- Anything that increase the
- is a consequence of upleasant
behavior that decreases the
likelihood of repetition.
Teaches new behaviors
Increases or decreases the frequency
with which previously learned behaviors are
Can encourage previously forbidden
Can increase or decrease similar
• Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental
Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.
• McLeod, S. A. (2007). B.F. Skinner | Operant Conditioning - Simply
Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-
• Kanazawa, S. (2010). Common Misconceptions about Science VI:
"Negative Reinforcement." Psychology Today. Retrieved from
• Positive reinforcement: A proactive intervention in the classroom.
The University of Minnesota.