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Reinforcement theory observational learning theory

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  • 1.  
  • 2. (born on December 4, 1925 in Mundare, a small town in Alberta, Canada)
    • He is the leading researcher and theorist in the area of observational learning.
  • 3.
    • is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others
    • occurs when an observers behavior changes after viewing the behavior of a model
    • also known as vicarious learning, social learning or modeling
  • 4.
    • According to Bandura, observational learning may or may not involve imitation.
    • Social learning theory holds that children in particular, learn by observing and imitating models
    • Children take an active part in their own learning
    • The child’s own characteristics influence the choice of models.
  • 5.
    • It focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context.
    • Observational learning does not require that the behavior exhibited by the model is duplicated.
  • 6.
    • The observer will imitate the model’s behavior if the model possesses characteristics.
    • 2.The observer will react to the way the model is treated and mimic the models behavior.
    • 3.A distinction between an observer’s “acquiring” a behavior and “performing “ a behavior.
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. (Presence of reinforcement or punishment)
  • 13. Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that individual’s behavior is a function of its consequences . (based on law of effect)
  • 14. Positive and Negative Reinforcement
    • Positive Reinforcement
    • Observer is likely to repeat behavior a model demonstrates
    • Behavior doesn’t matter, reinforcement received matters.
    • Negative Reinforcement
    • Observer is less likely to repeat a beahavior a model demonstarets.
    • Behavior doenst matter, reinforcement received matters.
  • 15. - Anything that increase the behavior - is a consequence of behavior that decreases the likelihood of repetition.
  • 16.
    • The observer is reinforced by the model
    • 2. The observer is reinforced by a third person
    • 3. The imitated behavior itself leads to reinforcing consequences
    • 4. Consequences of the model’s behavior affect the observers behavior vicariously (vicarious reinforcement)
  • 17.  
  • 18.