ultimate goal.
• for the customer to define clearly what their requirements are;
• to have the customer visit the production site;
• to have the customer try the product, e.g. fly on an aircraft;
• to have the customer compare the product against competing
products in terms of measurable performance criteria, e.g. for
pile-driving equipment this might be the number of metres
driven per hour.
Slide 7.23
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
2
3
Preparation --- selling (con’d)
4. Understand buyer behavior
 For industrial seller, important to find out key
influencer and decision makers
 For retail seller, important to find out whether
customers concern design, price, quality,
convenience.
Slide 7.24
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Sales Cycle
• The sales cycle refers to the processes between first
contact with a customer and the placing of the actual
order and the amount of time this takes.
Slide 7.25
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Preparation for sales negotiations
• Assessment of the balance of power
• Determination of negotiating objectives
• Concession analysis
• Proposal analysis
Slide 7.26
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Assessment of the balance of power
seller and buyer will each be expecting to
conclude a deal favorable to themselves.
– their negotiating skills and the balance of power
between the parties.
This balance will be determined by four key factors:
1.The number of options available to each party
2.The quantity and quality of information held by each party.
3.Need recognition and satisfaction.
4.The pressures on the parties.
Slide 7.27
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Determination of negotiating objectives
• Must have’ objectives. The ‘must have’ objectives
define a bargainer’s minimum requirements; for
example, the minimum price at which a seller is willing to
trade. This determines the negotiating breakpoint.
• ‘Would like’ objectives. These are the maximum a
negotiator can reasonably expect to get; for example, the
highest price a seller feels they can realistically obtain.
This determines the opening positions of buyers and
sellers.
Slide 7.28
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
A negotiating scenario
Slide 7.29
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Concession analysis
• price
• timing of delivery
• the product – its specification, optional extras;
• the price – ex works price, price at the buyer’s
factory gate, installation price, in-service price
• payment – on despatch, on receipt, in working
order, credit terms
• trade-in terms
Slide 7.30
Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Proposal analysis
• A further sensible activity during the
preparation stage is to estimate the
proposals and demands the buyer is likely
to make during the course of negotiation,
and the seller’s reaction to them.

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Chapter 7 Final business management sciences .ppt

  • 1. Slide 7.1 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Chapter 7 Sales responsibilities and preparation
  • 2. Slide 7.2 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Sales Responsibilities The primary responsibility of a salesperson is to conclude a sale successfully. • identification of customer needs • presentation • demonstration • negotiation • handling objections • closing the sale
  • 3. Slide 7.3 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Sales Responsibilities The secondary responsibility of salespersons are vital to long-term sales success. • prospecting • database and knowledge management • self-management • handling complaints • providing service • relationship management
  • 4. Slide 7.4 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Figure 7.1 Key responsibilities of salespeople is the searching for and calling upon customers who have not purchased from the company.
  • 5. Slide 7.5 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 5 A) Sources of Prospects 1. Getting information from the existing customers: - A highly effective method of generating prospects. Information can be obtained simply by asking the existing customers if they know anyone is in needs. After obtaining the name of potential customers, sales person can ask if they can use the name of the existing customers as reference. e.g Insurance by referral, industrial selling 2. Trade directories: - Can be obtained in trade shows/exhibitions/publication company. A reliable directory could be very useful in identifying potential customers by providing name, size and nature of company, type of products etc. e.g. Industrial products/retail directory. 3. Inquiries: - Many companies stimulate inquiries by advertising, direct mail and exhibitions. It is important that the salesperson responds quickly, by call, mail… Advantages of screening the potential customers.
  • 6. Slide 7.6 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 6 A) Sources of Prospects (Con’d) 4. The press: - Salespersons can get the hits from the advertisements and articles of potential customers. Articles may reveal diversification plans of an organizations, advertisement for personnel may mean the potential company is expanding and can be a new business to the salespersons. 5. Cold canvassing - Cold calling/visiting. Depends on the nature of the industry the salespersons are in, sometimes a scanning of a certain company by size and nature is needed, e.g. stationery salesperson calls to every company, medical sales representative only calls to doctors or pharmacy. Cold call on big company is not very useful, rather, by letter expressing purpose then make appointment is better.
  • 7. Slide 7.7 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Cold canvassing • approaching customers who at the extreme have never heard of the company, have never heard of its products, have never met or spoken to the salesperson before and may have no conceivable interest in, or need for, the product or service in question. Imagine the difficulties of trying to sell in this situation.
  • 8. Slide 7.8 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 More Effective Cold calling can be made more effective include the following: 1. Try to make cold calling as unintrusive as possible for the customer. 2. For domestic customers try to avoid cold calling very early or very late in the day. 3. respect the privacy of the customer and always respect their wish not to be bothered. 4. Do not ever try to bully a customer into speaking to or seeing you. 5. secure a future appointment, or to gain an agreement to send further information, rather than immediately trying to secure an order. 6. Find out as much as possible about the prospective customer and use this to plan the cold call approach and content.
  • 9. Slide 7.9 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Database and knowledge management An industrial salesperson should record the following information: 1.name and address of company 2.name and position of contact(s) 3.nature of business 4.date and time of interview 5.assessment of potential 6.buyer needs, problems and buying habits 7.past sales with dates 8.problems/opportunities encountered 9.future actions on the part of salesperson (and buyer).
  • 10. Slide 7.10 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Self-management salesperson often works alone with the minimum of personal supervision • organize their own call plan • divide a territory into segments radiating outwards • driving out to the furthest customer and then zigzagging back to home base • survey • deciding on call frequency
  • 11. Slide 7.11 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 1 1 C) Self-management - Sales job is usually independent with very limit personal supervision. Therefore a salesperson should organize own call plan: - How frequent you call a certain customer - How much time needs to be spent with each customer /the whole selling process - Some companies ask the salesperson to produce worksheets showing who is to be called on and in what order every day.
  • 12. Slide 7.12 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Handling complaints • Handling complaints may seem at first to be a time-consuming activity that diverts a salesperson from the primary task of generating sales.
  • 13. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 13 of 34 Customer Complaints 25% Dissatisfied 5% Complain 95% Stop buying 54% - 70% Buy again if resolved 95% If resolved quickly Tell 5 people Tell 11 people
  • 14. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 14 of 34 Customer Complaints  Following procedures can help to recover customer goodwill:  1. Set up a 7-day, 24-hour toll-free hotline (by phone, fax, or e-mail) to receive and act on customer complaints.  2. Contact the complaining customer as quickly as possible. The slower the company is to respond, the more dissatisfaction may grow and lead to negative word of mouth  3. Accept responsibility for the customer’s disappointment; don’t blame the customer.  4. Use customer service people who are empathic.  5. Resolve the complaint swiftly and to the customer’s satisfaction. Some complaining customers are not looking for compensation so much as a sign that the company
  • 15. Slide 7.15 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 1 5 E) Handling complaints - Dealing with complains may be time consuming, but a market/customer-oriented company may require sales force to priory meet customer satisfaction in order to generate profit. - No matter how trivial the complaint is, the complainant should be treated with respect and the matter should be dealt with seriously. - If the salesperson can react synthetically can create goodwill and help foster long-term relationship. - Some companies may offer customer certain benefit as compensation if it does not involve high cost, e.g. free replacement, discount coupon on next purchase, EVEN THOUGH the fault is due to inappropriate usage by customer. - Sometimes salesperson does not have the authority to deal with complaint immediately, he/she should inform the direct management as soon as possible to avoid further seriousness.
  • 16. Slide 7.16 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Providing service Salespeople are in an excellent position to provide a ‘consultancy’ service to their customers. Because they have direct contact, they are able to advise customers on improving productivity or cutting costs
  • 17. Slide 7.17 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Relationship management
  • 18. Slide 7.18 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Implementing sales and marketing strategies • Misunderstandings regarding strategy can have grave implications. • Successful implementation can mean the difference between winning or losing new accounts. • An effective method of gaining an account in the face of entrenched competition is the diversion. The aim is to distract a rival into concentrating its efforts on defending one account
  • 19. Slide 7.19 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Preparation for pure selling • Product knowledge and benefits • Knowledge of competitors’ products and their benefits • Sales presentation planning • Setting sales objectives • Sales Cycle • Understanding buyer behavior
  • 20. Slide 7.20 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 2 0 Preparation---selling 1. Product knowledge and consumer benefits  Knowledge of product feature is insufficient for sales success. Salespeople should be able to relate the product features to customer benefits. This becomes meaningful to buyers thus more convincing. 2. Knowledge of competitors’ products and their benefits  Salesperson can offset the strengths of competitor’s products, which may be mentioned by buyers, against their weakness. E.g Competitor X’s price is lower but it’s maintenance cost is high.  Salesperson can get information from the magazines, price lists, catalogues or direct observation
  • 21. Slide 7.21 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 2 1 Preparation --- selling (con’d) 3. Selling presentation planning  Demonstrations can be help to memorize product’s benefits, build up confidence and get prepare to the anticipated counter-argument customers. 1. The salesperson is less likely to forget important consumer benefits associated with each product within the range they are selling. 2. The use of visual aids and demonstrations can be planned into the presentation at the most appropriate time to reinforce the benefit the salesperson is communicating. 3. It builds confidence in the salesperson, particularly the newer, less experienced, that they are well equipped to do the job efficiently and professionally. 4. Possible objections and questions can be anticipated and persuasive counterarguments prepared.
  • 22. Slide 7.22 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 2 2 Preparation --- selling (con’d) 4. Setting sales objectives  Salesperson should be clear of the sales objective-what the salesperson wants the customer do rather than what the salesperson will do: visiting a customer is what the salesperson will do, getting the customer sign the contract is the ultimate goal. • for the customer to define clearly what their requirements are; • to have the customer visit the production site; • to have the customer try the product, e.g. fly on an aircraft; • to have the customer compare the product against competing products in terms of measurable performance criteria, e.g. for pile-driving equipment this might be the number of metres driven per hour.
  • 23. Slide 7.23 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 2 3 Preparation --- selling (con’d) 4. Understand buyer behavior  For industrial seller, important to find out key influencer and decision makers  For retail seller, important to find out whether customers concern design, price, quality, convenience.
  • 24. Slide 7.24 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Sales Cycle • The sales cycle refers to the processes between first contact with a customer and the placing of the actual order and the amount of time this takes.
  • 25. Slide 7.25 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Preparation for sales negotiations • Assessment of the balance of power • Determination of negotiating objectives • Concession analysis • Proposal analysis
  • 26. Slide 7.26 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Assessment of the balance of power seller and buyer will each be expecting to conclude a deal favorable to themselves. – their negotiating skills and the balance of power between the parties. This balance will be determined by four key factors: 1.The number of options available to each party 2.The quantity and quality of information held by each party. 3.Need recognition and satisfaction. 4.The pressures on the parties.
  • 27. Slide 7.27 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Determination of negotiating objectives • Must have’ objectives. The ‘must have’ objectives define a bargainer’s minimum requirements; for example, the minimum price at which a seller is willing to trade. This determines the negotiating breakpoint. • ‘Would like’ objectives. These are the maximum a negotiator can reasonably expect to get; for example, the highest price a seller feels they can realistically obtain. This determines the opening positions of buyers and sellers.
  • 28. Slide 7.28 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 A negotiating scenario
  • 29. Slide 7.29 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Concession analysis • price • timing of delivery • the product – its specification, optional extras; • the price – ex works price, price at the buyer’s factory gate, installation price, in-service price • payment – on despatch, on receipt, in working order, credit terms • trade-in terms
  • 30. Slide 7.30 Jobber and Lancaster, Selling and Sales Management PowerPoints on the Web, 10th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2015 Proposal analysis • A further sensible activity during the preparation stage is to estimate the proposals and demands the buyer is likely to make during the course of negotiation, and the seller’s reaction to them.

Editor's Notes

  1. CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS Some companies think they’re getting a sense of customer satisfaction by tallying complaints, but studies show that while customers are dissatisfied with their purchases about 25 percent of the time, only about 5 percent complain. The other 95 percent either feel complaining is not worth the effort or don’t know how or to whom to complain. They just stop buying.