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SKELETON system
and joints
By Minaxi Patil
Skeleton system
Skeleton system of adult
human has 206 bones.
Skeleton system divides into
2 parts,
1) Axial skeleton (80 bones)
2) Appendicular skeleton
(126 bones)
HUMAN SKELETON
1. Skull (29 bones)
2. Ribs (24 bones)
3. Sternum/ chest (1 bone)
4. Vertebral column (26 bones)
1. Girdles (6 bones)
2. Limbs (120 bones)
Appendicular skeleton
(126 bones)
Axial skeleton
(80 bones)
1. Skull (29 bones)
A) Cranium (8 bones)
i. Frontal (1)
ii. Parietal (2)
iii. Occipital (1)
iv. Temporal (2)
v. Sphenoid (1)
vi. Ethmoid (1)
Axial skeleton (80 bones)
i. Nasal bone (2)
ii. Maxillae (2)
iii. Palatine (2)
iv. Zygomatic (2)
v. Lacrimal (2)
vi. Mandible (1)
vii. Vomer (1)
viii.Inferior nasal conchae (2)
B) Facial (14 bones)
C) Ear ossicles (6 bones)
i. Malleus (2) outer
ii. Incus (2) middle
iii. Stapes (2) – inner, (smallest bone of body)
D) Hyoid (1 bones)
horseshoe-shaped
bone/ U-shaped bone
Sagittal suture
Lambdoid
suture
3. Sternum/ breast bone (1)
2. Ribs (24 bones)
i. True ribs -7 pairs
(14 bones)
Vertibrosterno ribs
i. False ribs -3pairs
(6 bones)
Vertebrochondral ribs
i. Floating ribs -2 pairs
(4 bones)
8th , 9th, and 10th –
attached to 7th ribs
4. Vertebral column
(26 vertebrae)
i. Cervical vertebrae (7)
ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12)
iii. Lumber vertebrae (5)
iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1)
v. Coccyx vertebrae (1)
Axial skeleton
(80 bones)
3. Sternum/ breast bone (1)
2. Ribs (24 bones)
i. True ribs -7 pairs
(14 bones)
i. False ribs -3pairs
(6 bones)
ii. Floating ribs -2 pairs
(4 bones)
4. Vertebral column
(26 vertebrae)
i. Cervical vertebrae (7)
ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12)
iii. Lumber vertebrae (5)
iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1)
v. Coccyx vertebrae (1)
1. Skull (29 bones)
A) Cranium (8)
B) Facial (14)
C) Ear ossicles(6)
D) Hyoid (1)
Appendicular skeleton (126 bones)
1. Girdles (6 bones)
A) Pectoral Girdles
(4 bones)
i. Clavicle (2 bones)
ii. Scapula (2bones)
(Glenoid
cavity)
(Acromial process)
B) Pelvic Girdles
(2 bones)
i. Hip bone
or
innominate bone
or
coxal bone
Pubis symphysis
2. Limb (120 bones)
A) Forelimb (30 *2 = 60 bones)
i. Humerus (1)
ii. Radius (1)
iii. Ulna (1)
iv. Carpals (8)
v. Metacarpals (5)
vi. Phalanges (14)
Hinge joint
Pivot joint
Gliding joint
Saddle joint
B) Hindlimb (30 *2 = 60 bones)
i. Femur (1) – longest bone of body
ii. Patella (1)
iii. Tibia (1)
iv. Fibula (1)
v. Tarsals (7)
vi. Metatarsals (5)
vii.Phalanges (14)
Hinge joint
Gliding joint
synovial
1. Girdles (6 bones)
A) Pectoral Girdles (4 bones)
i. Clavicle (2 bones)
ii. Scapula (2bones)
Appendicular skeleton
(126 bones)
B) Pelvic Girdles
(2 bones)
Hip bone or
innominate bone or
coxal bone
2. Limb (120 bones)
A) Forelimb
(60 bones)
i. Humerus (1)
ii. Radius (1)
iii. Ulna (1)
iv. Carpals (8)
v. Metacarpals (5)
vi. Phalanges (14)
B) Hindlimb (60 bones)
i. Femur (1)
ii. Patella (1)
iii. Tibia (1)
iv. Fibula (1)
v. Tarsals (7)
vi. Metatarsals (5)
vii. Phalanges (14)
Axial skeleton
(80 bones)
3. Sternum/ breast bone (1)
2. Ribs (24 bones)
i. True ribs -7 pairs (14)
ii. False ribs -3pairs (6)
iii. Floating ribs -2 pairs (4)
4. Vertebral column
(26 vertebrae)
i. Cervical vertebrae (7)
ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12)
iii. Lumber vertebrae (5)
iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1)
v. Coccyx vertebrae (1)
1. Skull (29 bones)
A) Cranium (8)
B) Facial (14)
C) Ear ossicles(12)
D) Hyoid (1)
Appendicular skeleton
(126 bones)
1. Girdles (6)
A) Pectoral Girdles (4)
i. Clavicle (2)
ii. Scapula (2)
2. Limb (120 bones)
A) Forelimb (60)
i. Humerus (1)
ii. Radius (1)
iii. Ulna (1)
iv. Carpals (8)
v. Metacarpals (5)
vi. Phalanges (14)
B) Hindlimb (60)
i. Femur (1)
ii. Patella (1)
iii. Tibia (1)
iv. Fibula (1)
v. Tarsals (7)
vi. Metatarsals (5)
vii. Phalanges (14)
B) Pelvic Girdles (2)
Hip bone or
innominate bone or
coxal bone
Occipital condyles
•The first cervical vertebrae (C1) is known as the atlas.
•The second cervical vertebrae (C2) is known as the axis.
The occipital condyles of the skull articulate with the
superior articular facets of the atlas vertebra
and form an important junction between the cranium
and the vertebral column.
vertebral column has first 2 uncommon/ atypical
cervical vertebrae,
Skull has 2 occipital condyles (dicondylic) and opening for
attachment of spinal cord in occipital bone.
The atlas (C1) is the first
cervical vertebra and
articulates with the
occiput of the head and
the axis (C2) in
(odontoid fossa).
superior articular facet
(for articulation with
occipital condyles), and
an inferior articular facet
(for articulation with C2).
Atlas (C1)
The axis (C2) is easily
identifiable due to its dens
(odontoid process –odontoid
peg).
which extends superiorly
from the anterior portion of
the vertebra.
Other cervical vertebrae
(c3 – c7) attach and continue
vertebral column.
AXIS (C2)
Pivot joint
Condyloid joint
Thoracic (T1 - T12)
Lumber 5 vertebrae's are largest and strongest vertebrae hold body
weight. These forms a curve called lumber curve.
Sacral and coccyx (caudal/tail bone) are fused.
(Tuberculum)
(Hyaline cartilage)
Ear ossicles
Hammer shaped Anvil shaped Stirrup shaped
Pectoral girdle
Ball and socket joint
Pelvic girdle
(coxal)
Cartilaginous joint
(Collagen fibres)
Ball and socket joint
A joint, also known as an articulation or articular surface, is a connection
that occurs between bones in the skeletal system. Joints provide the
means for movement.
All joints acts as a fulcrum.
Joints can be classified based on structure and function.
According to the structural classification of joints, they are divided into
3 types, (Movable, Immovable and Slightly movable)
JOINTS
1) Fibrous Joint (synarthroses)
2) Cartilaginous joint (amphiarthroses)
3) Synovial Joint (diarthroses)
1) Fibrous Joints Fixed
joints, also called
immovable joints, are
found where bones are
not flexible.
e.g. Skull (sutures),
upper jaw,
Manubriosternal joint,
backbone, and pelvic
bone, etc.
2) Cartilaginous joints
are partly movable
joints comprising of
symphysis. It is a
connection between
the articulating bones
is made up of cartilage.
e.g. pubic symphysis,
spinal column and the
ribcage.
3) Synovial Joints the
most common type of
movable joints this
joint helps us to
walking, running,
typing and more.
e.g. shoulder joint,
neck joint, knee joint,
wrist joint, etc.
According to the function classification of synovial joints, they
are divided into 6 types
1) Ball and Socket Joint - shoulder and hip joint
2) Hinge joint - knees, elbows, fingers, toes
3) Pivot joint - between atlas and axis, in a neck, radius and ulna
4) Gliding joint (plane or planar joint) - ankle and wrist joint
5) Saddle joint – between carpal and metacarpal of the thumb.
6) Condyloid joint (condylar, or ellipsoid joint) – between condyle and
atlas, metacarpals - phalanges except thumb.
Ball and Socket Joints
(rotatory movement).
Hinge joints
(bending and straightening
movements)
Pivot joints
(Allow limited rotating movements)
Saddle joint
(Moves back and forth and from
side to side, but does not allow
rotation)
Condyloid joint
(Ellipsoid joint)
Gliding joint
(plane or planar joint)
Disorders
1. Osteoporosis
2. Arthritis
There are many types of arthritis. Among these,
a. osteoarthritis,
b. Rheumatic arthritis
c. Gout arthritis
are the most common types of arthritis.
Thank you

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skeletal system complete details with joints and its types

  • 2. Skeleton system Skeleton system of adult human has 206 bones. Skeleton system divides into 2 parts, 1) Axial skeleton (80 bones) 2) Appendicular skeleton (126 bones)
  • 3. HUMAN SKELETON 1. Skull (29 bones) 2. Ribs (24 bones) 3. Sternum/ chest (1 bone) 4. Vertebral column (26 bones) 1. Girdles (6 bones) 2. Limbs (120 bones) Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) Axial skeleton (80 bones)
  • 4. 1. Skull (29 bones) A) Cranium (8 bones) i. Frontal (1) ii. Parietal (2) iii. Occipital (1) iv. Temporal (2) v. Sphenoid (1) vi. Ethmoid (1) Axial skeleton (80 bones)
  • 5. i. Nasal bone (2) ii. Maxillae (2) iii. Palatine (2) iv. Zygomatic (2) v. Lacrimal (2) vi. Mandible (1) vii. Vomer (1) viii.Inferior nasal conchae (2) B) Facial (14 bones)
  • 6. C) Ear ossicles (6 bones) i. Malleus (2) outer ii. Incus (2) middle iii. Stapes (2) – inner, (smallest bone of body) D) Hyoid (1 bones) horseshoe-shaped bone/ U-shaped bone
  • 8. 3. Sternum/ breast bone (1) 2. Ribs (24 bones) i. True ribs -7 pairs (14 bones) Vertibrosterno ribs i. False ribs -3pairs (6 bones) Vertebrochondral ribs i. Floating ribs -2 pairs (4 bones) 8th , 9th, and 10th – attached to 7th ribs
  • 9. 4. Vertebral column (26 vertebrae) i. Cervical vertebrae (7) ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12) iii. Lumber vertebrae (5) iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1) v. Coccyx vertebrae (1)
  • 10. Axial skeleton (80 bones) 3. Sternum/ breast bone (1) 2. Ribs (24 bones) i. True ribs -7 pairs (14 bones) i. False ribs -3pairs (6 bones) ii. Floating ribs -2 pairs (4 bones) 4. Vertebral column (26 vertebrae) i. Cervical vertebrae (7) ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12) iii. Lumber vertebrae (5) iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1) v. Coccyx vertebrae (1) 1. Skull (29 bones) A) Cranium (8) B) Facial (14) C) Ear ossicles(6) D) Hyoid (1)
  • 11. Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) 1. Girdles (6 bones) A) Pectoral Girdles (4 bones) i. Clavicle (2 bones) ii. Scapula (2bones) (Glenoid cavity) (Acromial process)
  • 12. B) Pelvic Girdles (2 bones) i. Hip bone or innominate bone or coxal bone Pubis symphysis
  • 13. 2. Limb (120 bones) A) Forelimb (30 *2 = 60 bones) i. Humerus (1) ii. Radius (1) iii. Ulna (1) iv. Carpals (8) v. Metacarpals (5) vi. Phalanges (14) Hinge joint Pivot joint Gliding joint Saddle joint
  • 14. B) Hindlimb (30 *2 = 60 bones) i. Femur (1) – longest bone of body ii. Patella (1) iii. Tibia (1) iv. Fibula (1) v. Tarsals (7) vi. Metatarsals (5) vii.Phalanges (14) Hinge joint Gliding joint synovial
  • 15. 1. Girdles (6 bones) A) Pectoral Girdles (4 bones) i. Clavicle (2 bones) ii. Scapula (2bones) Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) B) Pelvic Girdles (2 bones) Hip bone or innominate bone or coxal bone 2. Limb (120 bones) A) Forelimb (60 bones) i. Humerus (1) ii. Radius (1) iii. Ulna (1) iv. Carpals (8) v. Metacarpals (5) vi. Phalanges (14) B) Hindlimb (60 bones) i. Femur (1) ii. Patella (1) iii. Tibia (1) iv. Fibula (1) v. Tarsals (7) vi. Metatarsals (5) vii. Phalanges (14)
  • 16. Axial skeleton (80 bones) 3. Sternum/ breast bone (1) 2. Ribs (24 bones) i. True ribs -7 pairs (14) ii. False ribs -3pairs (6) iii. Floating ribs -2 pairs (4) 4. Vertebral column (26 vertebrae) i. Cervical vertebrae (7) ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12) iii. Lumber vertebrae (5) iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1) v. Coccyx vertebrae (1) 1. Skull (29 bones) A) Cranium (8) B) Facial (14) C) Ear ossicles(12) D) Hyoid (1) Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) 1. Girdles (6) A) Pectoral Girdles (4) i. Clavicle (2) ii. Scapula (2) 2. Limb (120 bones) A) Forelimb (60) i. Humerus (1) ii. Radius (1) iii. Ulna (1) iv. Carpals (8) v. Metacarpals (5) vi. Phalanges (14) B) Hindlimb (60) i. Femur (1) ii. Patella (1) iii. Tibia (1) iv. Fibula (1) v. Tarsals (7) vi. Metatarsals (5) vii. Phalanges (14) B) Pelvic Girdles (2) Hip bone or innominate bone or coxal bone
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 20. •The first cervical vertebrae (C1) is known as the atlas. •The second cervical vertebrae (C2) is known as the axis. The occipital condyles of the skull articulate with the superior articular facets of the atlas vertebra and form an important junction between the cranium and the vertebral column. vertebral column has first 2 uncommon/ atypical cervical vertebrae, Skull has 2 occipital condyles (dicondylic) and opening for attachment of spinal cord in occipital bone.
  • 21. The atlas (C1) is the first cervical vertebra and articulates with the occiput of the head and the axis (C2) in (odontoid fossa). superior articular facet (for articulation with occipital condyles), and an inferior articular facet (for articulation with C2). Atlas (C1)
  • 22. The axis (C2) is easily identifiable due to its dens (odontoid process –odontoid peg). which extends superiorly from the anterior portion of the vertebra. Other cervical vertebrae (c3 – c7) attach and continue vertebral column. AXIS (C2)
  • 24. Thoracic (T1 - T12) Lumber 5 vertebrae's are largest and strongest vertebrae hold body weight. These forms a curve called lumber curve. Sacral and coccyx (caudal/tail bone) are fused.
  • 26. Ear ossicles Hammer shaped Anvil shaped Stirrup shaped
  • 27. Pectoral girdle Ball and socket joint
  • 29. A joint, also known as an articulation or articular surface, is a connection that occurs between bones in the skeletal system. Joints provide the means for movement. All joints acts as a fulcrum. Joints can be classified based on structure and function. According to the structural classification of joints, they are divided into 3 types, (Movable, Immovable and Slightly movable) JOINTS 1) Fibrous Joint (synarthroses) 2) Cartilaginous joint (amphiarthroses) 3) Synovial Joint (diarthroses)
  • 30.
  • 31. 1) Fibrous Joints Fixed joints, also called immovable joints, are found where bones are not flexible. e.g. Skull (sutures), upper jaw, Manubriosternal joint, backbone, and pelvic bone, etc. 2) Cartilaginous joints are partly movable joints comprising of symphysis. It is a connection between the articulating bones is made up of cartilage. e.g. pubic symphysis, spinal column and the ribcage. 3) Synovial Joints the most common type of movable joints this joint helps us to walking, running, typing and more. e.g. shoulder joint, neck joint, knee joint, wrist joint, etc.
  • 32. According to the function classification of synovial joints, they are divided into 6 types 1) Ball and Socket Joint - shoulder and hip joint 2) Hinge joint - knees, elbows, fingers, toes 3) Pivot joint - between atlas and axis, in a neck, radius and ulna 4) Gliding joint (plane or planar joint) - ankle and wrist joint 5) Saddle joint – between carpal and metacarpal of the thumb. 6) Condyloid joint (condylar, or ellipsoid joint) – between condyle and atlas, metacarpals - phalanges except thumb.
  • 33. Ball and Socket Joints (rotatory movement). Hinge joints (bending and straightening movements)
  • 34. Pivot joints (Allow limited rotating movements) Saddle joint (Moves back and forth and from side to side, but does not allow rotation)
  • 35. Condyloid joint (Ellipsoid joint) Gliding joint (plane or planar joint)
  • 36.
  • 37. Disorders 1. Osteoporosis 2. Arthritis There are many types of arthritis. Among these, a. osteoarthritis, b. Rheumatic arthritis c. Gout arthritis are the most common types of arthritis.