Climate change e-learning tool - from Mercy Corps
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Climate change e-learning tool - from Mercy Corps

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This e-learning course is an introduction to climate change and why it is an important issue in the work of international development organisations such as Mercy Corps. It takes approximately 30-40 ...

This e-learning course is an introduction to climate change and why it is an important issue in the work of international development organisations such as Mercy Corps. It takes approximately 30-40 minutes to complete.

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Climate change e-learning tool - from Mercy Corps Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Climate Change E-Learning Tool
  • 2. 300 million people will have to migrate due to climate change. One third of the world’s population (2 billion people) are likely to be experiencing severe water shortages by 2020. Economic costs of global warming are doubling every decade. 30 million more people may be hungry by 2050. 11 of the last 12 years have been the warmest ever recorded.
  • 3. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Introduction INTRODUCING CLIMATE CHANGE This course provides a basic introduction to Climate Change and its effects. It is intended for Mercy Corps staff worldwide to help you understand why Climate Change is important to our work, how it affects our programs, and the actions we are taking to reduce our impact. We hope this course will enhance your own understanding of Climate Change and trigger your efforts to incorporate mitigating actions into your programs. This is not a course on the science of climate change. Refer to the Resources section for additional information and links to other resources. Estimated time to complete: 30-40 minutes 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 4. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Introduction INTRODUCING CLIMATE CHANGE Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
    • Define Climate Change.
    • Identify why Mercy Corps must be engaged in this issue and the areas in which we can have impact through operations, programs, policy, advocacy and outreach.
    • Identify the impacts of Climate Change on men, women, boys and girls around the world.
    • Name the ways Mercy Corps is responding to the effects of Climate Change and how your actions can demonstrate leadership in tackling climate change impacts.
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 5. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 1 OVERVIEW
    • After you complete this lesson, you will be able to define some of the key concepts of climate change and why Mercy Corps must be engaged in the issue.
    • Topics:
      • What is Climate Change?
      • Global Warming
      • Magnitude of Change
      • Why Mercy Corps Must Engage
      • Mission Alignment
    1 2 3 Lesson: Global warming is one of the most significant climate changes.
  • 6. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 1 CLIMATE CHANGE DEFINED Climate change refers to any significant change in measures of climate, such as temperature, precipitation or wind, lasting for an extended period (decades or longer).
    • Climate change can be caused by:
    • Natural factors , including changes in the sun's intensity & slow changes in the Earth's orbit around the sun.
    • Natural processes , e.g., ocean circulation.
    • Human activities , such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation.
    Human activities, such as burning of fossil fuels, contribute to climate change. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 7. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 1 GLOBAL WARMING An increase in temperature – often referred to as “global warming” – is one of the most significant climate changes we have seen in recent decades. While “ global warming ” can arise from a variety of causes, this phrase is usually used to refer to warming occurring as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases–including carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide –due to human activities. Global warming is one of the most significant climate changes. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 8. Climate Change E-Learning Tool The Greenhouse Effect is the rise in temperature because gases in the atmosphere trap energy from the sun. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 9. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 1 MAGNITUDE OF CHANGE Over the past 100 years, the average surface air temperature has increased by .74 degrees Celsius globally. The 1990s represented the warmest decade in the past 1,000 years. The temperature by 2050 is predicted to rise between 1.8 and 4 degrees Celsius. Although the Earth has been warmer, this type of change has never occurred during human existence. A rise in temperature of just 2 C may not sound drastic as people can live between the icecaps & equatorial deserts; however, the impacts affect local conditions where the environ. has adapted over millions of years to reach a delicate balance. As these balances are upset, disruptions to food production, water availability & ecosystem resilience as well as extreme weather events will follow. 1 2 3 Lesson: A warmer Earth leads to humanitarian issues, such as water shortages in many regions
  • 10. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Food Water Extreme Weather Events Risk of Abrupt & Major Irreversible Changes Small mountain glaciers disappear – water supplies threatened in several areas Significant decreases in water availability in many areas, including Mediterranean and Southern Africa Sea level rise threatens major cities Possible rising yields in some high latitude regions Falling yields in many developing regions Falling crop yields in many areas, particularly developing regions 0 ー C 1 ー C 2 ー C 4 ー C 5 ー C 3 ー C Global Temperature Change (relative to pre-industrial) Extensive damage to coral reefs Rising number of species face extinction Ecosystem Rising intensity of storms, forest fires, droughts, flooding & heat waves Increasing risk of dangerous feedbacks & abrupt, large-scale shifts in the climate system Projected Impacts of Climate Change (Adapted from The Stern Review) As Earth’s temperature rises, by each degree there will be new impacts on human populations around the world. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 11. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 1 WHY MERCY CORPS MUST ENGAGE Climate change events most seriously threaten the world’s poor, and therefore the areas of the world where Mercy Corps focuses its development efforts. Poor populations are geographically predisposed to experiencing extreme climatic events and are least able to adapt to climate change impacts. The effects of climate change are a threat to human development, and thus, a threat to Mercy Corps’ mission. 1 2 3 Lesson: Poor populations are least able to cope with the challenges climatic events present. 70% of the world’s poor are women.
  • 12. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 1 MISSION ALIGNMENT Climate change could undo previous development progress and compromise future initiatives. As a humanitarian and development agency, Mercy Corps is committed to assisting vulnerable populations in adapting to the impacts of climate change, including threats to health, environmental and agricultural well-being, increases in large-scale storms, coastal inundation, and increased conflict and poverty. Mercy Corps cannot solve the climate change crisis. But we can help our clients adapt to its effects, and even profit through mitigation by switching to alternative energies and accessing carbon markets. Climate change effects can be observed around the world, even in U.S. cities like New Orleans. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 13. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 1 LESSON SUMMARY
    • Climate Change is a gradual or dramatic, long-term climate alteration.
    • It is caused by both natural and human factors.
    • While there are many effects of climate change, the most significant threat comes from the impact of global warming. Global warming will, for example, cause an increase in the frequency and intensity of destructive natural disasters.
    • Climate change is of particular concern for poor populations.
    • Poor nations are geographically situated in locations that are more likely to experience climate change-related natural disasters.
    • Poor nations have less of an ability to prepare for or adapt to climate change impacts due to a shortage of economic resources and governance challenges.
    • Climate change events may undermine significantly all previous development efforts.
    • For these reasons, climate change adaptation and mitigation (including disaster risk reduction) is high on the Mercy Corps agenda.
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 14. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 1 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
    • Why is it important for Mercy Corps to address climate change effects ?
      • They can undo previous and future development efforts
      • It is our primary mission
      • We are not well-equipped to help our constituents
      • It is not our role to help our constituents prepare
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 15. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 1 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
    • Why is it important for Mercy Corps to address climate change effects ?
      • They can undo previous and future development efforts - CORRECT ANSWER!
      • It is our primary mission
      • We are not well-equipped to help our constituents
      • It is not our role to help our constituents prepare
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 16. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 1 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
    • What effects does Mercy Corps need to help its constituents prepare for?
      • Coastal inundation
      • Large scale storms
      • Agricultural impacts
      • Increased conflict
      • All of the above
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 17. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 1 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
    • What effects does Mercy Corps need to help its constituents prepare for?
      • Coastal inundation
      • Large scale storms
      • Agricultural impacts
      • Increased conflict
      • All of the above - CORRECT ANSWER!
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 18. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 2 OVERVIEW
    • After you complete this lesson, you will be able to identify some of the significant issues arising around the world as a result of climate change.
    • Topics:
      • Climate Change Effects
      • Sea Level Rise
      • Tropical Storms
      • Glacial Melt
      • Health Impacts
      • Drought
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 19. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 2 CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS The increase in temperature associated with climate change is causing and will continue to cause issues such as sea level rise, increases in tropical storms, the melting of glaciers, increases in vector-borne disease rates (e.g., Malaria), and drought. Climate Change impacts will likely increase the number, scale and intensity of many hazards that communities face including those arising from: Poor sustainable resource management, shifts in weather patterns, storm damage, flooding and landslides, and rising Sea Levels. Mercy Corps programs must take climate impacts into consideration and help communities prepare. The next lesson explores these examples in more detail. MC must help communities prepare for climate change effects, e.g., tropical storms. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 20. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 2 SEA LEVEL RISE As oceans absorb the heat unable to escape through the atmosphere, water molecules expand and increase the volume of the sea. Warmer temperatures also cause the melting of ice sheets. These factors combined are causing the sea level to rise. UNEP/GRID Geneva; Uni of Dacca.; JRO Munich; The World Bank; World Resources Institute; Washington 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 21. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 2 SEA LEVEL RISE Sea level rise is a particularly severe threat for coastal communities due to flooding. Livelihoods dependent on fishing will be severely impacted, as f looding can decimate fresh and marine species populations. It can also lead to water contamination with chemicals and/or sewage. Death due to flooding caused by sea level rise is disproportionate based on gender. Women tend to die at higher rates than men due to a lack of access to public warning systems, public mobility and the ability to swim. 1 2 3 Lesson: In 2007, 420,440 were displaced and 54 people killed in North Jakarta, Indonesia, as 5 meter floods destroyed homes and livelihoods.
  • 22. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 2 TROPICAL STORMS Hurricanes (Atlantic), Cyclones (Indian Ocean), and Typhoons (Pacific) all occur as the result of combining moist air, warm water, and the latitudinal spin of the earth. As water temperatures rise as a result of climate change, the strength and occurrence of tropical storms will increase. Poor communities are most vulnerable during extreme weather events and their secondary impacts including flooding and mudslides. It is estimated that 23% of the world’s population lives both within 100 km distance of the coast and <100 m above sea level, and that population densities in coastal regions are about three times higher than the global average. These are the people storms hit the hardest. The strength and frequency of tropical storms are increasing as a result of climate change. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 23. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 2 GLACIER MELT Climate change-related melting of glaciers seriously affects populations that rely on glacial melt for their water supplies. More than one-sixth of the world’s population live in glacier- or snowmelt-fed river basins. Incidents of flooding in these regions make communities vulnerable to mud slides, food insecurity and ultimately long term water shortages. Glacial melt could seriously affect h alf a billion people in the Himalaya-Hindu-Kush region and a quarter of a billion people in China. Significant loss of glaciers in Central Asia began around the 1930s, and become more dramatic in the second half of the 20th century. This debris-covered glacier tongue in Tajikistan has retreated by more than 1 km since 1933. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 24. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 2 DROUGHT In Northern countries, moderate global warming will initially increase agricultural yields in some areas. However, even a slight warming will decrease yields in Southern countries by causing drought. Long-term water stress caused by drought makes existing poverty more severe and makes it harder for communities to adapt to change. Drought can cause new conflicts and make existing ones worse. Women tend to bear the brunt of water and food shortages due to the gendered division of labor for water collection and food security. Drought may also force men to migrate to find work, which leaves women with less income and exposes them to the risk of HIV infection. Farmers & herders across the world will need to find ways to cope with changing climatic conditions that will invariably affect their farming techniques.. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 25. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lake Chad is shrinking at an accelerated rate due to both excessive extraction of water for irrigation and an increase in hot, dry weather. The Disappearance of Lake Chad in Africa 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 26. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 2 HEALTH IMPACTS Most of the climate change impacts mentioned so far have health implications. Drought can lead to malnutrition. Flooding can cause diarrheal diseases and other illnesses. In addition, changes in climate are likely to lengthen transmission seasons of diseases such as Malaria, Dengue Fever, and others. The geographic range of these diseases may also change, bringing them to regions that lack population immunity, awareness, or a strong public health infrastructure. Women’s health can be particularly affected by climate change. Malnutrition risks are higher due to gender norms that dictate access to food. Access to medical care for women varies. Climate change effects such as drought and flooding often lead to health issues, including malnutrition, heat-related illness, and increase in diseases such as malaria. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 27. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 2 LESSON SUMMARY
    • Climate change has and will continue to propel a rise in sea levels, tropical storms, glacial snowmelt and drought. These effects cause agricultural and health problems, as well as conflicts surrounding natural resources.
    • Sea level rise occurs as the earth's waters absorb more heat and ice sheet melt. It is a particular concern for communities residing near the coast.
    • Tropical storms are also affected by the amount of heat that the ocean absorbs. Storms threaten most regions of the world & have the ability to destroy infrastructure.
    • Glacial snowmelt affects 1/6 of the world's population. It is characterized by an annual surge in flooding followed by water shortages.
    • Drought will occur increasingly as a result of temperature rise and is most significant in regions that are already hot. This impact threatens the stability of local livelihoods, world food prices and regional peace.
    • Health problems as a result of climate change are partly associated with the increase in dangerous climatic disasters. They are also associated with a warmer climate that is better able to host disease and disease vectors.
    • Climate Change will continue to increase the number of hazards that populations around the world face. Mercy Corps must assist at-risk populations in preparation for these events.
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 28. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 2 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
    • The increase in temperature associated with climate change causes:
      • Increases in tropical storms
      • Glacial melt
      • Sea levels to recede
      • Increases in diarrheal diseases
      • Drought
      • Greater agricultural yields
      • All of the above
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 29. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 2 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
    • The increase in temperature associated with climate change causes:
      • Increases in tropical storms
      • Glacial melt
      • Sea levels to recede
      • Increases in diarrheal diseases
      • Drought
      • Greater agricultural yields
      • All of the above - CORRECT ANSWER!
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 30. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 3 OVERVIEW
    • When you have completed this lesson, you will be able to name the ways Mercy Corps is responding to the affects of climate change through means of ‘Mitigation’ and ‘Adaptation’.
    • Topics:
      • Mercy Corps as a Catalyst
      • Leveraging Relationships
      • Climate Change and Gender
      • Adaptation and Mitigation
      • Renewable Energy
      • Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)
      • Carbon Neutrality
      • Greening Our Operations
      • Proposals in the Pipeline
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 31. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 3 MERCY CORPS AS A CATALYST Climate Change is a global phenomenon that requires action by individuals, communities, governments, organizations and corporations to bring about meaningful change. Mercy Corps recognizes that it has an important role to play. With our broad geographic reach, Mercy Corps has the ability to use this platform to engage stakeholders in government, donor community, academia, media, business, and communities to create a force multiplier. MC is uniquely positioned to engage and create partnerships with stakeholders in many arenas. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 32. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 3 LEVERAGING RELATIONSHIPS MC works with academic institutions, such as the University of Edinburgh, to research how current and future programs can take account of the predicted effects of climate change. A number of students have done graduate research in MC’s projects. We work with think tanks (e.g., the Overseas Development Institute) and foundations (e.g., Rockefeller) to develop research agendas to guide sister agencies, governments and donors on developing effective climate adaptation measure in vulnerable countries. MC also plays a role in educating the public; for example, the Action Centre in New York offers seminars on the linkages between climate change and hunger. Climate change is a global phenomenon that will affect all populations. This huge scale requires an internationally shared response. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 33. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 3 CLIMATE CHANGE AND GENDER
    • Due to the particularly harsh impacts of climate change on women around the world, Mercy Corps should include both women’s and men’s perspectives in decision making within program creation and implementation. Be sure to:
      • Look at the different gender-based strategies for resource use and conservation in the areas where MC is working.
      • Consider the gender social norms and division of labor when designing and implementing renewable resource technology 
    • In general, Mercy Corps staff should work on meeting immediate as well as strategic gender needs in areas where we are working on climate change.
    Mercy Corps must consider the gendered division of labor and norms dictating access to resources when designing programs. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 34. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 3 ADAPTATION & MITIGATION Mercy Corps has two methods of reacting to climate change and its effects: Adaptation means helping communities prepare for the impacts of climate change that are going to happen no matter what action is taken to prevent further global warming; this can be also be viewed as long term Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the face of chronic risk. Mitigation means addressing the root causes of climate change, hence reducing carbon emissions or capturing carbon from the atmosphere. Both adaptation and mitigation responses are integral to Mercy Corps’ economic development strategy as they generate jobs and livelihood opportunity. 1 2 3 Lesson: Climate Change’s impacts can negatively affect small scale farmers reliant upon fragile environments. Without countermeasures, these farmers’ livelihoods are at great risk.
  • 35. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 3 DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (DRR) – ADAPTATION Resilience : Developing programs in economic development, civil society, health, water and sanitation, among others help mitigate against the effects of potential hazards (e.g., reinforcing river beds in Pakistan). Preparedness : Training community members on the basic elements of emergency response and building the capacity of our offices to respond when needed (e.g., in Guatemala, Indonesia, Central Asia). Education : Educating those outside of direct program areas about why climate change-related DRR is important. Requires engagement of government, media and the private sector nationally and internationally. Mercy Corps is seeking to help communities prepare for emergencies. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 36. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 3 RENEWABLE ENERGY - MITIGATION One of the ways we aim to assist populations around the world in adaptation is by identifying and promoting scaleable alternative energies. Traditional fuels that are used to provide energy for light, heat, and cooking expend tremendous amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. MC is now seeking to promote a range of projects that use less carbon, are more cost efficient and are driven by market demand, e.g., by partnering with BP to introduce cleaner fuel alternatives. Examples from our Cool Carbon Portfolio include developing micro-hydros in Colombia, fuel efficient stoves in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and recycling used cooking oil as a clean biofuel in Bosnia. Mercy Corps strives to set an example by promoting the use of renewable energies, such as solar energy. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 37. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 3 CARBON NEUTRALITY Carbon credit schemes – implemented to mitigate global warming – use markets as a tool to cap total annual greenhouse gas emissions and assign a monetary value to any shortfall through trading. These credits can be bought and sold or otherwise exchanged between businesses. Credits finance carbon reduction schemes between trading partners around the world. Mercy Corps is demonstrating leadership in addressing climate change by striving to become carbon neutral.  We calculated our carbon footprint across the entire agency for the fiscal year 2005-2006 and now aim to reduce our footprint by 5% per year. We have also designed an environmental screening tool that will help staff members &quot;Do no Harm&quot; in implementing projects. MC completed its carbon footprint in 2006 and pledged to reduce or offset emissions. 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 38. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 3 GREENING OUR OPERATIONS MC is also “greening” operations. New buildings in Portland and New York are being constructed according to US LEED standards and a number of measures are being introduced in both the US and UK HQs to reduce emissions. These include the increased use of recycling, reducing energy use, looking at modes of travel and promoting car-share options. Working groups in the U.S. and Europe are taking further steps to green every day activities as a commitment to keeping in line with a DO NO HARM philosophy. MC is also seeking to “green” field operations to reduce power and fuel use while saving costs. Visit Clearspace for dialogue, updates, and sharing of best practices via the Green Activation Team (GATe). After an in-depth carbon analysis, Mercy Corps identified where the majority of its carbon emissions were originating from. Mercy Corps Carbon Emissions 1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 39. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 3 LESSON SUMMARY
    • Mercy Corps' unique position allows us to address the effect of climate change on our clients.
    • Promotion of climate change adaptation and mitigation will reduce risks for our clients.
    • We must engage with a variety of partners with specialized knowledge including communities, donors, as well as educational and governmental bodies.
    • As an organization, we seek to cut down our own emissions with the ultimate goal of becoming carbon neutral. Through carbon credits, we will be able to offset the emissions that we are unable to avoid.
    • We seek to promote environmentally friendly development in poor countries through the use of scalable alternative energies such as fuel efficient stoves and mini solar collectors.
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 40. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lesson 3 TAKE ACTION!
    • Take one minute and ask yourself the following questions:
      • What impacts is my office having on the local environment?
      • What can I do to reduce these impacts?
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 41. Climate Change E-Learning Tool Lessons Complete! Course Summary
    • Climate change is an important concept for Mercy Corps staff to understand, as its effects seriously threaten many of the areas of the world where our work is focused.
    • We must help the communities we support to adapt to and mitigate the effects of storms, disease, flooding, and other climate-change-related impacts.
    • As you develop your programs, consider:
      • How climate change may impact your programs
      • Your opportunities to influence local organizations to consider the impacts of climate change
      • If renewable energy sources might be a solution
      • Whether your operations are as green as possible
    1 2 3 Lesson:
  • 42. Thank you for participating in the Climate Change E-Learning course. Please send all feedback to jjarvie@mercycorps.org Climate Change E-Learning Tool