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THE FUTURE OF NASA AND
OTHER SPACE PROGRAMS:
WHAT’S NEXT?

By Allaire, Marissa, Maggie, and Kristie
“WELL, SPACE IS THERE,
AND WE’RE GOING TO
CLIMB IT.”

A History of
the National
Aeronautics
and Space
Administration
HUMBLE BEGINNINGS: THE NACA
 In 1915, National Advisory
Committee for Aeronautics
founded by President
Woodrow Wilson.
 ...
A RACE TO SPACE: THE USSR
CHALLENGES THE US
 October 4, 1957, Sputnik launched
 November 3, 1957, launched second unmann...
A TIN CUP AND A SPACE PUP: SPUTNIK I
& LAIKA
A RACE TO SPACE, CONTINUED: THE US
PLAYS BALL WITH THE SOVIETS
Explorer I

US Navy’s Vanguard
“FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL MANKIND:”
THE BIRTH OF NASA
 NACA deemed too-small
 Manned flights!
 July 26, 1958, the Nationa...
“FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL MANKIND:”
THE BIRTH OF NASA
 NASA - federally-funded
civilian agency.
 NASA
 100 million-dollar...
“These opportunities
reinforce my conviction that
we and other nations have
a great responsibility to
promote the peacefu...
FLY ME TO THE MOON: THE MERCURY,
GEMINI, & APOLLO PROJECTS
 President John F. Kennedy sworn into office on
January 20, 19...
“First, I believe that this
nation should commit itself
to achieving the goal,
before this decade is out, of
landing a ma...
PROJECT MERCURY (1961-1963)
THE MERCURY FLIGHTS

Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,
 first American to fly
into space, return.
THE MERCURY FLIGHTS

February 20, 1962:
John H. Glenn Jr.
PROJECT GEMINI (1965-1966)
Project Gemini
encompassed a
series of ten
missions over a year

two astronauts into
space, a...
GEMINI 4

On June 3, 1965,
astronaut Edward H.
White, Jr.
 completed the first
spacewalk.
PROJECT APOLLO (1968-1972)
 NASA’s mission to reach
the moon by the end of
the decade nearly
stopped when the
program suf...
APOLLO I CASUALTIES
“ONE GIANT LEAP FOR MANKIND:”
APOLLO 11
Apollo missions
realize Kennedy’s
dream of sending a
man safely to the
moon and b...
“HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PROBLEM:”
APOLLO 13
Another group to go
to the moon
compromise in the
oxygen tank
FAILURE TO LAUNCH: THE COLUMBIA AND
CHALLENGER TRAGEDIES
Tragically, the capsule fire that killed three men
during the Apo...
JANUARY 28, 1986: THE SPACE SHUTTLE
CHALLENGER DISASTER
 By the 1980s, NASA
developed a new
space craft; the space
shuttl...
FEBRUARY 3, 2003: THE SPACE SHUTTLE
COLUMBIA DISASTER
Reentry tragedy
Foam insulation
DEALING WITH THE AFTERMATH OF
CHALLENGER & COLUMBIA
The Challenger and Columbia space shuttle disasters did much
to damage...
NASA DISCUSSION
QUESTIONS

What do
you think
about the
future of
NASA?
NASA BUDGET CUTS: PUTTING THE FUTURE OF
SPACE EXPLORATION ON THE LINE?
 According to The Lamron, NASA, despite its contin...
WHAT HAS
BEEN
ALREADY
CUT?
Cassini mission
WHAT HAS BEEN ALREADY CUT?
NASA’S CURRENT ENDEAVORS
 Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Of fice (C 3PO)
 C3PO creates privately owned and operated s...
SPACEX: DRAGON
 Free flying, reusable spacecraft
 Designed to deliver both cargo and people into space
 In 2012, DRAGON...
SPACE INVENTIONS BEING USED
ELSEWHERE
 “Space exploration and the benefits it yields – in medicine
and information techno...
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION
 The ISS is an orbiting laboratory as well as space port that is
a collaborative ef fort betw...
MARS EXPLORATION: CURIOSIT Y ROVER
 Curiosity Rover
 Major Objective: “Find evidence of a past environment well
suited t...
MARS EXPLORATION: MAVEN ORBITER
 The MAVEN Orbiter was “sent to study the Red Planet’s upper
atmosphere over the course o...
LADEE: LUNAR ATMOSPHERE AND DUST
ENVIRONMENT EXPLORER
 “LADEE is a robotic mission that will orbit the moon to gather
det...
HOW IS SPACE FLIGHT
CHANGING AFTER
FUNDING SHIFT?
What
now????
FAA/AST Potential Regulatory Path
-- Today Public Safety, Eventually Occupant Safety

Mission
Assurance
Occupant
Safety

O...
RLVS
Reusable Launch Vehicles

European Union “End-of-Life Vehicles
Directive”
USEPA - “Recycling
and Reuse: End-ofLife ...
SPACEPORTS

Spaceports or
cosmodromes
 are sites for launching
and/or receiving
spacecraft.

New common term
for sub-or...
Spaceport America,
New Mexico.
SPACEPORT LAUNCH-ASSIST MACHINES
MagLifter
SPACEPORT LAUNCH-ASSIST MACHINES
StarTram
SUB-ORBITAL SPACE
FLIGHT

What is suborbital space
flight?

What are it’s
uses?
What are the
prices?
XCOR AND SXC’S – LYNX (LMI/II)
BLUE ORIGIN’S – NEW SHEPARD
VIRGIN GALACTIC –
“VSS ENTERPRISE”
VIRGIN GALACTIC – SS2
OR “VSS ENTERPRISE”
WORLD NEW ENTERPRISES
Balloon Trip into
Atmosphere
 At 98,425 ft or ~20
mi)

Cheaper option??
 Only 75,000 in 8
seater...
MEANWHILE IN RUSSIA…..
Dauria Aerospace in conjunction with
Samsung and Roscosmos
HDU-DSH
Habitat Demonstration Unit- Deep Space Habitat

“Even in
space,
there’s no
place like
home.”
NASA DISCUSSION
QUESTIONS

What do
you think
about the
future of
NASA? Pt.2
NASA BUDGET CUTS: PUTTING THE FUTURE OF
SPACE EXPLORATION ON THE LINE?

Now that we’ve seen where we’re heading
with less...
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Maggie
 Dunbar, Brian. NASA. NASA, 10 Apr. 2008. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.
 Dunbar, Brian. NASA. NASA, 14 Apr. 200...
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Allaire
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http://exploration.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/gallery/h...
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Marissa
• http://news.ca.msn.com/top -stories/nasa-launches-mavenorbiter-to-probe-mysteries-in-mars-air
• htt...
The future of NASA and other space progams: what's next?
The future of NASA and other space progams: what's next?
The future of NASA and other space progams: what's next?
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The future of NASA and other space progams: what's next?

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NASA - a short history, current projects, industry privatization and future projects. Discussion question: Is where the industry going a good direction? Would it have been more worthwhile to keep the focus on scientific endeavors versus the commercial direction we are currently headed?

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The future of NASA and other space progams: what's next?

  1. 1. THE FUTURE OF NASA AND OTHER SPACE PROGRAMS: WHAT’S NEXT? By Allaire, Marissa, Maggie, and Kristie
  2. 2. “WELL, SPACE IS THERE, AND WE’RE GOING TO CLIMB IT.” A History of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  3. 3. HUMBLE BEGINNINGS: THE NACA  In 1915, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics founded by President Woodrow Wilson.  Federally -funded agency for “emergency measures” during WWI  Improvement of flight safety  Question if flight into space was even possible.
  4. 4. A RACE TO SPACE: THE USSR CHALLENGES THE US  October 4, 1957, Sputnik launched  November 3, 1957, launched second unmanned satellite into orbit with Laika.  Sputnik II proved that a living creature could sustain life while in space  New Era of Space flight
  5. 5. A TIN CUP AND A SPACE PUP: SPUTNIK I & LAIKA
  6. 6. A RACE TO SPACE, CONTINUED: THE US PLAYS BALL WITH THE SOVIETS Explorer I US Navy’s Vanguard
  7. 7. “FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL MANKIND:” THE BIRTH OF NASA  NACA deemed too-small  Manned flights!  July 26, 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Act , would fund all of the United States’ future space endeavors.  Congress and public balked at claiming of space
  8. 8. “FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL MANKIND:” THE BIRTH OF NASA  NASA - federally-funded civilian agency.  NASA  100 million-dollar annual budget  three major laboratories  Open letter written entitled “Introduction to Outer Space,” gave the fledgling agency its motto…
  9. 9. “These opportunities reinforce my conviction that we and other nations have a great responsibility to promote the peaceful use of space and to utilize the new knowledge obtainable from space science and technology for the benefit of all mankind.” MARCH 26, 1958 E x c e rp t f r o m “ I n t r o d uc t i o n to O u te r S p a c e , ” by President E i s e n h owe r.
  10. 10. FLY ME TO THE MOON: THE MERCURY, GEMINI, & APOLLO PROJECTS  President John F. Kennedy sworn into office on January 20, 1961  progress in space over the Soviet Union  a (potential) victory of democracy over communism
  11. 11. “First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon…But in a very real sense, it will not be one man going to the moon…it will be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there.” MAY 25, 1961 E x c e rp t f r o m JFK’s joint a d d r e s s to Congress, asking for a d d i t io n a l funds for NASA .
  12. 12. PROJECT MERCURY (1961-1963)
  13. 13. THE MERCURY FLIGHTS Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,  first American to fly into space, return.
  14. 14. THE MERCURY FLIGHTS February 20, 1962: John H. Glenn Jr.
  15. 15. PROJECT GEMINI (1965-1966) Project Gemini encompassed a series of ten missions over a year two astronauts into space, and creating a capsule large enough for such a mission.
  16. 16. GEMINI 4 On June 3, 1965, astronaut Edward H. White, Jr.  completed the first spacewalk.
  17. 17. PROJECT APOLLO (1968-1972)  NASA’s mission to reach the moon by the end of the decade nearly stopped when the program suffered its first major tragedy.  On January 27, 1967, astronauts Virgil Grissom, Roger B. Chaffee, and Edward H. White, Jr., were killed when a fire engulfed one of the first capsules during Apollo I.
  18. 18. APOLLO I CASUALTIES
  19. 19. “ONE GIANT LEAP FOR MANKIND:” APOLLO 11 Apollo missions realize Kennedy’s dream of sending a man safely to the moon and back before the end of the decade. Neil Armstrong Buzz Aldrin Michael Collins
  20. 20. “HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PROBLEM:” APOLLO 13 Another group to go to the moon compromise in the oxygen tank
  21. 21. FAILURE TO LAUNCH: THE COLUMBIA AND CHALLENGER TRAGEDIES Tragically, the capsule fire that killed three men during the Apollo I mission, and the close call with Apollo 13, would not be the only tragedies to plague NASA. In the 1980s and early 2000s, two more missions would go awry, taking the lives of fourteen US astronauts and one civilian.
  22. 22. JANUARY 28, 1986: THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER  By the 1980s, NASA developed a new space craft; the space shuttle.  Death of seven person crew  Including school teacher, Christa McAuliffe.
  23. 23. FEBRUARY 3, 2003: THE SPACE SHUTTLE COLUMBIA DISASTER Reentry tragedy Foam insulation
  24. 24. DEALING WITH THE AFTERMATH OF CHALLENGER & COLUMBIA The Challenger and Columbia space shuttle disasters did much to damage the American public’s perception of NASA. In the decades following the initial moon landing of Apollo 11, many Americans began to question whether manned flights into space were worth the risk of losing anymore life. ~ Indeed, NASA’s early years were fuelled by social and political ambitions to extend American democracy beyond earthly borders, especially during the height of the Cold War. But after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, much of the old “race to space” urgency has been lost – which has lead to a loss of funding for the program that is, in President Eisenhower’s words, meant “for the benefit of all mankind.”
  25. 25. NASA DISCUSSION QUESTIONS What do you think about the future of NASA?
  26. 26. NASA BUDGET CUTS: PUTTING THE FUTURE OF SPACE EXPLORATION ON THE LINE?  According to The Lamron, NASA, despite its continual progress, such as revealing more information about our galaxy’s origins and age via the Hubble Space Telescope – is in danger of major budget cuts that could potentially slow or halt such progress altogether.  With Obama’s budget proposed for 2014 cutting NASA’s funding by $300 million, do you think NASA is being unfairly targeted for budget cuts? What other programs could be cut instead?
  27. 27. WHAT HAS BEEN ALREADY CUT? Cassini mission
  28. 28. WHAT HAS BEEN ALREADY CUT?
  29. 29. NASA’S CURRENT ENDEAVORS  Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Of fice (C 3PO)  C3PO creates privately owned and operated space transportation systems and NASA acts as a lead investor and customer.  SpaceX and Orbital
  30. 30. SPACEX: DRAGON  Free flying, reusable spacecraft  Designed to deliver both cargo and people into space  In 2012, DRAGON became the first commercial spacecraft in history to deliver cargo to the International Space Station and safely deliver cargo to Earth
  31. 31. SPACE INVENTIONS BEING USED ELSEWHERE  “Space exploration and the benefits it yields – in medicine and information technology - should not be overlooked” –Ben Barr     Cat scans More functional artificial limbs Insulin pumps Ventricular Assist Device (VADs)
  32. 32. INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION  The ISS is an orbiting laboratory as well as space port that is a collaborative ef fort between 16 nations  Benefits of the ISS for civilians      Neurosurgical medical technology Water purification technology Agricultural monitoring Student amateur radio interaction Remote telemedicine
  33. 33. MARS EXPLORATION: CURIOSIT Y ROVER  Curiosity Rover  Major Objective: “Find evidence of a past environment well suited to supporting microbial life” ( NASA.gov)  Mission succeeded
  34. 34. MARS EXPLORATION: MAVEN ORBITER  The MAVEN Orbiter was “sent to study the Red Planet’s upper atmosphere over the course of at least one Earth year” (NBC News)  MAVEN: Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution  Launched Monday, 11/18/2013
  35. 35. LADEE: LUNAR ATMOSPHERE AND DUST ENVIRONMENT EXPLORER  “LADEE is a robotic mission that will orbit the moon to gather detailed information about the structure and composition of the thin lunar atmosphere, and determine whether dust is being lofted into the lunar sky.”
  36. 36. HOW IS SPACE FLIGHT CHANGING AFTER FUNDING SHIFT? What now????
  37. 37. FAA/AST Potential Regulatory Path -- Today Public Safety, Eventually Occupant Safety Mission Assurance Occupant Safety Occupant Safety Public Safety Public Safety Public Safety Current FAA Licensing Licensing Human Spaceflight FAA Certification Routine Commercial Space Travel Certificates Production Airworthiness Air Carrier Pilot Instruction Mechanic Dispatch Parts Time
  38. 38. RLVS Reusable Launch Vehicles European Union “End-of-Life Vehicles Directive” USEPA - “Recycling and Reuse: End-ofLife Vehicles and Producer Responsibility” Currently: Space shuttle
  39. 39. SPACEPORTS Spaceports or cosmodromes  are sites for launching and/or receiving spacecraft. New common term for sub-orbital launch spaces
  40. 40. Spaceport America, New Mexico.
  41. 41. SPACEPORT LAUNCH-ASSIST MACHINES MagLifter
  42. 42. SPACEPORT LAUNCH-ASSIST MACHINES StarTram
  43. 43. SUB-ORBITAL SPACE FLIGHT What is suborbital space flight? What are it’s uses? What are the prices?
  44. 44. XCOR AND SXC’S – LYNX (LMI/II)
  45. 45. BLUE ORIGIN’S – NEW SHEPARD
  46. 46. VIRGIN GALACTIC – “VSS ENTERPRISE”
  47. 47. VIRGIN GALACTIC – SS2 OR “VSS ENTERPRISE”
  48. 48. WORLD NEW ENTERPRISES Balloon Trip into Atmosphere  At 98,425 ft or ~20 mi) Cheaper option??  Only 75,000 in 8 seater capsule Release 2016
  49. 49. MEANWHILE IN RUSSIA….. Dauria Aerospace in conjunction with Samsung and Roscosmos
  50. 50. HDU-DSH Habitat Demonstration Unit- Deep Space Habitat “Even in space, there’s no place like home.”
  51. 51. NASA DISCUSSION QUESTIONS What do you think about the future of NASA? Pt.2
  52. 52. NASA BUDGET CUTS: PUTTING THE FUTURE OF SPACE EXPLORATION ON THE LINE? Now that we’ve seen where we’re heading with less government assistance, is it worthwhile? Was this a good or bad thing that privatization of the industry happened?
  53. 53. BIBLIOGRAPHY Maggie  Dunbar, Brian. NASA. NASA, 10 Apr. 2008. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.  Dunbar, Brian. NASA. NASA, 14 Apr. 2008. Web. 26 Nov. 2013.  "Excerpt from an Address Before a Joint Session of Congress, 25 May 1961 ." - John F. Kennedy Presidential Librar y & Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2013.  "JFK RICE MOON SPEECH." JFK RICE MOON SPEECH. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013.
  54. 54. BIBLIOGRAPHY Allaire                      http://exploration.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/gallery/history/vanguard.jpg http://www.wired.com/images/index/2008/01/explorer1_500px.jpg http://www.epa.gov/oswer/international/factsheets/ 200811_elv_directive.htm http://main.abqjournal.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/a01_jd_27oct_spaceport.jpg http://www.abqjournal.com/ 289536/news/more-states-joining-nm-in-space-industry-quest.html http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/Nexgen_Downloads/Spaceport_Visioning_Final_Report.p df http://xcor.com/lynx/ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article -2467356/London-Sydney-TWO-hours-Virgin-Galacticspace-flight-technology-used-build-new-generation-super-jets-replace-Concorde.html http://www.breakingtravelnews.com/news/article/space -expedition-corporation-breaks-finalfrontier/ http://images.gizmag.com/hero/spaceport -america-opens.jpg http://www.spacexc.com/en/bookings / http://www.zerogcolony.com / http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/468441main_HDU_FactSheet_ 508.pdf http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/technology/deep_space_habitat / http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/ 638869main_habitat_xhabloft_2011-web_946-710.jpg http://www.cnn.com/2013/10/24/travel/space-balloon-30km/ http://www.theinternational.org/articles/475-commercialization-law-and-governance-in http://blogs.wsj.com/venturecapital/ 2013/10/21/private-space-co-dauria-aerospace-will-usesmartphone-tech-to-launch-russian-satellites/ http://www.redorbit.com/news/space/ 1113002237/nasa-will-rely-more-on-private-companies-in-thefuture-111313/ FAA/AST and USEU Contacts FAA/AST powerpoint from a press conference July 2013
  55. 55. BIBLIOGRAPHY Marissa • http://news.ca.msn.com/top -stories/nasa-launches-mavenorbiter-to-probe-mysteries-in-mars-air • http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/msl/images/index.html#.UpT kKSij4Ww • http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/fact_sheets/mars -sciencelaboratory.pdf • http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the switch/wp/2013/09/04/nasa-launch-could-be-the-first-steptowards-an-interplanetary-internet/ • http://www.nasa.gov/offices/c3po/home/c3po_goal_objectives .html • http://www.spacex.com/dragon • http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/bene fits_video/#.UpTnLCij4Ww • http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/maven/main/#.UpTntyij4Ww • http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/ladee/main/

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