Social Media in Government


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Describes the use of social media in a government context

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  • Successful social networks follow a number of principles. Describe the four.
  • A SWOT analysis is strongly recommended before developing and implementing a social network in government agencies. Describe the four aspects.
  • The key question is: if a department participates in a social network, how does it “capture value” from commonly held external intellectual property? The answer, in a few words, is to bring it inside the organization. The common property has to be stabilized. A report, policy, or regulation cannot change once it is formalized. Internal value has to be added by ensuring that it works. For example, in policy, all stakeholder concerns must be addressed; in business, an innovation must be producible and marketable. A key implication is that a department must retain enough internal core capacity to be able to add value to commonly-held IP.
  • We developed an organizational framework that includes pretty much everything that one needs to run an organization. Simply put, people use tools and process within a governance structure to increase the value of content and provide services. One cannot pick and choose which elements of the framework to implement or emphasize. They are all necessary to running an organization.
  • Managers won’t fund what they don’t understand. Managers won’t abandon what worked (or didn’t) before. Managers will oppose loss of resources. Managers want short-term-low-risk deliverables.
  • Social Media in Government

    1. 1. Transforming what people know into action Albert Simard Knowledge Manager Effective Strategies for Social Media Ottawa Ontario, Nov. 24-25, 2010 Deriving Organizational Value from Social Networks:
    2. 2. A Tale of Two Encyclopedias <ul><li>One is funded by Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>They’re big and will become a colossus. </li></ul><ul><li>They’ll buy an encyclopedia and own its content. </li></ul><ul><li>They’ll pay experts and editors to produce it. </li></ul><ul><li>They’ll put it on CD-ROMs and sell it online at low cost. </li></ul><ul><li>One won’t come from a company. </li></ul><ul><li>It will be written by tens of thousands of people. </li></ul><ul><li>No qualifications will be needed to participate. </li></ul><ul><li>People will contribute their labor for free. </li></ul><ul><li>The encyclopedia will be available online for free. </li></ul>It’s 1995 and you describe two new encyclopedias to a renown economist In 2010, which will be the largest in the World?
    3. 3. Fast Forward 15 Years…. On October 31, 2009, Microsoft shut down Encarta after 16 years <ul><li>Today, Wikipedia is the most popular encyclopedia in the world, with </li></ul><ul><li>16 million articles </li></ul><ul><li>91,000 contributors </li></ul><ul><li>270 languages </li></ul><ul><li>78 million visitors per month </li></ul>
    4. 4. GCPedia Supports Communities <ul><li>Canadian Government </li></ul><ul><li>- 19,400 users </li></ul><ul><li>- 9,500 articles </li></ul><ul><li>- 7.5% of views are edits; primarily sharing </li></ul>
    5. 5. Ideas have a life cycle They’re used They’re born They grow They mature
    6. 6. Knowledge has a similar cycle Creation Collaboration Organization Authorization
    7. 7. Agenda <ul><li>Creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(engage people) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>(communities & networks) </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>(capture & structure) </li></ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul><ul><li>(decide & act) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Why Engage Knowledge Workers? <ul><li>Knowledge cannot be conscripted; it must be volunteered. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge workers need to commit to and become truly involved in their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, they work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not because it is asked of them, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not because they expect something in return, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because they want to; they enjoy doing it. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Incentive Framework Peter Stoyko (2010) Creativity Willingness Engagement Productivity Attitudes Motivation Functionality Behavior Compliance Organizational Results Individual Response Type of Incentive
    10. 10. Incentives <ul><li>Compliance (you will) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay, job security, duty, work ethic, penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military, manufacturing, law, regulation, policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet quotas, minimum standards, routine tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation (you’ll be rewarded) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambition, challenges, bonuses, rewards, recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency, productivity, quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases, improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engagement (would you like to?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningfulness, ownership, self-esteem, enjoyment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity, innovation, discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment, involvement, willingness, enjoyment </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Engagement: Autonomy <ul><li>Task : what to do (% of time, mutual agreement) </li></ul><ul><li>Time : when to do it (schedule, location) </li></ul><ul><li>Technique : how to do it (results, not methods) </li></ul><ul><li>Team : (self-organization, select coworkers) </li></ul>Daniel Pink (2010)
    12. 12. Engagement: Mastery <ul><li>Mindset : (want to excel, ability, skill, can increase, learning, practice) </li></ul><ul><li>Pain : (perseverance, passion, overcoming obstacles, long-term, time & effort) </li></ul><ul><li>Asymptotic : (approach, but never quite reach, close but can’t touch) </li></ul>Daniel Pink (2009)
    13. 13. Engagement: Purpose <ul><li>Goals : (important, quality of life, life with meaning, looking beyond oneself, social responsibility, stewardship) </li></ul><ul><li>Words : (they matter, indicate intent, describe meaning, affect attitude, guide behavior, soul-stirring, emotional) </li></ul><ul><li>Policies : (ethics, individual choice, meaningful ends, guidance) </li></ul>Daniel Pink (2009)
    14. 14. Engagement Tips <ul><li>Hire “engageable” employees </li></ul><ul><li>Match projects, passions, proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Stress employee ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify mutual goals and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Earn trust continuously </li></ul><ul><li>Provide frequent feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Talk and listen often </li></ul>Wendy Fenci (2008)
    15. 15. Engagement Signals <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for help & advice </li></ul><ul><li>Jointly review progress </li></ul><ul><li>Freely share information </li></ul><ul><li>Work collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor closely </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t include in planing </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Seldom interact </li></ul><ul><li>Withhold information </li></ul><ul><li>Control tightly </li></ul><ul><li>Approve all decisions </li></ul>Tosti & Nickols (2010)
    16. 16. Agenda <ul><li>Creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(engage people) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>(communities & networks) </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>(capture & structure) </li></ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul><ul><li>(decide & act) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Community of Interest <ul><li>People who share a common interest or passion (enjoyment, hobbies, friends) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Community of Practice <ul><li>People who share common expertise, skill, or profession (position, work, colleagues) </li></ul><ul><li>Government, department </li></ul><ul><li>Sector, branch, division staff </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists, engineers, lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>Policy analysts, regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Finance, purchasing officers </li></ul><ul><li>Information, communication specialists </li></ul>
    19. 19. Social Network Principles <ul><li>Openness – collaboration based on candor, transparency, freedom, flexibility, and accessibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Peering – horizontal voluntary meritocracy, based on fun, altruism, or personal values. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing – increased value of common products benefits all participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Acting Globally – value is created through large knowledge ecosystems. </li></ul>Cass Sunstein (2006)
    20. 20. Communities and Knowledge Management <ul><li>Knowledge exists in the minds of people. Experience is as important as formal knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is tacit as well as explicit. Transferring tacit knowledge is more effective through human interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is social as well as individual. Today’s knowledge is the result of centuries of collective research. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is changing at an accelerating rate. It takes a community of people to keep up with new concepts, practices, and technology. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Community Benefits Participants - Help with their work - Solve problems - Find experts - Receive feedback - Place to learn - Latest information - Enhance reputation Management - Connect isolated experts - Coordinate activities - Fast problem solving - Reduce development time - Quickly answer questions - Standardize processes - Develop & retain talent <ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>- Tangible : documents, reports, manuals, recommendations, reduced innovation time and cost </li></ul><ul><li>- Intangible : increased skills, sense of trust, diverse perspectives, cross-pollinate ideas, capacity to innovate, relationships, spirit of enquiry </li></ul>
    22. 22. Designing Communities <ul><li>Include internal and external perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Include different levels of participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop public and private spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on value to the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Combine familiarity and novelty. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a community rhythm. </li></ul><ul><li>Design for evolution. </li></ul>Wegner, et. al. (2002)
    23. 23. Common Characteristics <ul><li>Self-governed: norms and guidelines govern practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organized: purpose, direction, and management. </li></ul><ul><li>Productive enquiry: answer questions based on practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate: synchronous and asynchronous channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate knowledge: new knowledge is created. </li></ul><ul><li>Support members: provides a forum for mutual support. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational support: recognize communities existence and value . </li></ul>Saint-Onge & Wallace (2003)
    24. 24. Community Attributes <ul><li>Size: small to large; large communities need structure </li></ul><ul><li>Structure: informal, semi-structured, structured </li></ul><ul><li>Life-Span: few years to permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Location: co-located or dispersed </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment: informal or formal </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries: often cross boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity: homogeneous to heterogeneous </li></ul>Wenger et. al. (2002)
    25. 25. Functional Roles <ul><li>Champion – Ensure support, communicate purpose, promote the community, ensure impact </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor – Bridge between the CoP and the organization; communicate support, remove barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Leader – Provide leadership, identify emerging trends, prioritize issues, approve membership, resolve conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator – communicate, encourage participation, ensure that views are heard, organize meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Service Center – Interface with communities, ensure lack of duplication, inform communities about activities </li></ul><ul><li>Members – Provide knowledge, expertise, and experience; participate in discussions, raise issues, alert members to change, increase community effectiveness </li></ul>
    26. 26. Community Behaviors <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Meritocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Outliers </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Debating </li></ul><ul><li>Arguing </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming </li></ul><ul><li>Majority </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Groupthink </li></ul>
    27. 27. Networks <ul><li>Interconnection among many individuals groups or organizations with common interdependencies, interests, or purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Networks are much bigger than communities (100s to 1,000,000s of nodes). </li></ul><ul><li>Participants don’t know most other participants, limiting trust and security. </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers of nodes leads to complex behavior. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Network Behavior <ul><li>Positive feedback - The bigger the network, the bigger it gets. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological growth - Crossing a “threshold” yields self-sustaining, exponential growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Synergy & emergence – Networks can yield more than any individual can accomplish. </li></ul><ul><li>Winner take most – There is a tendency for one member to dominate. </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme leveraging – A small effort can trigger market domination. </li></ul>Kevin Kelly (1998)
    29. 29. Network Structure <ul><li>Governance – emerge & connect, identify & collaborate, organize & formalize, codify & document, evolve & sustain </li></ul><ul><li>Management – leadership, agreements, growth, membership </li></ul><ul><li>Geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Texture – density, distance, centrality, openness </li></ul><ul><li>Strength – strong & weak ties, hubs & connectors </li></ul>Patti Anklam (2007)
    30. 30. Network Value <ul><li>Value is proportional to the number of participants squared. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is created by all; not by an individual or organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is external to member organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is shared by all; capturing value is often uneven. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who own network standards have an advantage. </li></ul>Kevin Kelly (1998)
    31. 31. Social Networks – SWOT Analysis <ul><li>Strengths – rapid development, world-class solutions, emergent properties, creative synergies, vibrant collaboration, openness </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses – constant change, unknown quality, less used by mature individuals, need to motivate participants, cannot be forced </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities – leverage internal capacity, provides creative solutions, easy to implement, low cost, can monitor emerging trends </li></ul><ul><li>Threats – knowledge leaks, free expression poses risk, is the crowd wise, documents subject to ATIP, compatibility with mandate </li></ul>
    32. 32. Agenda <ul><li>Creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(engage employees) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>(communities & networks) </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>(capture & structure) </li></ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul><ul><li>(decide & act) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Capturing Value Bring it into the organizational structure Stabilize it; make it work
    34. 34. Organizational Infrastructure People <ul><ul><li>Behavior, attitudes, willingness, individuals, communities, culture </li></ul></ul>Governance Decisions, authority, roles, responsibilities, accountability, resources, planning Processes Administration, innovation, advice, risk mitigation, integration Products, Services National defence, security, public safety Tools Hardware, software, systems, networks
    35. 35. People <ul><li>Workers – who, what, when, where, why, how </li></ul><ul><li>Human capital – workforce, skills, productivity, salaries </li></ul><ul><li>Human nature – behavior, attitudes, interests </li></ul><ul><li>Communities – connectivity, functionality, impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Culture – domain, ideology, values, norms, rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resources – staffing & retention, supervision & performance, training & development </li></ul>
    36. 36. Governance <ul><li>Mandate – Purpose, goals, authority, responsibility, accountability, roles, resources </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions – Hierarchy, structure, collaboration, autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Planning – Charter, business case, strategy, communication, budget, project plan, work schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Manage – Lead, organize work, coordinate activities, monitor progress, report results </li></ul>
    37. 37. DRDC Work Processes <ul><li>Administration – acquisition, finance, staff activity, human resources, reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Open innovation – monitoring, prioritization, internal research, external partnerships, manage projects </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted advice – identify issues, select alternatives, analyze outcomes, recommend action </li></ul><ul><li>Risk mitigation – transfer products, deliver services, interact with stakeholder, facilitate application </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge integration – across boundaries: domains, type of content, jurisdictions, management level, functions, systems </li></ul>
    38. 38. Technology <ul><li>Control – Security, central, standards, user-centric </li></ul><ul><li>Computers – Mobile, desktops, work stations, servers, supercomputers, cloud computing </li></ul><ul><li>Applications – e-mail, text processing, spread sheets, graphics, databases, analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Systems – acquire, organize, store, process, provide access, and retrieve content </li></ul><ul><li>Communication – Efficiency, semantics, effectiveness, </li></ul><ul><li>Networks – one-to-many (distribution, blogs), many-to-one (ordering, surveys), many-to-many (collaborate, wikis) </li></ul>
    39. 39. DRDC Products and Services <ul><li>Content – collections, libraries, data, information, documents, records, knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Products – databases, scientific papers, reports, communications materials, maps, statistics, standards, policies, regulations, systems, devices </li></ul><ul><li>Services – answers, advice, teaching, facilitation, support, laboratory, research </li></ul>
    40. 40. Agenda <ul><li>Creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(engage people) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>(communities & networks) </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>(capture & structure) </li></ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul><ul><li>(decide & act) </li></ul>
    41. 41. Approval <ul><li>Understanding – Keep it simple ; one message with stories and multiple analogies from different perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience – Do your homework ; pre-brief decision makers, solicit opinions, negotiate objections (to a point). </li></ul><ul><li>Resources – Pick low-hanging fruit ; plan low cost, small effort, low impact activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Management – Think big, start small ; divide into small projects with measurable, high-impact deliverables. </li></ul><ul><li>Submission – Leadership is essential ; overrule unjustified objections, accept majority vote, authorize work. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Implementation <ul><li>Communication - awareness, understanding, consensus, participation </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate - purpose, objectives, authority, responsibility, accountability, resources </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure - people, governance, work processes, technology, content </li></ul><ul><li>Plans – milestones & deliverables, work schedules, evaluation criteria, risks </li></ul><ul><li>Execute – supervise, processes, technology, systems, analysis, outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor – indicators, measure, interpret, report progress, next steps </li></ul>
    43. 43. Sustainability <ul><li>Leadership – Outputs must be delivered within a leader’s tenure; preferably, get them institutionalized. </li></ul><ul><li>Governance – Representative, federated decision making is the only sustainable governance for knowledge work. </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganization – Align a project/activity with the organizational business model. </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities – Align the project/activity with the organization’s long-term strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Support – Deliver initial outputs when & as promised; be prepared to adapt to changing priorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture –Develop favorable policies, reward desired behavior, leverage work, implement helpful systems. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Conclusion <ul><li>Documentation – purpose, objectives, review, approach, data, analysis, plans, accomplishments, outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation – administration, efficiency, effectiveness, outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Extension – recommended applicability, limits, enhancements, data requirements, costs & benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Learning – positive & negative lessons, problem / opportunity, solution / approach, resources </li></ul>
    45. 45. Key Messages Management authorizes the use of knowledge to enable action. A knowledge organization engages people to enhance creativity Community collaboration validates individual knowledge Community knowledge must be put into an organizational context.