Reinforcement theory observational learning theory

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Reinforcement theory observational learning theory

  1. 2. (born on December 4, 1925 in Mundare, a small town in Alberta, Canada) <ul><li>He is the leading researcher and theorist in the area of observational learning. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others </li></ul><ul><li>occurs when an observers behavior changes after viewing the behavior of a model </li></ul><ul><li>also known as vicarious learning, social learning or modeling </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>According to Bandura, observational learning may or may not involve imitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning theory holds that children in particular, learn by observing and imitating models </li></ul><ul><li>Children take an active part in their own learning </li></ul><ul><li>The child’s own characteristics influence the choice of models. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>It focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. </li></ul><ul><li>Observational learning does not require that the behavior exhibited by the model is duplicated. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>The observer will imitate the model’s behavior if the model possesses characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>2.The observer will react to the way the model is treated and mimic the models behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>3.A distinction between an observer’s “acquiring” a behavior and “performing “ a behavior. </li></ul>
  6. 12. (Presence of reinforcement or punishment)
  7. 13. Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that individual’s behavior is a function of its consequences . (based on law of effect)
  8. 14. Positive and Negative Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Observer is likely to repeat behavior a model demonstrates </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior doesn’t matter, reinforcement received matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Observer is less likely to repeat a beahavior a model demonstarets. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior doenst matter, reinforcement received matters. </li></ul>
  9. 15. - Anything that increase the behavior - is a consequence of behavior that decreases the likelihood of repetition.
  10. 16. <ul><li>The observer is reinforced by the model </li></ul><ul><li>2. The observer is reinforced by a third person </li></ul><ul><li>3. The imitated behavior itself leads to reinforcing consequences </li></ul><ul><li>4. Consequences of the model’s behavior affect the observers behavior vicariously (vicarious reinforcement) </li></ul>

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