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New Approaches to Knowledge Management (part 1)


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Describes six-level vertical knowledge management structure and four categories of knowledge manageability (authoritative hierarchy, organizational structure, negotiated agreement, and responsible …

Describes six-level vertical knowledge management structure and four categories of knowledge manageability (authoritative hierarchy, organizational structure, negotiated agreement, and responsible autonomy).

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  • 1. Albert SimardPresented toKnowledge Strategy Exchange NetworkToronto, ON. May 13-14, 1013New Approaches toKnowledge Management (Part1)
  • 2. DefinitionsParadigm: Shared worldview, orknowledge “landscape” and all itsimplications within which adiscipline legitimately operatesParadigm Shift: A profoundchange in the underlying modelthat increases its capacity toexplain observed phenomena; ahigher-order understanding. The Thinker - Rodin
  • 3. Signs of Paradigm ProblemsAccumulating anomalies thatthe paradigm cannot explain.Competing concepts, theories,and principles.Diverse interpretations ofobservations and experience.Anomalies, disagreements,and diversity are increasinglyimportant.
  • 4. What if…Instead of the mantra thatorganizational culture mustchange for knowledgemanagement to succeed,We ask the question: “Given anexisting culture, what canknowledge management do toleverage the value oforganizational knowledge andincrease the productivity ofknowledge work?”
  • 5. OutlineManagement LevelsManagement RegimesCreationValidationOrganizationAuthorizationKnowledge Manageability
  • 6. Knowledge Management LevelsAssetsSharingWorkTransferInfrastructureCollaborationNational Defence,National Security,Public SafetyMarketsResources GovernmentApplicationStockFlowDefenceR&DCanadaCreationKM Levels
  • 7. Knowledge Infrastructurework routineslessons learned,best practices,Peoplelearning, motivation,rewards, incentives,staffing, skillsroles, responsibilities,authorities, resourcesContent,Servicesdata, risk analysis,reports, monitoring,operations, policiesToolssystems tocapture, store,share, andprocess contentKM LevelsGovernanceProcesses
  • 8. Knowledge AssetsCapture: Represent explicit or tacitknowledge on reproducible mediaInventory: Find, list, and describeknowledge; map to business needs,value and prioritizeNeeds: What needs to be known toaccomplish organizational goals; identifycore knowledgeGaps: Difference between what is knownand what needs to be knownPreserve: organize, store, search &retrieval, maintain and migratethroughout life-cycleKM Levels
  • 9. Knowledge SharingExplicit Knowledge• Dissemination (Provider Pushes – transmission, semantics,effectiveness)• Access (User Pulls – awareness, permission, accessibility,searching, retrieval)• Exchange (Market Trades – reciprocity, trust, signals,inefficiencies, pathologies)Tacit Knowledge• Methods (conversations, Q&A, capturing, advising, teaching,storytelling, mentoring, presenting)• Place (meetings, workshops, conferences, on-site,demonstrations, classrooms, symposia, communities)• Technology (telephone, e-mail, video conference, chat rooms,bulletin boards, on-line forums, blogs, social network sites)KM Levels
  • 10. CollaborationDialogue, conversations in groupsSharing, exchanges among peersCandor, freedom of expressionTrust, safety, honestyTransparency, opennessAgreed rules of conductDiversity, flexibility, outliersEquality, meritocracy of ideasCollective, not individual benefitKM Levels
  • 11. Social Network PrinciplesOpenness – collaboration basedon candor, transparency, freedom,flexibility, and accessibility.Peering – horizontal voluntarymeritocracy, based on fun,altruism, or personal values.Sharing – increased value ofcommon products benefits allparticipants.Acting Globally – value iscreated through large knowledgeecosystems.Cass Sunstein (2006)KM Levels
  • 12. Knowledge Work (DRDC)GovernanceMonitoringIntelligenceNeedsPrioritiesEstablishmentProgramsServicesAcquireCreateDevelopMobilizeLearnReportIntegrationInnovationMitigationAdviceAdaptationClientsDND(management)(R & D)KM Levels
  • 13. Knowledge TransferCommunications: one-way dissemination of approvedmessages and positions.Transaction: two-way exchanges of knowledgeproducts & services.Parallel: Transferring knowledge products & servicesfrom or to two or more providers or users.Sequential: Multiple organizations sequentially produceand transfer knowledge products & services.Cyclic: Knowledge service “value chains” continuouslycreate and transfer new knowledge.Network: Interactions among large numbers ofparticipants in a “knowledge ecosystem.”KM Levels
  • 14. OutlineManagement LevelsManagement RegimesCreationValidationOrganizationAuthorizationKnowledge Manageability
  • 15. Organizational Knowledge FlowCreation ValidationOrganizationAuthorization
  • 16. IncentivesCompliance (you will)Pay, job security, duty, work ethic, penaltiesMilitary, manufacturing, law, regulation, policiesMeet quotas, minimum standards, routine tasksMotivation (you’ll be rewarded)Ambition, challenges, bonuses, rewards, recognitionEfficiency, productivity, qualityIncreases, improvementsEngagement (would you like to?)Meaningfulness, ownership, self-esteem, enjoymentCreativity, innovation, discoveryCommitment, involvement, willingness, enjoymentCreation
  • 17. EngagementAutonomy: (agreed task, flexible schedule, selecttechnique, choose team)Mastery: (mindset, takes time and effort, is asymptotic)Purpose: (meaningful goals, words are important,policies)Daniel Pink (2009)Creation
  • 18. Eliciting MethodsConversations, discussions, dialogue (colleagues, peers)Questions & answers, problems & solutions (novice/expert)After-action reviews, lessons learned (event/group)Capture, document, interview, record (expert/facilitator)Extraction, identify, codify, organize (expert/know engineer)Advising, briefing, recommending (subordinate/superior)Teaching, educating, training (teacher/student)Storytelling, narratives, anecdotes (teller/listener)Explaining, demonstrating, describing (technician/user)Presentations, lectures, speeches (speaker/audience)Creation
  • 19. Communities Create & ValidateKnowledgeKnowledge exists in the minds of people. Experience isas important as formal knowledge.Knowledge is tacit as well as explicit. Transferring tacitknowledge is more effective through human interaction.Knowledge is social as well as individual. Today’sknowledge is the result of centuries of collective research.Knowledge is changing at an accelerating rate. It takes acommunity of people to keep up with new concepts,practices, and technology.Validation
  • 20. Participants- Help with their work- Solve problems- Find experts- Receive feedback- Place to learn- Enhance reputationManagement- Connect isolated experts- Coordinate activities- Fast problem solving- Reduce development time- Standardize processes- Develop & retain talentCommunity BenefitsOutputs- Tangible: documents, reports, manuals, recommendations,reduced innovation time and cost- Intangible: increased skills, sense of trust, relationships,diverse perspectives, capacity to innovate, spirit of enquiryValidation
  • 21. Harvesting MethodsService Center: repository for community outputs;interface with communities, minimize duplication, informcommunitiesLeader: transfer community outputs; Identify emergingtrends, prioritize issuesSponsor: endorse community outputs; bridge betweenthe community and the organization, provide support,minimize organizational barriersChampion: ensure adoption of community outputs;communicate purpose, promote the communityValidation
  • 22. Organizational StructureOrganizationTechnologysupportManageInterfaceContentResearchSocialCommonGovernancecontextwork
  • 23. Knowledge Services Value ChainUseInternallyUseProfessionallyUsePersonallyCreate Transform Add ValueTransfer EvaluateManageExtractAdvanceEmbedLegendS&T Partners Centre forSecuritySciencePractitioners &StakeholdersOrganization
  • 24. Knowledge Creation ProcessLegend:WorkOutputServiceSocialStatistical apps.StoreAnalyzeBody ofknowledge ReviewLiteratureExperimentaldesignTestExperimentinadequateadequateWriteReviewPublishEditHypothesisDataTacitExplicitProductGapLibrary,Web,SearchExpertiseOffice app.Data mgt.Analysis apps.InterfaceCollaborationOrganization
  • 25. Organizing KnowledgeClassification systemsIndexes, cataloguesThesauri, TaxonomiesOntologies, Mind mapsFolksonomiesAutomated methodsArtificial intelligenceOrganization
  • 26. Governance FrameworkNegotiationNegotiationNegotiationAuthorizationDirection, Authority,ResourcesProgramGovernanceProjectGovernanceWorkSystemsReports,Advice,IssuesCorp. ServiceGovernanceCentre ServiceGovernanceKIT ServicesTechnology ContentReports,AdviceIssuesOther services:science, HR,finance,purchasing…Mandate Resources ConstraintsAuthorityResponsibilityAccountabilityBudgetStaffCapacityLawsTB PoliciesDND PoliciesCorporateGovernance
  • 27. AuthorizationUnderstanding – Keep it simple; one message with stories andmultiple analogies from different perspectives.Experience – Do your homework; pre-brief decision makers, solicitopinions, negotiate objections (to a point).Resources – Pick low-hanging fruit; plan low cost, small effort, lowimpact activities.Management – Think big, start small; divide into small projects withmeasurable, high-impact deliverables.Submission – Leadership is essential; bypass unjustifiedobjections, accept majority vote, authorize work.Authorization
  • 28. SustainabilityLeadership – Outputs must be delivered within a leader’s tenure;preferably, get them institutionalized.Governance – Representative, federated decision making is the onlysustainable governance for knowledge work.Reorganization – Align a project/activity with the organizationalbusiness model.Priorities – Align the project/activity with the organization’s long-termstrategySupport – Deliver initial outputs when & as promised; be prepared toadapt to changing priorities.Culture – Develop favorable policies, reward desired behavior, leveragework, implement helpful systems.Authorization
  • 29. OutlineManagement LevelsManagement RegimesIndividualsCommunitiesOrganizationAuthorizationKnowledge Manageability
  • 30. Cynefin FrameworkManageabilityKurtz andSnowden(2003)
  • 31. Management RegimesAuthoritativeHierarchyOrganizationalStructureNegotiatedAgreementResponsibleAutonomyPurpose (Why) Authorize Organize Collaborate &ValidateCreateEntity (What) Decisions &ActionsObjects &TasksPeople &ConnectivityEnvironment& InterestsProcess (How) Decide & Act Capture &StructureConnectCommunitiesEngagePeopleInteractions Hierarchy Work Process Agreements DialogueKnowledge Authoritative Explicit Tacit InnateManageabilityAuthorityKnowledge
  • 32. DefinitionsAuthoritative Hierarchy: Knowledge creation, management,and use can be completely, totally, or entirely mandated,governed, structured, and evaluated. (>90%)Organizational Structure: Knowledge creation, management,and use can be predominantly, generally, or mostlymandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. (50%-90%)Negotiated Agreement: Knowledge creation, management,and use can be partly, nominally, or incompletely mandated,governed, structured, and evaluated. (10%-50%)Responsible Autonomy: Knowledge creation, management,and use can be slightly, minimally, or not mandated,governed, structured, and evaluated. (10%<)Manageability
  • 33. Knowledge ManageabilityManagementlevelsAuthoritativeHierarchyOrganizationalInfrastructureNegotiatedAgreementResponsibleAutonomyTransfer Direction Products &ServicesExchange KnowledgemarketsWork Mandate Process Agreement Self-interestCollaboration Assignment Representation Partnership ParticipationSharing Vertical Horizontal Community NetworkAssets Embed Sole IP rights Joint IP rights Open sourceInfrastructure Authoritative Standardized Connective EnablingManagement RegimesManageability
  • 34. Management Regimes andStrategic TrendsAuthoritativeHierarchyOrganizationalStructurePartnershipAgreementResponsibleAutonomyRelativeImportancehighlowManagement RegimeManageability
  • 35. Main MessagesThere are six knowledgemanagement levels.There are four knowledgemanagement regimesKnowledge flows across alllevels and regimes.This is a new paradigm forknowledge management. M. C. Escher (1957)“Cube with Magic Ribbons”