SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 38
Download to read offline
SKELETON system
and joints
By Minaxi Patil
Skeleton system
Skeleton system of adult
human has 206 bones.
Skeleton system divides into
2 parts,
1) Axial skeleton (80 bones)
2) Appendicular skeleton
(126 bones)
HUMAN SKELETON
1. Skull (29 bones)
2. Ribs (24 bones)
3. Sternum/ chest (1 bone)
4. Vertebral column (26 bones)
1. Girdles (6 bones)
2. Limbs (120 bones)
Appendicular skeleton
(126 bones)
Axial skeleton
(80 bones)
1. Skull (29 bones)
A) Cranium (8 bones)
i. Frontal (1)
ii. Parietal (2)
iii. Occipital (1)
iv. Temporal (2)
v. Sphenoid (1)
vi. Ethmoid (1)
Axial skeleton (80 bones)
i. Nasal bone (2)
ii. Maxillae (2)
iii. Palatine (2)
iv. Zygomatic (2)
v. Lacrimal (2)
vi. Mandible (1)
vii. Vomer (1)
viii.Inferior nasal conchae (2)
B) Facial (14 bones)
C) Ear ossicles (6 bones)
i. Malleus (2) outer
ii. Incus (2) middle
iii. Stapes (2) – inner, (smallest bone of body)
D) Hyoid (1 bones)
horseshoe-shaped
bone/ U-shaped bone
Sagittal suture
Lambdoid
suture
3. Sternum/ breast bone (1)
2. Ribs (24 bones)
i. True ribs -7 pairs
(14 bones)
Vertibrosterno ribs
i. False ribs -3pairs
(6 bones)
Vertebrochondral ribs
i. Floating ribs -2 pairs
(4 bones)
8th , 9th, and 10th –
attached to 7th ribs
4. Vertebral column
(26 vertebrae)
i. Cervical vertebrae (7)
ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12)
iii. Lumber vertebrae (5)
iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1)
v. Coccyx vertebrae (1)
Axial skeleton
(80 bones)
3. Sternum/ breast bone (1)
2. Ribs (24 bones)
i. True ribs -7 pairs
(14 bones)
i. False ribs -3pairs
(6 bones)
ii. Floating ribs -2 pairs
(4 bones)
4. Vertebral column
(26 vertebrae)
i. Cervical vertebrae (7)
ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12)
iii. Lumber vertebrae (5)
iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1)
v. Coccyx vertebrae (1)
1. Skull (29 bones)
A) Cranium (8)
B) Facial (14)
C) Ear ossicles(6)
D) Hyoid (1)
Appendicular skeleton (126 bones)
1. Girdles (6 bones)
A) Pectoral Girdles
(4 bones)
i. Clavicle (2 bones)
ii. Scapula (2bones)
(Glenoid
cavity)
(Acromial process)
B) Pelvic Girdles
(2 bones)
i. Hip bone
or
innominate bone
or
coxal bone
Pubis symphysis
2. Limb (120 bones)
A) Forelimb (30 *2 = 60 bones)
i. Humerus (1)
ii. Radius (1)
iii. Ulna (1)
iv. Carpals (8)
v. Metacarpals (5)
vi. Phalanges (14)
Hinge joint
Pivot joint
Gliding joint
Saddle joint
B) Hindlimb (30 *2 = 60 bones)
i. Femur (1) – longest bone of body
ii. Patella (1)
iii. Tibia (1)
iv. Fibula (1)
v. Tarsals (7)
vi. Metatarsals (5)
vii.Phalanges (14)
Hinge joint
Gliding joint
synovial
1. Girdles (6 bones)
A) Pectoral Girdles (4 bones)
i. Clavicle (2 bones)
ii. Scapula (2bones)
Appendicular skeleton
(126 bones)
B) Pelvic Girdles
(2 bones)
Hip bone or
innominate bone or
coxal bone
2. Limb (120 bones)
A) Forelimb
(60 bones)
i. Humerus (1)
ii. Radius (1)
iii. Ulna (1)
iv. Carpals (8)
v. Metacarpals (5)
vi. Phalanges (14)
B) Hindlimb (60 bones)
i. Femur (1)
ii. Patella (1)
iii. Tibia (1)
iv. Fibula (1)
v. Tarsals (7)
vi. Metatarsals (5)
vii. Phalanges (14)
Axial skeleton
(80 bones)
3. Sternum/ breast bone (1)
2. Ribs (24 bones)
i. True ribs -7 pairs (14)
ii. False ribs -3pairs (6)
iii. Floating ribs -2 pairs (4)
4. Vertebral column
(26 vertebrae)
i. Cervical vertebrae (7)
ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12)
iii. Lumber vertebrae (5)
iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1)
v. Coccyx vertebrae (1)
1. Skull (29 bones)
A) Cranium (8)
B) Facial (14)
C) Ear ossicles(12)
D) Hyoid (1)
Appendicular skeleton
(126 bones)
1. Girdles (6)
A) Pectoral Girdles (4)
i. Clavicle (2)
ii. Scapula (2)
2. Limb (120 bones)
A) Forelimb (60)
i. Humerus (1)
ii. Radius (1)
iii. Ulna (1)
iv. Carpals (8)
v. Metacarpals (5)
vi. Phalanges (14)
B) Hindlimb (60)
i. Femur (1)
ii. Patella (1)
iii. Tibia (1)
iv. Fibula (1)
v. Tarsals (7)
vi. Metatarsals (5)
vii. Phalanges (14)
B) Pelvic Girdles (2)
Hip bone or
innominate bone or
coxal bone
Occipital condyles
•The first cervical vertebrae (C1) is known as the atlas.
•The second cervical vertebrae (C2) is known as the axis.
The occipital condyles of the skull articulate with the
superior articular facets of the atlas vertebra
and form an important junction between the cranium
and the vertebral column.
vertebral column has first 2 uncommon/ atypical
cervical vertebrae,
Skull has 2 occipital condyles (dicondylic) and opening for
attachment of spinal cord in occipital bone.
The atlas (C1) is the first
cervical vertebra and
articulates with the
occiput of the head and
the axis (C2) in
(odontoid fossa).
superior articular facet
(for articulation with
occipital condyles), and
an inferior articular facet
(for articulation with C2).
Atlas (C1)
The axis (C2) is easily
identifiable due to its dens
(odontoid process –odontoid
peg).
which extends superiorly
from the anterior portion of
the vertebra.
Other cervical vertebrae
(c3 – c7) attach and continue
vertebral column.
AXIS (C2)
Pivot joint
Condyloid joint
Thoracic (T1 - T12)
Lumber 5 vertebrae's are largest and strongest vertebrae hold body
weight. These forms a curve called lumber curve.
Sacral and coccyx (caudal/tail bone) are fused.
(Tuberculum)
(Hyaline cartilage)
Ear ossicles
Hammer shaped Anvil shaped Stirrup shaped
Pectoral girdle
Ball and socket joint
Pelvic girdle
(coxal)
Cartilaginous joint
(Collagen fibres)
Ball and socket joint
A joint, also known as an articulation or articular surface, is a connection
that occurs between bones in the skeletal system. Joints provide the
means for movement.
All joints acts as a fulcrum.
Joints can be classified based on structure and function.
According to the structural classification of joints, they are divided into
3 types, (Movable, Immovable and Slightly movable)
JOINTS
1) Fibrous Joint (synarthroses)
2) Cartilaginous joint (amphiarthroses)
3) Synovial Joint (diarthroses)
1) Fibrous Joints Fixed
joints, also called
immovable joints, are
found where bones are
not flexible.
e.g. Skull (sutures),
upper jaw,
Manubriosternal joint,
backbone, and pelvic
bone, etc.
2) Cartilaginous joints
are partly movable
joints comprising of
symphysis. It is a
connection between
the articulating bones
is made up of cartilage.
e.g. pubic symphysis,
spinal column and the
ribcage.
3) Synovial Joints the
most common type of
movable joints this
joint helps us to
walking, running,
typing and more.
e.g. shoulder joint,
neck joint, knee joint,
wrist joint, etc.
According to the function classification of synovial joints, they
are divided into 6 types
1) Ball and Socket Joint - shoulder and hip joint
2) Hinge joint - knees, elbows, fingers, toes
3) Pivot joint - between atlas and axis, in a neck, radius and ulna
4) Gliding joint (plane or planar joint) - ankle and wrist joint
5) Saddle joint – between carpal and metacarpal of the thumb.
6) Condyloid joint (condylar, or ellipsoid joint) – between condyle and
atlas, metacarpals - phalanges except thumb.
Ball and Socket Joints
(rotatory movement).
Hinge joints
(bending and straightening
movements)
Pivot joints
(Allow limited rotating movements)
Saddle joint
(Moves back and forth and from
side to side, but does not allow
rotation)
Condyloid joint
(Ellipsoid joint)
Gliding joint
(plane or planar joint)
Disorders
1. Osteoporosis
2. Arthritis
There are many types of arthritis. Among these,
a. osteoarthritis,
b. Rheumatic arthritis
c. Gout arthritis
are the most common types of arthritis.
Thank you

More Related Content

Similar to skeletal system complete details with joints and its types

F5 2.1 support & locomotion in humans & animals
F5 2.1 support & locomotion in humans & animalsF5 2.1 support & locomotion in humans & animals
F5 2.1 support & locomotion in humans & animals
Noha Fiq
 
Label the major bones of the skeleton(a) anterior view b) posterior .pdf
Label the major bones of the skeleton(a) anterior view b) posterior .pdfLabel the major bones of the skeleton(a) anterior view b) posterior .pdf
Label the major bones of the skeleton(a) anterior view b) posterior .pdf
Eye2eyeopticians10
 

Similar to skeletal system complete details with joints and its types (20)

Anatomy-skeletal presentation (1).ppt
Anatomy-skeletal presentation    (1).pptAnatomy-skeletal presentation    (1).ppt
Anatomy-skeletal presentation (1).ppt
 
05.Skeletal system_full(1).ppt
05.Skeletal system_full(1).ppt05.Skeletal system_full(1).ppt
05.Skeletal system_full(1).ppt
 
Skeletal system
Skeletal systemSkeletal system
Skeletal system
 
4rth classification of bones.pptx
4rth classification of bones.pptx4rth classification of bones.pptx
4rth classification of bones.pptx
 
Humanskeletalsystem 091101004224-phpapp02
Humanskeletalsystem 091101004224-phpapp02Humanskeletalsystem 091101004224-phpapp02
Humanskeletalsystem 091101004224-phpapp02
 
SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY
SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMYSKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY
SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY
 
Skeletal system
Skeletal systemSkeletal system
Skeletal system
 
F5 2.1 support & locomotion in humans & animals
F5 2.1 support & locomotion in humans & animalsF5 2.1 support & locomotion in humans & animals
F5 2.1 support & locomotion in humans & animals
 
Anthropology ppt 1.pdf
Anthropology ppt 1.pdfAnthropology ppt 1.pdf
Anthropology ppt 1.pdf
 
Skeletal system anatomy 2 salah nazar
Skeletal system anatomy 2 salah nazarSkeletal system anatomy 2 salah nazar
Skeletal system anatomy 2 salah nazar
 
Label the major bones of the skeleton(a) anterior view b) posterior .pdf
Label the major bones of the skeleton(a) anterior view b) posterior .pdfLabel the major bones of the skeleton(a) anterior view b) posterior .pdf
Label the major bones of the skeleton(a) anterior view b) posterior .pdf
 
Msu3780 2016 human_body_systems__1._skeletal
Msu3780 2016 human_body_systems__1._skeletalMsu3780 2016 human_body_systems__1._skeletal
Msu3780 2016 human_body_systems__1._skeletal
 
The skeletomuscular.ppsx
The skeletomuscular.ppsxThe skeletomuscular.ppsx
The skeletomuscular.ppsx
 
Division of human skeleton system
Division of human skeleton systemDivision of human skeleton system
Division of human skeleton system
 
Human Anatomy Lecture 2 General Anatomy.pptx
Human Anatomy Lecture 2 General Anatomy.pptxHuman Anatomy Lecture 2 General Anatomy.pptx
Human Anatomy Lecture 2 General Anatomy.pptx
 
Skull and vertebrae
Skull and vertebraeSkull and vertebrae
Skull and vertebrae
 
Skeletal System
Skeletal SystemSkeletal System
Skeletal System
 
Muskuloskltone
MuskuloskltoneMuskuloskltone
Muskuloskltone
 
THE_SKELETAL_SYSTEM_2017.ppt
THE_SKELETAL_SYSTEM_2017.pptTHE_SKELETAL_SYSTEM_2017.ppt
THE_SKELETAL_SYSTEM_2017.ppt
 
Presentation on bones
Presentation on bonesPresentation on bones
Presentation on bones
 

More from Minaxi patil. CATALLYST

More from Minaxi patil. CATALLYST (8)

FROG - structural organization of animal
FROG - structural organization of animalFROG - structural organization of animal
FROG - structural organization of animal
 
COCKROACH ( structural organization in animal) full pdf
COCKROACH ( structural organization in animal) full pdfCOCKROACH ( structural organization in animal) full pdf
COCKROACH ( structural organization in animal) full pdf
 
biodiversity and its conservation part 2.pptx
biodiversity and its conservation part  2.pptxbiodiversity and its conservation part  2.pptx
biodiversity and its conservation part 2.pptx
 
biodiversity and its conservation part 1.pptx
biodiversity and its conservation part 1.pptxbiodiversity and its conservation part 1.pptx
biodiversity and its conservation part 1.pptx
 
ECOSYSTEM pdf ..pdf
ECOSYSTEM pdf ..pdfECOSYSTEM pdf ..pdf
ECOSYSTEM pdf ..pdf
 
plant growth regulator ,PGR ppt.pptx
plant growth regulator  ,PGR ppt.pptxplant growth regulator  ,PGR ppt.pptx
plant growth regulator ,PGR ppt.pptx
 
MICROBES IN HUMAN WELFARE.pptx
MICROBES IN HUMAN WELFARE.pptxMICROBES IN HUMAN WELFARE.pptx
MICROBES IN HUMAN WELFARE.pptx
 
MORPHOLOGY OF LEAF pdf.pdf
MORPHOLOGY OF LEAF pdf.pdfMORPHOLOGY OF LEAF pdf.pdf
MORPHOLOGY OF LEAF pdf.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lessonQUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
httgc7rh9c
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
Peter Brusilovsky
 
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
AnaAcapella
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
CaitlinCummins3
 
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfContoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
cupulin
 

Recently uploaded (20)

diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 
PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION COURSE-1-4.pdf
PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION COURSE-1-4.pdfPUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION COURSE-1-4.pdf
PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION COURSE-1-4.pdf
 
Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111
Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111
Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111
 
Diuretic, Hypoglycemic and Limit test of Heavy metals and Arsenic.-1.pdf
Diuretic, Hypoglycemic and Limit test of Heavy metals and Arsenic.-1.pdfDiuretic, Hypoglycemic and Limit test of Heavy metals and Arsenic.-1.pdf
Diuretic, Hypoglycemic and Limit test of Heavy metals and Arsenic.-1.pdf
 
QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lessonQUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
 
What is 3 Way Matching Process in Odoo 17.pptx
What is 3 Way Matching Process in Odoo 17.pptxWhat is 3 Way Matching Process in Odoo 17.pptx
What is 3 Way Matching Process in Odoo 17.pptx
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
 
Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls
Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell TollsErnest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls
Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls
 
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
 
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
 
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...
 
Michaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptx
Michaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptxMichaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptx
Michaelis Menten Equation and Estimation Of Vmax and Tmax.pptx
 
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfFICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
 
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfRich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
 
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfContoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
 
21st_Century_Skills_Framework_Final_Presentation_2.pptx
21st_Century_Skills_Framework_Final_Presentation_2.pptx21st_Century_Skills_Framework_Final_Presentation_2.pptx
21st_Century_Skills_Framework_Final_Presentation_2.pptx
 
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.pptAIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
 

skeletal system complete details with joints and its types

  • 2. Skeleton system Skeleton system of adult human has 206 bones. Skeleton system divides into 2 parts, 1) Axial skeleton (80 bones) 2) Appendicular skeleton (126 bones)
  • 3. HUMAN SKELETON 1. Skull (29 bones) 2. Ribs (24 bones) 3. Sternum/ chest (1 bone) 4. Vertebral column (26 bones) 1. Girdles (6 bones) 2. Limbs (120 bones) Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) Axial skeleton (80 bones)
  • 4. 1. Skull (29 bones) A) Cranium (8 bones) i. Frontal (1) ii. Parietal (2) iii. Occipital (1) iv. Temporal (2) v. Sphenoid (1) vi. Ethmoid (1) Axial skeleton (80 bones)
  • 5. i. Nasal bone (2) ii. Maxillae (2) iii. Palatine (2) iv. Zygomatic (2) v. Lacrimal (2) vi. Mandible (1) vii. Vomer (1) viii.Inferior nasal conchae (2) B) Facial (14 bones)
  • 6. C) Ear ossicles (6 bones) i. Malleus (2) outer ii. Incus (2) middle iii. Stapes (2) – inner, (smallest bone of body) D) Hyoid (1 bones) horseshoe-shaped bone/ U-shaped bone
  • 8. 3. Sternum/ breast bone (1) 2. Ribs (24 bones) i. True ribs -7 pairs (14 bones) Vertibrosterno ribs i. False ribs -3pairs (6 bones) Vertebrochondral ribs i. Floating ribs -2 pairs (4 bones) 8th , 9th, and 10th – attached to 7th ribs
  • 9. 4. Vertebral column (26 vertebrae) i. Cervical vertebrae (7) ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12) iii. Lumber vertebrae (5) iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1) v. Coccyx vertebrae (1)
  • 10. Axial skeleton (80 bones) 3. Sternum/ breast bone (1) 2. Ribs (24 bones) i. True ribs -7 pairs (14 bones) i. False ribs -3pairs (6 bones) ii. Floating ribs -2 pairs (4 bones) 4. Vertebral column (26 vertebrae) i. Cervical vertebrae (7) ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12) iii. Lumber vertebrae (5) iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1) v. Coccyx vertebrae (1) 1. Skull (29 bones) A) Cranium (8) B) Facial (14) C) Ear ossicles(6) D) Hyoid (1)
  • 11. Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) 1. Girdles (6 bones) A) Pectoral Girdles (4 bones) i. Clavicle (2 bones) ii. Scapula (2bones) (Glenoid cavity) (Acromial process)
  • 12. B) Pelvic Girdles (2 bones) i. Hip bone or innominate bone or coxal bone Pubis symphysis
  • 13. 2. Limb (120 bones) A) Forelimb (30 *2 = 60 bones) i. Humerus (1) ii. Radius (1) iii. Ulna (1) iv. Carpals (8) v. Metacarpals (5) vi. Phalanges (14) Hinge joint Pivot joint Gliding joint Saddle joint
  • 14. B) Hindlimb (30 *2 = 60 bones) i. Femur (1) – longest bone of body ii. Patella (1) iii. Tibia (1) iv. Fibula (1) v. Tarsals (7) vi. Metatarsals (5) vii.Phalanges (14) Hinge joint Gliding joint synovial
  • 15. 1. Girdles (6 bones) A) Pectoral Girdles (4 bones) i. Clavicle (2 bones) ii. Scapula (2bones) Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) B) Pelvic Girdles (2 bones) Hip bone or innominate bone or coxal bone 2. Limb (120 bones) A) Forelimb (60 bones) i. Humerus (1) ii. Radius (1) iii. Ulna (1) iv. Carpals (8) v. Metacarpals (5) vi. Phalanges (14) B) Hindlimb (60 bones) i. Femur (1) ii. Patella (1) iii. Tibia (1) iv. Fibula (1) v. Tarsals (7) vi. Metatarsals (5) vii. Phalanges (14)
  • 16. Axial skeleton (80 bones) 3. Sternum/ breast bone (1) 2. Ribs (24 bones) i. True ribs -7 pairs (14) ii. False ribs -3pairs (6) iii. Floating ribs -2 pairs (4) 4. Vertebral column (26 vertebrae) i. Cervical vertebrae (7) ii. Thoracic vertebrae (12) iii. Lumber vertebrae (5) iv. Sacrum vertebrae (1) v. Coccyx vertebrae (1) 1. Skull (29 bones) A) Cranium (8) B) Facial (14) C) Ear ossicles(12) D) Hyoid (1) Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) 1. Girdles (6) A) Pectoral Girdles (4) i. Clavicle (2) ii. Scapula (2) 2. Limb (120 bones) A) Forelimb (60) i. Humerus (1) ii. Radius (1) iii. Ulna (1) iv. Carpals (8) v. Metacarpals (5) vi. Phalanges (14) B) Hindlimb (60) i. Femur (1) ii. Patella (1) iii. Tibia (1) iv. Fibula (1) v. Tarsals (7) vi. Metatarsals (5) vii. Phalanges (14) B) Pelvic Girdles (2) Hip bone or innominate bone or coxal bone
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 20. •The first cervical vertebrae (C1) is known as the atlas. •The second cervical vertebrae (C2) is known as the axis. The occipital condyles of the skull articulate with the superior articular facets of the atlas vertebra and form an important junction between the cranium and the vertebral column. vertebral column has first 2 uncommon/ atypical cervical vertebrae, Skull has 2 occipital condyles (dicondylic) and opening for attachment of spinal cord in occipital bone.
  • 21. The atlas (C1) is the first cervical vertebra and articulates with the occiput of the head and the axis (C2) in (odontoid fossa). superior articular facet (for articulation with occipital condyles), and an inferior articular facet (for articulation with C2). Atlas (C1)
  • 22. The axis (C2) is easily identifiable due to its dens (odontoid process –odontoid peg). which extends superiorly from the anterior portion of the vertebra. Other cervical vertebrae (c3 – c7) attach and continue vertebral column. AXIS (C2)
  • 24. Thoracic (T1 - T12) Lumber 5 vertebrae's are largest and strongest vertebrae hold body weight. These forms a curve called lumber curve. Sacral and coccyx (caudal/tail bone) are fused.
  • 26. Ear ossicles Hammer shaped Anvil shaped Stirrup shaped
  • 27. Pectoral girdle Ball and socket joint
  • 29. A joint, also known as an articulation or articular surface, is a connection that occurs between bones in the skeletal system. Joints provide the means for movement. All joints acts as a fulcrum. Joints can be classified based on structure and function. According to the structural classification of joints, they are divided into 3 types, (Movable, Immovable and Slightly movable) JOINTS 1) Fibrous Joint (synarthroses) 2) Cartilaginous joint (amphiarthroses) 3) Synovial Joint (diarthroses)
  • 30.
  • 31. 1) Fibrous Joints Fixed joints, also called immovable joints, are found where bones are not flexible. e.g. Skull (sutures), upper jaw, Manubriosternal joint, backbone, and pelvic bone, etc. 2) Cartilaginous joints are partly movable joints comprising of symphysis. It is a connection between the articulating bones is made up of cartilage. e.g. pubic symphysis, spinal column and the ribcage. 3) Synovial Joints the most common type of movable joints this joint helps us to walking, running, typing and more. e.g. shoulder joint, neck joint, knee joint, wrist joint, etc.
  • 32. According to the function classification of synovial joints, they are divided into 6 types 1) Ball and Socket Joint - shoulder and hip joint 2) Hinge joint - knees, elbows, fingers, toes 3) Pivot joint - between atlas and axis, in a neck, radius and ulna 4) Gliding joint (plane or planar joint) - ankle and wrist joint 5) Saddle joint – between carpal and metacarpal of the thumb. 6) Condyloid joint (condylar, or ellipsoid joint) – between condyle and atlas, metacarpals - phalanges except thumb.
  • 33. Ball and Socket Joints (rotatory movement). Hinge joints (bending and straightening movements)
  • 34. Pivot joints (Allow limited rotating movements) Saddle joint (Moves back and forth and from side to side, but does not allow rotation)
  • 35. Condyloid joint (Ellipsoid joint) Gliding joint (plane or planar joint)
  • 36.
  • 37. Disorders 1. Osteoporosis 2. Arthritis There are many types of arthritis. Among these, a. osteoarthritis, b. Rheumatic arthritis c. Gout arthritis are the most common types of arthritis.