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The complete and accurate history of Spaceport America, from 1990 to October 2007, as presented by several key co-founders in Las Cruces on October 23, 2007, at the International Symposium for ...

The complete and accurate history of Spaceport America, from 1990 to October 2007, as presented by several key co-founders in Las Cruces on October 23, 2007, at the International Symposium for Personal and Commercial Spaceflight (ISPCS), hosted by the New Mexico Space Grant Consortium (NMSGC)

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History of Spaceport America, New Mexico History of Spaceport America, New Mexico Presentation Transcript

  • History of Spaceport America Lou Gomez Bill Gutman Burton Lee Bernie McCune PSL Leonard R. Sugerman Public Forum Tuesday October 23, 2007 Las Cruces, NM
  • Overview  Major Historical Themes – From Re-entry Capsules to Rockets – DC-X Launch Vehicle – VentureStar – Spaceport site selection  Phase I: Spaceport Startup  Phase II: Southwest Regional Spaceport  Phase III: Spaceport America  Other important topics – Bumps Along the Road – Funding Sources – The People & Organizations Behind Spaceport America  Q&A and Wrap-up October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 2
  • Spaceport America Located in southern New Mexico in Sierra County, between Las Cruces and Truth or Consequences… Spaceport America October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 3
  • Principal Historical Phases  1990 - 1992 – Phase I: Spaceport Startup  1993 – 2003 – Phase II: Southwest Regional Spaceport (SRS)  2004 to Present – Phase III: Spaceport America October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 4
  • Phase I: Spaceport Startup (1990 - 1992) October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 5
  • Major Accomplishments  Initial spaceport concept proposed (March 1990) – Site intended for land recovery of re-entry capsules from orbit – Leverage NASA Ames/HQ-Stanford University re-entry capsule programs  Discussions with PSL and WSMR initiated (March 1990) – Burton Lee (Stanford University), Bernie McCune and Len Sugerman (PSL) – John Lockerd, WSMR Director; WSMR Flight Safety Office  Seed funding raised (September - November 1991) – $950,000 for “a study of a reusable space capsule landing site“ by NASA  Funds for NMSU/PSL feasibility/technical studies (NASA earmark HR2519 via Sen. Domenici, authored by BLee) – $450,000 for “safety and environmental studies of the White Sands Missile Range to determine the feasibility of using the Range as a possible landing site for the recovery of unmanned capsules for NASA“  Funds for WSMR safety studies (DoD earmark HR2521 via Sen. Domenici, authored by BLee)  First spaceport strategic and marketing plan developed  Secured early support of NMSU and PSL  DC-X test flights at WSMR initiated October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 6
  • From Re-entry Capsules … Science and Technology Payloads Recovery of NASA Comet Sample Return Stardust Capsule in Utah - 2006 Germany-Japan Express Capsule 1995 European Space Agency ARD Capsule Russian Japanese Users Foton Capsule Capsule 2002 October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 7
  • … About Re-entry Capsules …  Initial market for New Mexico “Spaceport” in 1990 - 1992 – Outgrowth of work at Stanford University, NASA Ames and HQ on re-entry capsules  New Mexico as a premier land recovery site for continental USA – Large land areas with low population densities – Range facilities available at Spaceport America and WSMR (tracking, communications, etc) – Science facilities available at NMSU and other locations  Early 1990s – NASA, international and commercial re-entry capsule programs COMET program (NASA)  LifeSat (NASA/Japan)  European, Japanese and Russian capsules   Today – Commercial and scientific capsules SpaceX Dragon capsule  SpaceHab Apex vehicle  Indian SRE capsule  Russian Foton capsule  MIT Mars Gravity Biosatellite capsule  – Manned capsules NASA CEV capsule  Russian and Chinese capsules   Market size – Small (both in revenues and jobs) compared to launch services market October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 8
  • … Re-entry Capsules Today … Manned Capsule Recovery TSpace CXV Capsule Chinese Manned Capsule SpaceX Dragon (2003 Land Recovery) Capsule (Water Recovery) NASA CEV Capsule (Land Recovery) October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 9
  • … To The DC-X Launch Vehicle Delta Clipper Experimental Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Demonstrator DC-XA On Pad DC-X Launch DC-XA First Flight 1992 - 1996 DC-XA First Landing October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 10
  • DC-X Video Clip Engine Test Firings Launch Landing Horizontal Translation Hover October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 11
  • Phase II: Southwest Regional Spaceport (SRS) (1993 - 2003) October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 12
  • Major Accomplishments  Formation of Southwest Regional Spaceport Taskforce  Shift from Reentry Capsule Recovery to Launch-to-Orbit  Follow-on funding raised from Air Force  NM Office for Space Commercialization (NMOSC) created and funded (1994)  NMOSC pursues VentureStar and entrepreneurial space programs (1997 - 2006)  Spaceport site selection analysis and studies  Spaceport site selected (Upham)  Environmental Impact Statement work initiated  Developed overland flight Safety methodology October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 13
  • Major Themes during 1993 - 2003  Studies and Organizing the process  Site Selection, Safety, Regulatory, Economics  Who are the players and are we on the same page?  NM Office of Space Commercialization  BLM, White Sands, FAA, and others  The new space entrepreneurs - enter McDonnell- Douglas and Kistler  Completion of the NASA study and the AF studies  A new leader at NMOSC - X33 Lockheed Martin  X-Prize Cup October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 14
  • Past Studies and Reports NASA-sponsored NMSU/Physical Science Laboratory Technical Feasibility Report and Strategic Development Plan (1995) Air Force Grant 1 Air Force Grant 2 Preliminary Draft Environmental Impact Statement Site License application NASA grant Business Plan Governors Technical Excellence Committee (GTEC) Report, 1995 (updated in 1997) October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 15
  • Spaceport Site Selection Requirements – Feasibility – Operations – Safety – Environmental – Infrastructure October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 16
  • Spaceport Site Selection  Optimization of spaceport site location around the following factors: – Utilization concept – Safety – Resource access – Minimum environmental impact October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 17
  • October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 18
  • New Mexico’s Advantages Low population density Uncongested airspace Altitude advantages Excellent weather State support, both political and popular October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 19
  • Low Population Density October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 20
  • Uncongested Airspace Spaceport America October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 21
  • High Altitude Launch Site Provides More Payload This plot applies to vertical launch to orbit, but a similar advantage applies to vertical launch of suborbital vehicles October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 22
  • Excellent Weather Southern New Mexico’s benign climate is amenable to year-round outdoor work Major weather disturbances, such as hurricanes and tornadoes, are rare There is no salt air corrosion October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 23
  • 1995 - 2000 Completion of Site Selection Studies A New Leader at NMOSC New Mexico Spaceport Summit McDonnell-Douglas X-33 Lockheed-Martin X-33 and VentureStar – NM Proposal – Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) – Site License Refocus of Spaceport-FAA on the team Organizing the NM Team October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 24
  • Winning – and Losing - VentureStar  NASA X-33 & Lockheed VentureStar (commercial version)  Between July 1 and September 4, 1998, New Mexico prepared the Statement of Qualifications that, but for one detail, won the VentureStar program for the State – The program was canceled before even the X-33 ACTD flew October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 25
  • VentureStar Milestones  Lockheed Martin/VentureStar Program – Gave us an opportunity to establish the NM program, identify issues – January 1998 RFQ/RFP schedule was announced; two phase process--Statement of Qualifications, Request for Proposals – April-July 1998 looked at 12 potential launch sites – September 1998 submitted SOQ : two sites were submitted, Upham (the original site, slightly modified) and Orogrande (on WSMR) – July 1999 New Mexico debriefed – Continuing discussions with Lockheed Martin 1999-2000; we took the Orogrande site “off the table” – November 1999 X-33 Composite Fuel tank failure – March 1, 2001 X-33 Cancelled October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 26
  • VentureStar Proposal October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 27
  • X-33/VentureStar™ Program VentureStar TM Build investor and customer confidence and technical X-33 understanding X-33 Half-scale technology demonstrator to verify key technologies to reduce risks and costs of VentureStarTM Phase II VentureStar TM 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Fully operational launch service provides for satellites First flight and payloads to low Earth orbit and beyond X-33 vehicle Phase III Single-stage-to-orbit technology 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 • Full-scale design • Scaled-up engine testing Decision to proceed First flight with VentureStarTM • Composite liquid oxygen tank Full-scale development Flight Revenue test service October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 28
  • VentureStar Spaceport Design October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 29
  • VentureStar Spaceport Siting October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 30
  • 2000 - 2003  End of VentureStar Effort  EIS on hold  SRS License/Site Issues/Flight Safety  Looking for new business  Space Entrepreneurs and Enterprise Developers Symposium (SEEDS)  Writing the X-Prize Cup Proposal October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 31
  • Phase III: Spaceport America (2004 to Present) October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 32
  • Major Accomplishments  Gov. Bill Richardson backs spaceport (2003)  Winning the X-Prize Cup competition (2004)  Formation of New Mexico Spaceport Authority (2005)  Economic Impact studies performed (2005)  Virgin Galactic comes to New Mexico (2005)  Passage by NM state legislature of funding authorization (2006)  Temporary suborbital pad construction (2006)  First launch – UP Aerospace (2006)  DMJM architecture & engineering contract (2006)  Dona Ana County passes tax referendum (2007)  Three X-Prize Cup events (2005-2007)  Three Personal Spaceflight Symposia (2005-2007) October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 33
  • Winning the X-Prize Cup!  Between August 1 and December 10, 2003, New Mexico wrote the proposal that won the annual X-Prize Cup for the State  Formal announcement of win made May 11, 2004  Annual event since October, 2005 October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 34
  • X-Prize Cup Proposal Proposed partnership between state of New Mexico & X-Prize Foundation, with collaboration of WSMR October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 35
  • Spaceport Economic Impact Analyses NASA Report economic impact study (1995) Two economic impact studies completed for NM EDD (late 2005) – NMSU School of Business – Futron Corporation, Bethesda, MD October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 36
  • New Aerospace & Tourism Cluster Commercial Space Transportation, Manufacturing and Services A diversified market, revenue, jobs and tax base. Source: Burton Lee, Chief Economist, New Mexico Commercial Spaceport Economic Impact Study, Futron Corporation, December 2005. October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 37
  • Spaceport Economic Impact  Futron Study Results (December 2005): – Jobs and economic activity impacts  Construction phase (maximum annual estimates, 2007 only) – 2,460 new jobs – $331 M of additional economic activity  Spaceport Operations and Visitor spending – Primary impacts in 2020 – 4,300+ new jobs – $550 M of additional economic activity  Aerospace Cluster – Secondary impacts in 2020 – Space vehicle and aircraft manufacturing, headquarters operations and support services activities – 1,000 to 1,500 additional new jobs – $200+ M in economic activity – Key assumptions  Suborbital tourism and orbital flights begin in 2010  3.5x growth in NM suborbital tourism market from 2010 to 2020  Spaceport serves as lynchpin for new aerospace manufacturing & services cluster in southern New Mexico  Included expected NASA contract win by t/Space Corporation  200,000 visitors to combined X-Prize Cup and Rocket Racing League event October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 38
  • Virgin Galactic Comes to New Mexico  December 14, 2005 – Governor Richardson and Sir Richard Branson Announce Virgin Galactic World Headquarters in New Mexico SpaceShipTwo + White Knight Two October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 39
  • Spaceport Temporary Construction Begins October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 40
  • First Launch from Spaceport UP Aerospace  September 25, 2006, 2:14 PM  Perfect launch  At T+8 s, aerodynamic instability resulted in failure to reach planned altitude and range October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 41
  • Second Launch from Spaceport UP Aerospace April 28, 2007 8:59 AM Perfect Launch of slightly redesigned vehicle Near-perfect flight Impact within White Sands Missile Range October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 42
  • Bumps Along the Road Spaceport America was not a “slam dunk”…! Many institutional, political and financial hurdles encountered along the way Spaceport America (“Southwest Regional Spaceport”) succeeded due to a core group of dedicated visionaries who hung in there when times were tough, and who were in place and “ready to go” when new leadership arrived in Santa Fe October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 43
  • Sources of Funding, 1990 to present (partial listing)  BLee/Stanford University: $25,000 (in-kind services, travel expenses) (1990 to 1991)  NMSU: $20,000 BLee Consulting Contract (10/91 to 10/92)  NASA: $950,000 (92 to 95)  WSMR: $450,000 (92 to 93)  Air Force Grant I: $750,000 (94 to 95)  Air Force Grant II: $1.1 M (95 to 96)  NM EDD: $6.7 M (1994 to 2006)  NM state legislature: $140,000,000+ authorized; $46.1 M appropriated (2005 to present) October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 44
  • Special Thanks… To the Volunteers and Visionaries Behind Spaceport America (1990 to Present) October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 45
  • A Volunteer Grass Roots Effort since 1990 New Mexico’s spaceport program would not have happened without years of dedicated effort and commitment by many community activists and volunteers from Las Cruces, Alamogordo, Albuquerque, Roswell, TorC, Hatch, El Paso and many other local communities. These individuals believed in the future benefits of the spaceport for all of New Mexico, when many others did not, and persevered… Thank You!! October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 46
  • “Cast of Thousands” Persons Who Contributed To Spaceport America •Burton H. Lee •Phil Aragon •Bill Dettmer •John Hall •Margaret “Peggy” Lee •Paul Arthur •Pete Domenici •Jerry Hanks •Ann Lewis •Jake Baca •Dave Donahe •Kathy Hansen •John Lockerd •Brian Barnett •Bruce Donisthorpe •Roger Hanson •Bill Loomis •Joe Bierdon •Lucy Dunn •Dwight Harp •Belinda Lucero •Kevin Boberg •Kent Evans •George Harris •Karl Lumbaugh •John Bosma •Richard Fischer •Kimmarie Hartley •Casey Luna •Jeff Bingaman •Alex Flint •Rick Holdridge •Jim Manatt •Don Birx •Dave Forge •Mike Holston •Don Manzanares •Dick Borowski •Joe Fries •Rick Homans •Frank Marquez •Ben Boykin •Charlie Garcia •Steve Horan •Preston Marx •Ed Boykin •John Garcia •Mary Houdek •Larry Matthews •Gary Bradsher •William Garcia •Pat Hynes •Tom Matula •Brett Brown •Bill Gaubatz •Paul Jaramillo •Bill McCamley •Jack Burns •Lance Grace •Gary Johnson •Ann McConnell •Garrey Carruthers •Toots Green •David Keese •Tom McConnell •Paul Cassidy •Janet Greenlee •Mike Kelley •Bernie McCune •Harold Connell •Lou Gomez •Rich Kestner •Carole McGuire •Pete Conrad •Art Guenther •Bruce King •Peter Mitchell •Betty Coughlin •Sid Gutierrez •Gary King •Tom Mobley •Ray Cox •Bill Gutman •Yolanda King •Steven Montaño •Larry Cunningham •Richard Haas •Dave Kirkpatrick •Olga Morales •John Darden •Bob Haddock •Barry Law •Lorretta Morgan •Joe Dearing •Alan Hale •Jerry Laws October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 47
  • “Cast of Thousands” Persons Who Contributed To Spaceport America •Joe Thompson •Ron Schena •Tim Morgan •Ave Tombes •Harrison Schmitt •Joe Muhlberger •Ken Towrey •Hanson Scott •Barbara Myers •Steve Traver •Mark Shellans •MaryAnn Myers •Stephanie Troller •Joe Sholtis •Donna Nelson •Erin Ward •Will Siegler •Debbie Nethers •Hal Wetter •Bob Silver •Andy Nuñez •Richard Wharton •Joe Skeen •Kelly O’Donnell •Gary Whitehead •Durand Smith •George Orlicki •Bob Wiegle •John Arthur Smith •Gary Parker •George Williams •Rich Smith •Steve Pearce •Walt Wolfe •Ron Spain •Denny Peterson •Weston Wolfe •John Spalding •Roger Plowman •Pam Wood •Jess Sponable •Tony Popp •Ben Woods •John Stapp •Bill Porter •Dennis Woywood •Susan Stauffer •Don Purdum •Bill Stepp •Richard Ramsey •Len Sugerman •Bill Redmond •Bob Sullivan •Harry Relkin •Greg Sullivan •Silvestre Reyes Thank You!! •Lonnie Sumpter •Bill Richardson •David Sundberg •Linda Riley •J. Paul Taylor •Barry Rishel •Jim Thomas •Al Rupp October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 48
  • State Space Organizations  Governor’s Technical Excellence Committee (GTEC) plus others – to examine how NM could capitalize on science and technology resources  1994 Legislation Established New Mexico Office of Space Commercialization, (NMOSC) and New Mexico Space Commission – NMOSC:  Provides overall leadership to a very broad and challenging program unlike any other in State Government. No one has ever built and operated an inland spaceport before  Deals with National issues, rocket science, and customer programs of great complexity.  Commercial space other than spaceport – Space Commission:  Advise the Secretary Economic Development  Provide annual report to the Governor  promote the development of a spaceport and space-related activities  New Mexico Spaceport Authority: Established 2005 Via HB 419 October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 49
  • Executive Directors  George Harris (1/94 to 12/94)  Lonnie Sumpter (Interim) (1/95 to 2/95)  Lou Gomez (Acting) (3/95 to 6/96)  Lance Grace (7/96 to 8/97)  Lou Gomez (Acting) (9/97 to 12/97)  Hanson Scott (1/98 to 12/02)  Peter Mitchell (1/03 to 1/05)  Richard Kestner (2/05 to 10/05)  Lonnie Sumpter (10/05 to 2/07) Thank You!!  Rick Homans (3/07 to 7/07) October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 50
  • Southwest Regional Spaceport Taskforce  Founded in 1992 by Dr. Ave Tombes, VP Research and Economic Development, NMSU  First co-chairs: – Ave Tombes, NMSU – John Lockerd, WSMR  Subsequent leadership included: – Jack Burns, Ben Boykin, Donna Nelson, Lonnie Sumpter, Bill Gutman, Richard Haas and others  Major results included: – Political and community coordination, information broker and other important roles October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 51
  • Spaceport Co-Founders (listed by development phase, in alphabetical order)  “Co-founders” are those  Phase I individuals who played a – Burton Lee – Bernie McCune pivotal role in creating – Len Sugerman Spaceport America since  Phase II 1990, either by: – Paul Arthur – raising significant funds; – Joe Fries – creating a vision of the future of – Lou Gomez the spaceport and its benefits – Bill Gutman to New Mexico and the nation – Hanson Scott as a whole; – Lonnie Sumpter – leading and performing critical – Ave Tombes technical tasks;  Phase III – showing sustained political – Rick Homans leadership and will; or – Bill Richardson – through a superior track record – Lonnie Sumpter of “heavy lifting” and continuing key support over many years. October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 52
  • Spaceport America Co-Founders (in alphabetical order) Paul Arthur Lou Gomez Bill Gutman Rick Homans Burton Lee Bernie McCune Joe Fries Bill Richardson Hanson Scott Len Sugerman Lonnie Sumpter Ave Tombes October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 53
  • Q&A October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 54
  • Acknowledgements  Co-authors of this presentation include: – Burton Lee, Space Angels Network & Innovarium Ventures – Bill Gutman, NMSU/PSL (retired) – Bernie McCune, NMSU/PSL (retired) – Lou Gomez, Program Manager and Historian, NMSA – Ave Tombes, VP Research, NMSU (retired)  The authors wish to thank the following individuals for their support of this presentation of the history of Spaceport America: – Pat Hynes, Director, New Mexico Space Grant – Jay Jordan, Director, Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) – Kelly O’Donnell, Chair, New Mexico Spaceport Authority (NMSA) October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 55
  • Points of Contact  Spaceport America History (1990 to present) – Lou Gomez, NMSA Historian and Program Manager  lou.gomez@state.nm.us – Bernie McCune, NMSU/PSL (retired)  bmccune@zianet.com – Bill Gutman, NMSU/PSL (retired)  billgutman@qwest.net – Burton Lee, Space Angels Network  blee@spaceangelsnetwork.com  Spaceport America Today and Tomorrow – Kelly O’Donnell, Chair, NMSA – Lou Gomez, NMSA Program Manager – Mike Holston, Program Coordinator, NMSA October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 56
  • Thank You! October 23, 2007 Copyright Innovarium Ventures and New Mexico Space Grant 2007 57