The Axial Skeleton: The human skeleton is divided into two major subdivisions. The first of these is: Skull Thoracic Cage Vertebral Column ? Which part is this? Which part is this? Which part is this?
The axial skeleton is composed of the skull , vertebral column , and thoracic cage . The main function of the axial skeleton is to PROTECT the most crucial ORGANS of the human body. Each of these is essentially a “shaped box” which house such vital and vulnerable organs as the brain (skull) , spinal cord (vertebral column) , and the heart, lungs, and kidneys (thoracic cage) . The Axial Skeleton (Notes reminder)
The Skull – The skull consists of 29 bones and can be subdivided into four areas, two of which are easily identified: The Cranium The Face ? ?
1. 2. 5. 4. 3. 6. 8. 7. 9. 10. 11. Name these bones Answers on next page
The Vertebral Column - The vertebral column, which is sometimes called “the backbone” or “spinal column” consists of 26 bones in an adult, but has 33 bones in an infant. The vertebral column can be completely subdivided into five areas (four curvatures with the last divided into two parts): 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 5 4 What are the names of these regions of the vertebral column?
Thoracic Cage – sometimes misnamed the “ribcage” has the main function of protecting vital organs such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys, and to a lesser degree the liver, and stomach. The bones of the thoracic cage are as follows:
Costal Cartilage Hyaline Cartilage Sternum Name? Tissue Type? Name? What important characteristic does this tissue add to the Thoracic Cage? Flexibility for breathing
The Manubrium The Body The Xiphoid Process Hyaline Cartilage Which part is this? Which part is this? Which part is this? What tissue type is this?
What type of bone is this, with respect to shape? What type of bone is this, with respect to shape? What type of bone is this, with respect to shape? Flat Bone Flat Bone Irregular Bone
The Appendicular Skeleton: The second major subdivision of the skeleton is the: Lower Extremities (NOT “legs”) Pelvic Girdle (NOT “pelvis”) Upper Extremities (NOT “arms”) Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Which part is this? Which parts are these? Which part is this? Which parts are these?
Lower Extremity or Lower Appendage Patella Fibula Femur Tibia Name of entire structure? 2? 3? 4? 1?
What type of bone is this, with respect to shape? What type of bone is this, with respect to shape? Long Bone Irregular Bone
Lateral Cuneiform Medial Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform Distal Phalanx; 2 nd Digit; Right foot Proximal Phalanx; 3 rd digit; Right foot What is the more specific names given to each of these.
Upper Extremity or Upper Appendage Name this entire structure
Pectoral or “ Shoulder” Girdle This represents “half” of what skeletal subdivision?
Name each of these bones 1? Clavicle 2? Humerus 3? 6? 5? 4? 7? Radius Scapula Ulna Metacarpals Phalanges
Middle Phalanx; 5 th Digit; Left Hand Distal Phalanx; 1 st Digit; Left Hand 3 rd Metacarpal; Left Hand Carpals Specific Name? Specific Name? Specific Name? Group of Bones Called? What type of bones are these, with respect to shape? Short Bones What type of bone is this, with respect to shape? Long Bone
Ball and Socket Joint Diarthroses (Freely movable) Hinge Joint Type of joint with respect to movement? Specific type of joint? Specific type of joint?
What is the name of this entire structure? What type of bone is this, with respect to shape? What type of bone is this, with respect to shape? Irregular Bone Flat Bone Skull
Suture Joint With respect to movement, what type of joints are these? Synarthroses (Immovable) Specific type of joint?
Proximal Epiphysis Distal Epiphysis Type of bone with respect to shape? What part of the bone is this? What part of the bone is this? What part of the bone is this? Diaphysis Long Bone
Spongy Bone Red Bone Marrow Compact Bone Medullary Cavity Yellow Bone Marrow Periosteum Epiphyseal Discs or Growth Plates Hyaline Cartilage Articular Cartilage Contained within spaces? Bone tissue type? Bone tissue type? Cavity called? Substance called? What is this? What are these? White “stuff” called what? Tissue type?
1 st Metacarpal; Left Hand Give the specific joint type for each. Hinge Joint Condyloid or Ellipsoid Joint Saddle Joint Gliding Joint Specific Bone Name 1? 3? 2? 4?
Type of joint with respect to movement Amphiarthroses (slightly movable) Bone to Hyaline Cartilage to Bone Subcategory of joint including these? Describe this specific joint type Synchondroses
Amphiarthroses (slightly movable) Bone to Fibrous Cartilage to Bone Type of joint with respect to movement Subcategory of joints including these Describe this specific joint type Symphysis