Learning In The 21st Century

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Credits to Lance Rougeux and Brad Fountain of the Discovery Educator Network who provided some of the collated resources for this presentation

Credits to Lance Rougeux and Brad Fountain of the Discovery Educator Network who provided some of the collated resources for this presentation

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  • This slide show is very informative. I'd like to share this with some of the teachers in the High School where I graduated. Thanks a lot for this!
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  • Check out the Children's Hospital of Boston interactive Flash tutorial on how neurons work at http://www.childrenshospital.org/research/Site2029/mainpageS2029P23sublevel51.html
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  • 1. Learning in the 21 st Century Jennifer Dorman Staff Development Facilitator Central Bucks School District http://jdorman.wikispaces.com/digitalnatives
  • 2. Who is the digital native?
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. Were really good at preparing students for . . .
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8. A change – a systemic shift – is needed
  • 9. Brain Research How does brain research support the use of digital media and technology in the 21 st Century classroom?
  • 10.  
  • 11. The Human Brain – Facts
    • An adult brain weighs 2-4 pounds
    • The brain is comprised of at least 60% fat
    • Every heart beat provides 25% of the blood and oxygen to the brain
    • The brain has a cortex and subcortex
    Adapted from How Brain Research Relates to Rigor, Relevance and Relationships (Dr. Willard Daggett 2007)
  • 12. The Human Brain – Facts
    • The brain has a left hemisphere (primarily language functions) and a right hemisphere (primarily non-language functions)
    • The hippocampus encodes new information and initiates learning and memory
    Adapted from How Brain Research Relates to Rigor, Relevance and Relationships (Dr. Willard Daggett 2007)
  • 13. The Human Brain – Facts
    • Human have millions of brain cells (neurons) that can be shaped and increased in number with exposure to complex and novel environments
    Adapted from How Brain Research Relates to Rigor, Relevance and Relationships (Dr. Willard Daggett 2007)
  • 14. The Human Brain – Facts
    • Neurons communicate with each other chemically, in a process referred to as a synapse
    • The more synaptic connections, the greater the brain reserve
    • Brain reserve is thought to delay the onset of diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease
    Adapted from How Brain Research Relates to Rigor, Relevance and Relationships (Dr. Willard Daggett 2007)
  • 15. Brain Research
    • The brain has plasticity – there is no finite capacity or limitation
      • Every brain is shaped by environmental input across ones’ lifespan
      • The type of environmental input to a brain can make a difference with respect to the health of that brain
    Adapted from How Brain Research Relates to Rigor, Relevance and Relationships (Dr. Willard Daggett 2007)
  • 16. Brain Plasticity
    • The dynamic, constantly reorganizing, and malleable nature of the brain is called brain plasticity
    Adapted from How Brain Research Relates to Rigor, Relevance and Relationships (Dr. Willard Daggett 2007)
  • 17. Brain Plasticity
    • Critical factors to an enriched environment for brain development
      • Socialization
      • Physical activity
      • Mental stimulation
    • According to Nussbaum (Your Brain Health Lifestyle 2007) –
    • Reflection and introspection
    Adapted from How Brain Research Relates to Rigor, Relevance and Relationships (Dr. Willard Daggett 2007)
  • 18. 3 hrs watching TV 1 hr on the computer (outside of schoolwork) 1 hr 45 min listening to music (radio, CDs, MP3 players) 45 minutes playing video games 6 ½ hrs/day Data from Kaiser Family Foundation Study, 2005 Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year-olds (Kaiser Family Foundation)
  • 19. Impact of Media Exposure
    • Thinking skills enhanced by repeated exposure to digital media:
      • Reading visual images as representations of 3D space (representational competence)
      • Multidimensional visual-spatial skills, mental maps, “mental paper folding”
      • Inductive discovery
      • Attentional deployment
      • Responding to expected and unexpected stimuli
    Adapted from Do They Really Think Differently? (Marc Prensky 2001)
  • 20. Digital Natives What is the learning profile of 21 st Century students?
  • 21. Data from Kaiser Family Foundation Study, 2005 Speak Up 2006 (www.tomorrow.org) Students’ #1 request regarding technology use at their schools Relax school rules about email, IM, cell phone and online use Favorite communications device (K-12) Cell phone (73% in grades 9-12 use a cell phone daily) Percentage of middle schoolers who have online friends from other schools, states or countries 54%
  • 22. Digital Natives . . .
    • Are used to receiving information really fast
    • Like to parallel process and multitask
    • Prefer graphics before their text
    • Prefer random access (like hypertext)
    Adapted from Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants (Marc Prensky 2001)
  • 23. Digital Natives . . .
    • Function best when networked
    • Thrive on instant gratification and frequent rewards
    • Prefer games to “serious” work
    Adapted from Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants (Marc Prensky 2001)
  • 24. What are they missing?
    • Critical thinking
      • Reflection
      • Evaluation
    Adapted from Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants (Marc Prensky 2001)
  • 25. Data from Kaiser Family Foundation Study, 2005 Agriculture Age Industrial Age Information Age Conceptual Age communication creativity connectedness Adapted from A Whole New Mind (Daniel Pink 2006)
  • 26. Digital Culture What constitutes thinking and learning skills in the 21 st Century?
  • 27. Top 10 Websites Data from Kaiser Family Foundation Study, 2005 Alexa.com (March 10, 2008)
  • 28. Top 10 Websites in the USA
    • Google
    • Yahoo
    • MySpace
    • YouTube
    • Facebook
    • Windows Live
    • EBay
    • Wikipedia
    • MSN
    • Craigslist
    Alexa.com (March 10, 2008)
  • 29.  
  • 30. Realizations
    • Society is changing
    • The skills and knowledge required for work and civic life in the 21 st century are shifting
    • Educational systems need to adapt to meet the needs of the digital natives in the 21 st century
  • 31. Societal Changes
    • Globalization
    • Transformative technologies
    • Shifting demographics
    • Changing values and attitudes
  • 32. Work and Civic Skills
    • Released October 2, 2006, by The Conference Board, Corporate Voices for Working Families, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, and the Society for Human Resource Management groups.
  • 33. 21 st Century Skills What skills are most important for job success when hiring a High School graduate? Are They Really To Work? 2006 58% Critical Thinking & Problem Solving 63% Social Responsibility 70% Good Communication 75% Collaboration 80% Work Ethic
  • 34. 21 st Century Skills Of the High School students that you recently hired, what were their deficiencies? Are They Really To Work? 2006 58% Self-Direction 70% Critical Thinking & Problem Solving 70% Work Ethic 73% Leadership 81% Written Communication
  • 35. 21 st Century Skills What applied skills and basic knowledge are most important for those you will hire with a four-year college diploma? Are They Really To Work? 2006 93.8% Professional/Work Ethic 93.1% Critical Thinking/Problem Solving 93.1% Written Communication 94.4% Collaboration 95.4% Oral Communication
  • 36. 21 st Century Skills What skills and content areas will be growing in importance in the next five years? Are They Really To Work? 2006 76% Health & Wellness 72% Personal Financial Responsibility 74% Innovation 74% Collaboration 77% Information Technology 78% Critical Thinking
  • 37. Implications for Public Education
    • Around what enduring understandings, essential questions, and standards should our programs be built to better prepare our students for their future?
  • 38. Implications for Public Education
    • “ This is a story about the big public conversation the nation is not having about education… whether an entire generation of kids will fail to make the grade in the global economy because they can’t think their way through abstract problems, work in teams, distinguish good information from bad, or speak a language other than English.”
      • “ How to Build a Student for the 21st Century”, TIME Magazine, December 18, 2006
  • 39. 20 th Century vs. 21 st Century
    • Grades are based on what was learned
    • Grades averaged
    • Integrated and Interdisciplinary curriculum
    • Fragmented curriculum
    • Great deal of student freedom
    • Little or no student freedom
    • Student-centered:  teacher is facilitator/coach
    • Teacher-centered:  teacher is center of attention and provider of information
    • Learners work collaboratively with classmates and others around the world – the Global Classroom
    • Learners work in isolation – classroom within 4 walls
    • Active learning
    • Passive learning
    • Research-driven
    • Textbook-driven
    • Learning is designed on upper levels of Bloom’s – synthesis, analysis and evaluation
    • Lessons focus on lower level of Bloom’s Taxonomy – knowledge, comprehension and application
    • Focus on what students KNOW, CAN DO and ARE LIKE after all the details are forgotten
    • Focus on memorization of discrete facts
    • Outcome-based
    • Time-based
    21 st Century Classrooms 20 th Century Classrooms
  • 40. 20 th Century vs. 21 st Century 21 st Century Classrooms 20 th Century Classrooms
    • Multiple literacies of the 21 st century – aligned to living and working in a globalized new millennium.
    • Literacy is the 3 R’s – reading, writing and math
    • Curriculum and instruction address student diversity.
    • Diversity in students is ignored.
    • Performances, projects and multiple forms of media are used for learning and assessment.
    • Print is the primary vehicle of learning and assessment.
    • Curriculum is connected to students’ interests, experiences, talents and the real world.
    • Curriculum/School is irrelevant and meaningless to the students.
    • Self, Peer and Other assessments.  Public audience, authentic assessments.
    • Teacher is judge.  No one else sees student work.
    • High expectations – “If it isn’t good, it isn’t done”  We expect, and ensure, that all students succeed in learning at high levels.  Some may go higher – we get out of their way to let them do that.
    • Low expectations
  • 41. http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/
  • 42. Vision for 21 st Century Learning
    • Core subjects
      • Language arts
      • Mathematics
      • Science
      • World languages
      • Civic and government
      • Economics
      • History
      • Geography
    Results That Matter 21st Century Skills and High School Reform 2006
  • 43. Vision for 21 st Century Learning
    • 21 st Century Content
      • Global awareness
      • Financial, economic, business, and entrepreneurial literacy
      • Civic literacy
      • Health and wellness awareness
    Results That Matter 21st Century Skills and High School Reform 2006
  • 44. Vision for 21 st Century Learning
    • Learning and Thinking Skills
      • Critical-thinking and problem-solving skills
      • Communication skills
      • Creativity and innovation skills
      • Collaboration skills
      • Contextual learning skills
      • Information and media literacy skills
    Results That Matter 21st Century Skills and High School Reform 2006
  • 45. Vision for 21 st Century Learning
    • Information and Communications Technology
      • The ability to use technology to learn content and skills – so that they know how to learn, think critically, solve problems, use information, communicate, innovate, and collaborate
    Results That Matter 21st Century Skills and High School Reform 2006
  • 46. Vision for 21 st Century Learning
    • Life Skills
      • Leadership
      • Ethics
      • Accountability
      • Adaptability
      • Personal productivity
      • Personal responsibility
      • People skills
      • Self-direction
      • Social responsibility
    Results That Matter 21 st Century Skills and High School Reform 2006
  • 47. 21 st Century Standards
    • Focuses on 21st century skills, content knowledge and expertise.
    • Builds understanding across and among core subjects as well as 21st century interdisciplinary themes
    • Emphasizes deep understanding rather than shallow knowledge
    • Engages students with the real world data, tools, and experts they will encounter in college, on the job, and in life--students learn best when actively engaged in solving meaningful problems
    • Allows for multiple measures of mastery
    http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/
  • 48. Technology Standards http://cnets.iste.org/
  • 49. NETS-S
    • Creativity and Innovation
      • Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology.
    http://cnets.iste.org/
  • 50. NETS-S
    • Communication and Collaboration
      • Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.
    http://cnets.iste.org/
  • 51. NETS-S
    • Research and Information Fluency
      • Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.
    http://cnets.iste.org/
  • 52. NETS-S
    • Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving & Decision-Making
      • Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.
    http://cnets.iste.org/
  • 53. NETS-S
    • Digital Citizenship
      • Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.
    http://cnets.iste.org/
  • 54. NETS-S
    • Technology Operations and Concepts
      • Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.
    http://cnets.iste.org/
  • 55.
    • “ The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. ”
    • - Alvin Toffler
  • 56. Data from Kaiser Family Foundation Study, 2005 Speak Up 2006 (www.tomorrow.org) Over half of the teachers say that technology has had the largest impact on their teaching…that technology helps them engage students…that their lesson plans are richer and timelier…